In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: “Islam obligated Zakaat from the wealth of the rich based on what is stated regarding its details in the divine revelation. (see footnote a) It made spending a means of fulfilling the needs of the needy and a means to attaining the religious wellbeing that secures both the worldly and religious affairs; urges towards kind treatment at all times and on every occasion, obligated that the necessities of the needy are fulfilled- feed the hungry, provide clothing for those without sufficient clothing and pay for the necessities of the destitute. It also enjoins specific spending on family and children, and on what is related to their affairs, and fulfilment of all the obligations related to the mutual dealings that take place between the people. In addition to this, Islam commanded them that neither should they solely rely on their strength and power in seeking after earnings nor consider what they possess to be as a means of (permanent) tranquility and stability; but rather what they should constantly look at is obedience to Allaah, acknowledging Allaah’s favours, Allaah’s facilitation of ease, seeking Allaah’s assistance and thank Allaah for the wealth and prosperity He has favoured them with over others. Allaah obligated on them to confine themselves within the boundaries of Halaal and Haraam, and not to over-indulge in luxury and extravagance in a way that harms their morals, wealth and all their state of affairs; but rather they should be what Allaah has stated in Surah Al-Furqan, Aayah 67:
[والذين إذا أنفقوا لم يسرفوا ولم يقتروا وكان بين ذلك قواما – And those, who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes)].
In addition, Allaah commanded them that their pursuit of wealth and the worldly things should be done in an honorable and honest manner, so that they are not tainted with evil gains, such as usury, gambling (see footnote b), swindle, fraud or deception; but rather they should adhere to the ordainments of the divine revelation in their dealings, just as they adhere to that in their personal acts of worship. Allaah commanded them to look at the poor with mercy and benevolence, and not with cruelty, harshness, selfishness, boastfulness, insolence and pride. So, due to these wise instructions, religious well-being becomes the highest degree of honor and perfection, and in such a case, wealth has a praiseworthy description, a perfect attribute, sublimity and loftiness, because indeed the divine revelation refined and purified it, exhorts a person to distance from vices and urges him (or her) to acquire virtues (i.e. virtues mentioned in the divine revelation)”.
Commentary: This is specific guidance for the wealthy – the one whom Allaah has favoured with assets and wealth. Firstly, Allaah obligated that Zakat is given from the wealth of the wealthy as stated in the divine revelation regarding its details. The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said [when he sent Mu’aadh Ibn Jabal (may Allaah be pleased with him) to Yemen to call to Islam], “If they accept that (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah), then teach them that Allaah has obligated five daily prayers in each day and night. If they accept that, then teach them that Allaah has obligated charity to be taken from the rich and given to the poor…” [Saheeh Muslim. Hadeeth 19] (see Footnote c) This an obligation.
وَٱلَّذِينَ فِىٓ أَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ حَقٌّ۬ مَّعۡلُومٌ۬
And those in whose wealth there is a known right, for the beggar who asks, and for the unlucky who has lost his property and wealth, (and his means of living has been straitened). [Surah Al-Ma’aarij. Aayaat 24-25]
This a right of the poor and an obligation that has been made obligatory by Allaah. Also Allaah has raised the status of Zakaat by mentioning it alongside the prayer. (see Footnote d)
Then the author said that Islam made spending a means of fulfilling the needs of the needy, a means to attaining the religious wellbeing that secures both the worldly and religious affairs (see Footnote e), urges towards kind treatment at all times and on every occasion, obligates that the needs of the destitute are fulfilled, enjoins specific spending on family and children, and on what is related to their affairs. Allaah said: [ لِيُنفِقۡ ذُو سَعَةٍ۬ مِّن سَعَتِهِ – Let the rich man spend according to his means]. [Surah At-Talaaq. Aayah 7] (see Footnote f)
Then the author said that Islam obligated the fulfilment of all the obligations related to mutual dealings that take place between the people, and in addition to this, it commanded them that neither should they solely rely on their strength and power in seeking after earnings nor consider what they possess to be a means of (permanent) tranquility and stability. That is because either the wealthy person will lose this wealth or he is separated from it through death. Regardless of the abundance of this wealth, it will not stay with the person forever; therefore, they should look at obedience to Allaah, acknowledge Allaah’s favour etc. They should not be like those about whom Allaah stated: [يَعۡرِفُونَ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنڪِرُونَہَا – They recognise the Grace of Allah, yet they deny it]. [Surah An-Nahl. Aayah 83] (Ref 1)
Footnote a: The Rules of Zakāh: The Obligatory Charity -What is Paid on? How to Calculate it and to Whom Should you Pay it? [By Shaikh Abu Khadeejah (may Allaah preseve him): https://abukhadeejah.com/zakah-zakat-what-is-it-paid-on-and-how-to-calculate-it/
Ribaa: Allāh Waged War Against Ribā and its People – The Realities of Interest/Usury – By Shaikh Abu Hakeem Bilāl bin Ahmad Davis [may Allaah preserve him]: https://www.salafisounds.com/allah-waged-war-against-riba-and-its-people-the-realities-of-interest-usury-by-abu-hakeem-bilal-bin-ahmad-davis/
Footnote c: Ibn Abbas reported: When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, sent Mu’adh to Yemen, he said to him: Verily, you are coming to a people among the people of the Book, so call them to testify there is no God but Allah and I am the Messenger of Allah. If they accept that, then teach them that Allah has obligated five prayers in each day and night. If they accept that, then teach them that Allah as obligated charity to be taken from the rich and given to the poor. If they accept that, beware not to take from the best of their wealth. Be on guard from the supplication of the oppressed, for there is no barrier between it and Allah. [Saheeh Muslim. Hadeeth 19]
Footnote d: Some places in the Qur’aan where Salaah and Zakaat are mentioned together: [Surah Al-Baqarah. Verse 43, 83, 110, 177 and 277]. [Surah An-Nisaa. Verse 77 and 162]. [Surah Al-Maa’idah. Verse 12 and 55]. [Surah At-Tawbah. Verse 5, 11, 18 and 71]. [Surah Al-Anbiyaa. Verse 73]. [Surah Al-Hajj. Verse 41 and 78]. [Surah An-Noor. Verse 56]. [Surah An-Naml. Verse 3]. [Surah Luqmaan. Verse 4]. [Surah Al-Ahzaab. Verse 33]. [Surah Al-Mujaadilah. Verse 13]. [Surah Al-Muzzammil. Verse 20]. [Surah Al-Bayyinah. Verse 5]
Footnote e: Al-Allaamah Abdul Muhsin Al-Abbaad [may Allaah protect him] stated: The good outcomes of Zakaat are tremendous indeed. It is a means of purifying the soul from miserliness and greed. It is a means of purifying one’s wealth so that it is made to grow and increase, and it also fulfils the objective of what is called ‘Social Security’ at present. So when the rich give Zakaat from their wealth to the poor and needy, then indeed their needs are fulfilled and they also receive nourishment as a result of this obligation of Zakaat Payment, which Allaah (The Mighty and Majestic) has obligated to be taken from the wealth of the wealthy. It has been reported in the hadeeth of Mu’aadh Ibn Jabal (radiyallaahu-anhu) that the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said: ”And if they offer their Salaat (five daily prayers), tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Zakat of their properties and it is to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor among them.” The payment of Zakaat has a great benefit for the wealthy people because it purifies their souls and makes their wealth grow, and they are rewarded by Allaah for showing kindness to their Muslim brethren-those who are poor and find themselves in a state of neediness and hardship; so by way of this charity their needs are fulfilled and their destitution ceases.
Allaah (The Mighty and Majestic) has obligated that Zakaat is to be taken from the wealth of the wealthy people in a manner that will benefit the poor and the needy, but at the same time the wealthy people are not harmed. The Zakaat is a small amount taken from abundant wealth, which Allaah has bestowed upon the people. Allaah has obligated the payment of that small portion, which does not affect the wealthy people when they give it, but it also benefits the poor and needy-those who are deprived and do not have any wealth.
And from the good outcomes of charity and kindness towards the poor and needy is that which has been narrated by Abu Hurairah (radiyallaahu-anhu) that the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said: While a person was in the wilderness he heard a voice from the cloud (commanding it thus): Irrigate the garden of so and so. (After that the clouds slunk aside and poured water on a stony ground. It filled a channel amongst the channels of that land and that person followed that water and he found a person standing in the garden busy in changing the course of water with the help of a hatchet. He said to him: Servant of Allah, what is your name? he said: So and so. And it was that very name which he had heard from the clouds. And he said to him: Servant of Allah, why do you ask me my name? He said: I heard a voice from the clouds of which It is the downpour, saying: Water the garden of so and so, (with a mention) of your name. What do you do (for the favour) shown to you by Allah in this matter? He said: Now as you state so; I look what yield I get from it, then I give one-third as charity out of it and I and my family eat one-third of it and one-third I return to it as investment.’’ And in another narration of this same hadeeth, he said: I earmark one-third for the poor, the needy and the wayfarer. (2) Here is the full text of the hadeeth: Narrated Ibn Abbaas (radiyallaahu-anhumaa): When the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) send Mu’aadh to Yemen, he said to him, ‘’You are going to nation from the people of the Scripture, so let the first thing to which you will invite them is they should testify to the Tawheed of Allaah [i.e. Laa ilaaha Il-lal laah (None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah)]. If they accept that, tell them that Allaah has enjoined on them, five obligatory congregational Salaat (prayers) to be offered in one day and one night. And if they offer their Salaat (five daily prayers), tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Zakat of their properties and it is to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor among them. And if they agree to that, then take from them Zakaat, but avoid the best property of the people.’’ [Saheeh al-Bukhaari (The Book of Tawheed) Vol 9. Hadeeth Number: 7372. Saheeh Muslim: Kitaab Az-Zudh War-Riqaaq. Hadeeth Number 2984. Chapter: Charity to the Masaakeen]
Footnote f: Allaah said:
لِيُنفِقۡ ذُو سَعَةٍ۬ مِّن سَعَتِهِۦۖ وَمَن قُدِرَ عَلَيۡهِ رِزۡقُهُ ۥ فَلۡيُنفِقۡ مِمَّآ ءَاتَٮٰهُ ٱللَّهُۚ لَا يُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا مَآ ءَاتَٮٰهَاۚ سَيَجۡعَلُ ٱللَّهُ بَعۡدَ عُسۡرٍ۬ يُسۡرً۬ا
Let the rich man spend according to his means, and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him. Allah will grant after hardship, ease. [Surah At-Talaaq. Aayah 7]
[Ref 1: From 52mins 15secs to the end of the audio https://www.al-badr.net/detail/3KwCnaB5tN. paraphrased]
[Ref 2: An Excerpt from ‘Atharul Ibaadaat Fee Hayaatil Muslim’. pages 4-31]