In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Mad’khalee [may Allaah preserve him] stated, “Many people humble themselves to one another more than they humble themselves to Allaah – The Most High, The Most Great. It is neither permissible for a person to be a slave [i.e. by worshipping anyone] except to Allaah, nor humble himself except to the Greatness of Allaah. Allaah [Glorified be He and free is He from all imperfections] said:
هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۖ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِۖ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَيۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَڪَبِّرُۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِڪُونَ
هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ
He is Allaah than Whom there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He; the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allaah! [High is He] above all that they associate as partners with Him. He is Allaah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. [Surah Al-Hasha. Verses 23-24]
Examine these verses in the last part of Surah Al-Hashar! The statement: [هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ – He is Allah than Whom there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He)]: This necessitates Tawheed Al-Uloohiyyah.
The statement: [هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۖ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِۖ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ- He is Allaah, than Whom there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen (open). He is the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful]: This necessitates Tawheed Al-Asmaa Was Sifaat. And the statement: [هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُۖ – He is Allaah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms” necessitates Tawheed Ar-Roboobiyyah]. These few verses in the last part of Surah Al-Hashr necessitate all the categories of Tawheed. (1)
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Mad’khalee [may Allaah preserve him] said, “The seeker of truth is not diverted from the truth, fairness and justice due to admiration of the big personalities and being amazed by them, for indeed the truth is more worthy to be followed. It is not permissible to drop the proofs for the sake of this or that great man. The principle [rule] of the Muslim – the unbiased one, the seeker of truth – is always: [قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ -Say, bring forth your proofs if you are truthful]. [Surah An-Nahl. Verse 64] (2)
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Mad’khalee [may Allaah preserve him] said, “None knows the virtue of knowledge, except those who are virtuous. If one humbles himself due to knowledge, this is honour. Do not lower yourself – even in the presence of the greatest person- for the sake of the Dunyaa. Humble yourself, be well mannered and lower yourself for the sake of knowledge, because it is the loftiest thing, and by way of it, you will be raised in the sight of Allaah and the people. If you lower yourself to acquire knowledge, this can never be humiliation. It is humility, a proof of good manners, truthfulness in the path of seeking after knowledge and the truth. (3)
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Mad’khalee [may Allaah preserve him] also stated:
فيجب على كل مسلم أن يفتش نفسه فقد يميل إنسان إلى صاحب الحق لهوى ، فقبل أن يتبين له الحق يتمنى أن يكون فلان هو المنتصر بالحجة أو غيرها فتميل نفسه لأنه فلان ، ولو كان على الحق لا يجوز أن يوجد هذا الميل، فيقول: إذا وجد هذا الميل ولو مع صاحب الحق يكون من حكم الجاهلية ، وهذا أمر لا يخطر بالبال عند كثير من الناس .
فيجب على المسلم أن يراقب الله في القضايا المختلف فيها ، وأن يكون قصده فقط معرفة الحق سواء مع هذا أو مع ذاك .
ومن هنا يقول الشافعي : “إذا دخلت في مناظرة لا أبالي إذا كان الحق مع صاحبي أو معي” فلا يبالي ولا يتمنى أن يكون الحق معه بل يتمنى أن يكون مع صاحبه وأن تكون النصرة له ، هذا هو الخلق العالي وهذا هو الدين المستقيم
It is obligated on every Muslim to examine himself, for indeed a person might incline towards (another) person who is upon truth based on his desires; then even before the truth is clear to him, he wishes that such and such person should be the one aided with the proofs or something else, so, his soul inclines (towards that person) because he (i.e. that person) is such and such (personality). Therefore, even if that person is upon the truth, it is not permissible for this type of inclination to be present. If this type of inclination is present, even with the person upon truth, it is considered to be a trait of pre-Islamic ignorance. This is an affair that does not cross the minds of many people. Therefore, it is obligated on a Muslim – in relation to affairs wherein people differ- that he is attentive to the fact that Allaah knows, sees and hears everything, and his intention (goal or aim) should only be that he (wants) to know the truth whether it is with this or that person. And in relation to this, Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee said, “When I enter into a discussion, I am not bothered whether the truth is with me or with the other person”. So, he is not bothered nor does he wish that the truth is with him; rather he wishes that it is either with the other person or with him. This is the lofty moral conduct and the upright religion. (4)
Al-Allaamah Abdur Rahmaan Bin Yahyah Al-Mu’allimee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated about giving precedence to the truth: “Ponder on the fact that truth is noble and falsehood is lowly. Ponder on the Greatness of Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]- the fact that Allaah is the Lord of the entire universe, Allaah loves truth and hates falsehood, and that the one who follows truth is deserving of the Pleasure of the Lord of the universe. Allaah [Glorified be He] will be his protector in the worldly life and the Afterlife by choosing for him everything that is good, better, more beneficial, more perfect, more noble and loftier until Allaah removes his soul whilst being pleased with him. Then Allaah raises him, brings him close and makes him dwell in paradise with honour- in permanent bliss and eternal nobility which no imagination can fully conceive its greatness. He should ponder on the fact that the one who clings to falsehood is deserving of the displeasure, anger and punishment of the Lord of the universe, and if he receives anything of worldly bliss, then indeed that is only a means of humiliating him in order that he is increased in being distanced from Allaah, so that the painful torment of the afterlife is multiplied for him, which no imagination can fully conceive its severity. He should ponder on the bliss of the worldly life [i.e. temporary] as compared to the pleasure of the Lord of the universe and the bliss in the afterlife [i.e. eternal], compare the misery of the worldly life to displeasure of the Lord of the universe and the punishment in the afterlife [i.e. the severest punishment in this life is nowhere equal to punishment in the afterlife]. He should ponder on the statement of Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]:
وَقَالُواْ لَوۡلَا نُزِّلَ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡقَرۡيَتَيۡنِ عَظِيمٍ
أَهُمۡ يَقۡسِمُونَ رَحۡمَتَ رَبِّكَۚ نَحۡنُ قَسَمۡنَا بَيۡنَہُم مَّعِيشَتَہُمۡ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَاۚ وَرَفَعۡنَا بَعۡضَہُمۡ فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ۬ دَرَجَـٰتٍ۬ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُہُم بَعۡضً۬ا سُخۡرِيًّ۬اۗ وَرَحۡمَتُ رَبِّكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّمَّا يَجۡمَعُونَ
وَلَوۡلَآ أَن يَكُونَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬ لَّجَعَلۡنَا لِمَن يَكۡفُرُ بِٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ لِبُيُوتِہِمۡ سُقُفً۬ا مِّن فِضَّةٍ۬ وَمَعَارِجَ عَلَيۡہَا يَظۡهَرُونَ
وَلِبُيُوتِہِمۡ أَبۡوَٲبً۬ا وَسُرُرًا عَلَيۡہَا يَتَّكِـُٔونَ
وَزُخۡرُفً۬اۚ وَإِن ڪُلُّ ذَٲلِكَ لَمَّا مَتَـٰعُ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَاۚ وَٱلۡأَخِرَةُ عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلۡمُتَّقِينَ
And they say: “Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns (Makkah and Ta’if)?” Is it they who would portion out the Mercy of your Lord? It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in this world, and We raised some of them above others in ranks, so that some may employ others in their work. But the Mercy (Paradise) of your Lord (O Muhammad) is better than the (wealth of this world) which they amass. And were it not that all mankind would have become of one community (all disbelievers, desiring worldly life only), We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Beneficent (Allah), silver roofs for their houses, and elevators (and stair-ways, etc. of silver) whereby they ascend, and for their houses, doors (of silver), and thrones (of silver) on which they could recline, and adornments of gold. Yet all this (i.e. the roofs, doors, stairs, elevators, thrones etc. of their houses) would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world. And the Hereafter with your Lord is only for the Muttaqun”. [Surah Az-Zuhkruf. Verses 31-35] (5)
Some Obstacles to Accepting Truth
Al-Allaamah Abdur Rahmaan Bin Yahyah Al-Mu’allimee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: “A person is nurtured upon a religion, creed, school of thought or views acquired from his nurturer and teacher, which he considers to be the truth and followed it for a long time. Then when it becomes clear to him that (such religion, creed, view or school of thought) is false, it becomes difficult for him to acknowledge, just as when his forefathers, ancestors or the one he follows are upon a (particular) way and then its falsity is clarified for him. This is because he sees that their deficiencies necessitate his own deficiencies and acknowledgement of their misguidance or errors necessitates his own deficiencies. In this era of ours, you even see a woman who comes across an affair related to the religion – in which there is a difference of opinion between the mother of the believers Aa’isha and others amongst the companions [radiyallaahu-anhum], so she defends Aa’isha’s position solely due to the fact that Aaisha is a woman like her. So, when she presumes and then claims that Aa’isha is correct and those men who oppose her position are mistaken, then in this is an affirmation of Aa’Isha’s virtue over those men, which then becomes a virtue for women unrestrictedly and she receives some of that. And through this appears – to you – the underlying reasons behind the bigoted partisanship of an Arab to an Arab, a Persian to a Persian, a Turk to a Turk and other than that”. (6)
Avoiding Flattery and Give Sincere Advice
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The one who flatters himself or others cannot smell the fragrance of truthfulness”. (8)
Imaam Al-Barbahaaree [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: It is not permissible to hide sincere advice from any of the Muslims, whether pious or impious, in matters of the religion. Whoever hides that has acted deceitfully towards the Muslims. Whoever acts deceitfully towards the Muslims has done so towards the religion. Whoever acts deceitfully towards the religion has behaved treacherously towards Allah, His Messenger and the Believers.
Al-Allaamah Ahmad Bin Yahyah An-Najmi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: I say: The meaning of An-Naseehah is ‘Purity’ and ‘Clearness.’ It is said: [ نصح اللبن – the milk is pure] when it is clear. This is the linguistic meaning of An-Naseehah. In the Sharee’ah, [it means] to inform a Muslim regarding what is obligated on him in relation to the [rights of Allaah or his relationship with Allaah] and His creation without slyness and false courtesy. An-Naseehah is obligatory, even though its obligation varies, and its opposite is Al-Ghish [deception]. Indeed, the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said in the Saheeh Hadeeth, “The religion is Naseehah, the religion is Naseehah, the religion is Naseehah; so, the Sahaabah said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! To who?’ He said, ‘To Allaah, His Book, His Messenger, to the leaders of the Muslims and their common folk.’”
Abu Hurairah [may Allaah be pleased with him] narrated that the Messenger of Allaah [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] passed by a pile of foodstuff, he put his hand in it and found that it was wet. He said, ”What is this, O seller of the foodstuff?” He said, ”It became wet due to the rain O Messenger of Allaah!” He said, ”Why do you not put it on top of the food so that people can see it? Whoever deceives [people] is not from me.” [Muslim 102]
Deception in trade is when one hides a defect [found in the commodity]. And with regards to consultation, it is when one recommends something to a person that is harmful to his religious or worldly affairs.
As for Naseehah Lil-Laah – [sincerity to Allaah]: It is to believe in Allaah [The Most High], single Him out in [His Lordship, Names and Attributes and to single Him out in worship], give precedence to obeying Him over obedience to the creation, fearing the standing in His presence [on the Day of judgement] and to be mindful of Him in private and public.
As for An-Naseehah Li-kitaabihee-[Sincerity to His Book]: It is to recite it, ponder upon its meanings, act upon it and believe in the information it contains.
As for Naseehah Li-Rasoolihee – [Sincerity to His Messenger]: It is to testify to that which he has informed [us], fulfil what he commanded, keep away from what he has forbidden, exalt and honour him.
An-Naseehah Li-A’immatil Muslimeen- [Sincerity to the leaders of the Muslims]: It is to obey them in that which does not necessitate disobedience to Allaah, to refrain from betraying them, send them advice through those who are able to advise them in private, because that is the manner that will be more suitable for advice to be accepted.
An-Naseehah Li-Aammatil Muslimeen- [sincerity to the common Muslims]: It is to call them to the path of Allaah, teach them what is beneficial and warn them against that which will harm them. (8)
Imaam as-Saa’di [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: “He who deceives the Muslims in their Religious and Worldly Affairs is not from them. Amongst the benefits of Naseehah [sincere advice] is safety from deceit. Indeed, he who deceives the Muslims in their Religious and Worldly Affairs is not from them. Deceit is one of the most repugnant of ugly traits as it relates to [fulfilling] the rights of a relative and the non-relative, the [rights] of the one in opposition [to you] and the one in agreement. The Great Qur’aan calls to this quality, which is from the best of qualities. It [naseehah-sincere advice] is that which the Religion of Islaam is founded and upon which its structure is made to stand firm, and through which its superiority over everything else is manifested. Indeed, giving sincere advice to every individual is commended by the sharee-ah, the sound intellect and the natural disposition, and that which is in opposition to it is repulsive to the sharee-ah, the intellect and the natural disposition”. (9)
Imaam Fudayl Ibn Iyaadh [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “If you are able not to be known, then do so. Is there anything against you if you are unknown? Is there anything against you if you are not praised? Is there anything against you if you are considered blameworthy in the sight of the people but praiseworthy in the sight of Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]?” (10)
Imaam Ibraaheem An-Nakha’ee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “It is enough a trial that a person is pointed out due to his religious or worldly affairs, except the one whom Allaah protects”. (11)
Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “There are many cases in which the souls are mixed with Ash-Shahawaat Al-Khafiyyah [i.e. desires that are concealed, subtle etc] that corrupts its fulfilment of (perfect) love of Allaah, servitude to Him and establishment of the religion sincerely for the sake of Allaah, just as Shaddaad Ibn Aws [may Allaah be pleased with him] said, ‘O Arabs! Indeed, the affair I fear for you the most is Riyaa [showoff] and Shahwa Al-Khafiyyah’. It was said to Abu Daawud As-Sijistaani, ‘What is Ash-Shahwa Al-Khafiyyah?’ He said, ‘Love of leadership’”. (12)
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Mad’khali [may Allaah preserve him] said, “Allaah’s refuge is sought! What destroyed him? It was Riyaa and lack of sincerity to Allaah [The Lord of the Aalameen]. O youth! Be mindful of shaytaan who is next to you. Seek Allaah’s protection against his destructive evil whispers. [Allaah (The Most High) said]: [وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ نَزۡغٌ۬ فَٱسۡتَعِذۡ بِٱللَّهِۖ إِنَّهُ ۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ – And if an evil whisper from Shaitan (Satan) tries to turn you away (O Muhammad) (from doing good, etc.), then seek refuge in Allah. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower]. [Surah Fussilat’ Aayah 36]
If you sense that your soul is inclined towards showing off to the people and bragging about knowledge, then turn to Allaah, lower and humble yourself in His presence, ask Him to grant you sincerity and to save you from shaytaan – to save you from his whispers and plots. One of the scholars said, “Indeed, it is extremely difficult [upon a person] whose enemy can see him, but he cannot see him.” He [i.e. this scholar] said this when he explained the statement of Allaah [The Blessed and Exalted] about shaytaan and his armies:
[إِنَّهُ ۥ يَرَٮٰكُمۡ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ ۥ مِنۡ حَيۡثُ لَا تَرَوۡنَہُمۡۗ – Verily, he and (his soldiers from the jinns or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them. [Surah Al-A’raaf’ Aayah 27]
He [i.e. that scholar] said, ‘’By Allaah! Indeed, it’s a bitter feud and extreme difficulty [for the one] whose enemy can see him, but he cannot see him, except for the one whom Allaah safeguards’’- meaning: This enemy is more dangerous than the army you can see that has troops and strength. This hidden enemy – whom you cannot see – is extreme difficulty and will destroy you whilst you are unaware and unable to see him. We ask Allaah for well-being”. (13)
Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Allah loves a slave who is pious, self-sufficient and unnoticed.” [Saheeh Muslim 2965]
Taqiy- Pious: Fears Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic], so he fulfils Allaah’s commands and keeps away from what Allaah has prohibited. Fulfils Allaah’s commands, such as performance of the prayer and performs it in congregation in the Masjid, pays the zakaat and gives it to the one entitled to it, fasts the month of Ramadhaan, treats orphans with kindness and other types of acts of piety, righteousness and means to doing good.
Ghaniy- self-sufficient: Has no need of the people and suffices himself with Allaah. He does not ask the people anything (I) and does not lower himself to the people (i.e due to being in need of them) (II); rather he is not in need of the people. He knows himself, suffices himself with his Lord and does not pay attention to other than his Lord.
Khafiy- hidden or unnoticed: He does not make himself manifest and does not give importance to manifesting himself amongst the people, to be pointed out or for people to speak about him. You find him between his house and his (local) Masjid vice versa; from his house to his relatives and his brothers, whilst being unnoticed, and makes himself unnoticed. However, this does not mean that if Allaah grants a person knowledge, he confines himself in his house and does not teach the people. This is in opposition to piety (because) teaching the people is better for him than being confined in his house and does not benefit the people with his knowledge, (III) or he sits in his house and does not benefit the people with his wealth; rather if the affair is between being conspicuous- to manifest himself or make himself visible, and between hiding himself (i.e. without a need to make himself manifest), then he chooses to hide himself; but if it is the case that he must make himself apparent, then he has to make himself apparent. This is beloved to Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]. (14)
(I) Asking the people: Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee [may Allaah preserve him] quoted Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] who stated, “The initiate affair with regards to asking the creation is that it is forbidden to do so, but it is permissible in when there is a necessity, but it is better to abandon doing so out of reliance on Allaah. [See Qaa’idah Jaleelah Fee at-tawassul Wal-Waseelah. page 7. Publisher Maktabah al-Furqan. 1st Edition 1422 (Year 2001)]
(II) Lowering Oneself: Imaam Ibn Hibbaan [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “It is obligated on a sensible person that he adheres to humility and avoids pride. Humility is of two types- the first one is praiseworthy and the other is blameworthy. Praiseworthy humility is that one abandons insolence and mockery. Blameworthy humility is that a person humbles himself in the presence of one who possesses the things of the worldly life and desiring what such a person possesses. Therefore, a sensible person maintains his abandonment of blameworthy humility in all circumstances and he does not depart from praiseworthy humility. [An Excerpt from Rawdatul Uqalaa page 58]
(III) The Scholars are three types: Shaikh Abdullah Al-Bukhaari [may Allaah preserve him] stated, Shaikh Abdullah Al-Bukhaaree [may Allaah preserve him] stated, “Ibn Abee Shaybah [may allaah have mercy upon him] reported in Al-Musannaf and Abu Nu-aym [may Allaah have mercy upon him] in Al-Hilya [5/12] with an authentic chain from Abu Muslim Al-Khawlaani [may Allaah have mercy upon him], who said, ‘The scholars are three types- a man who lives with his knowledge and the people live with it alongside him; a man who lives with his knowledge and none else lives with it alongside him, and as for the third man, the people live with his knowledge and it destroys him’. The intent behind this speech: Indeed the first (man) knows, acts and teaches. As for the second, he knows and acts, but does not teach. As for the third, he knows and teaches, but does not act! We ask Allaah for steadfastness and well-being”. [ المقالات الشرعية– pages: 23-24]
Loner, Hermit, Introvert, Extrovert! [Strive to Follow The Salaf, Regardless of Opinions Held By Others About You In Relation to These Descriptions]
[Ref 1: An Excerpt from ‘Majmoo’ah Wa Rasaa’il Wa Fataawa’ 1/22]
[Ref 2: An Excerpt from ‘Al-Mulakh-khasul Jameel Fee Bayaani Manhaji Ash-Shaikh Rabee Fid-Da’wati Wal-Jarhi Wat-Ta’deel. Page 87. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 3: An Excerpt from ‘Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm’. page 248. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 4: http://www.rabee.net/ar/articles.php?cat=8&id=172. slightly paraphrased ]
[Ref 5: An Excerpt from At-Tankeel. Vol 11. Page 309. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 6: An Excerpt From At-Tankeel Vol 11. Page 294. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: Al-Fawaa’id. 185]
[Ref 8: Ir’shaad As-Saariy Fee Sharhis Sunnati Lil-Barbahaaree. Pages 157-158. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 9: An Excerpt from Fathul Raheemil Malikil Allaam Fee Ilmil Aqaa-id Wat-tawheed, Wal Akhlaaq, Wal Ahkaam. Page: 98]
Ref 10: Hilyatul Awliyaa 8/89
Ref 11: Taareekh Dimashq 18/33
[Ref 12: Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 10 /214-215]
[Ref 13: Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm’ pages 55-57. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 14: Explanation of Riyaadus Saaliheen. Chapter 69. Vol 3. Page 509. Publisher: Al-Maktabah Al-Arabiyyah As-Su’oodiyyah Edition 1425AH. slightly paraphrased]