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Praiseworthy Behaviour and Interactions In The Gatherings – [Incident of The Shooting Star etc]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Refraining From Giving False Impressions About Oneself – The Shooting Star Incident

Narrated Husayn bin Abdir Rahmaan, “I was with Sa’eed Bin Jubair when he said, ‘Who amongst you saw a shooting star last night?’ I said, ‘I did’. Then I said, ‘I was not in prayer, but was stung by a scorpion’ [i.e. the reason why I was awake and saw the shooting star was because I got stung by a scorpion]. He said, ‘Then what did you do?’ I said, ‘I performed Ruqyah’”… to the end of the hadeeth (1)

Husayn said, ‘I did’ [i.e. I saw the shooting star]. Then I said, ‘I was not in prayer, but was stung by a scorpion’ [i.e. that is the reason why I was awake and saw the shooting star].

Question: Why did Husayn Bin Abdir Rahmaan [may Allaah have mercy upon him] mention – in addition – that he was not in prayer after informing Sa’eed Bin Jubayr that he saw the shooting star last night?!

Answer: Imaam Sa’di [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “That is because Salaf [i.e. the pious predecessors] were far removed from praising a person for something he does not possess”. (2)

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “He (i.e. Husayn) said this lest the people think that he was standing in prayer and thus he is praised for that which he did not do. This is opposite of what some people do, for they rejoice that people assumed that they were standing in prayer. This is tantamount to a deficiency in one’s Tawheed. Husayn’s statement is not viewed from the angle of show off, rather it is a good deed. And it is not like that one who abandons acts of obedience to Allaah out of fear of Riyaa, for indeed shaytaan plays about with a person (in this affair) and beautifies for him to abandon deeds out of fear of Riyaa; rather one should perform acts of obedience to Allaah, but nothing should be in your heart that you want to be seen by people. (3)

Shaikh Saaleh Aala Ash-Shaykh [may Allaah preserve him] said, “He (i.e. Husayn) made this statement out of fearing that those who were present would think that he saw the shooting star whilst he was in prayer (i.e. Tahajjud), so he negated that from himself. This shows the virtue of the Salaf [pious predecessors], their eagerness for sincerity, being distant from showing off and adorning oneself with something one does not possess. (4)

 

A Warning By Al-Allaamah Rabee Regarding Knowledge Sought For Worldly Gain

Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadi Al-Madkhali [may Allaah preserve him] said, “O brothers! I warn you against harbouring intentions of seeking after the Dunyah, its status and authority in the affair of learning and seeking knowledge; for indeed (knowledge of the religion) is worship – amongst the best types of worship; rather the religion, acts of worship, Jihaad and a (successful) life cannot be established except by way of this knowledge. However, it is obligated on us to purify our intentions in this worship. “Whoever seeks knowledge by which the pleasure of Allah is sought, but he only acquires it for worldly gain, he will not smell the fragrance of Paradise”. This is a very important point and a great affair which the students of knowledge must be notified, for indeed many of them are heedless of it. And it may be that a person seeks knowledge for the sake of worldly gain or other goals that are not beloved to Allaah -neither legislated nor permitted by Allaah, and thus they fall into destruction. This affair enters into the rebuke directed at the Yahood. [Allaah (The Most High) said]:

مَثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ حُمِّلُواْ ٱلتَّوۡرَٮٰةَ ثُمَّ لَمۡ يَحۡمِلُوهَا كَمَثَلِ ٱلۡحِمَارِ يَحۡمِلُ أَسۡفَارَۢا‌ۚ بِئۡسَ مَثَلُ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

The likeness of those who were entrusted with the (obligation of the) Taurat (Torah) (i.e. to obey its commandments and to practice its legal laws), but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is as the likeness of a donkey who carries huge burdens of books (but understands nothing from them). How bad is the example (or the likeness) of people who deny the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah. And Allah guides not the people who are Zalimun (polytheists, wrong-doers, disbelievers, etc.).

I seek the protection [of Allaah] for myself and [ask Allaah to protect] you from these blameworthy traits – a person possesses knowledge and does not act upon it, so he is either included [amongst those mentioned in this] Aayah or some of it applies to him. May Allaah protect us and you, for indeed the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] has informed us about the destination of those who perform acts of worship only to be seen, whether it is a student of knowledge, a scholar, a Mujaahid or one who spends his wealth [in charity etc].

O my brothers! Sincerity is a great affair. [Therefore], it is incumbent upon a Muslim to guard it and take himself to account at every moment of his life. One of the Salaf said: I used to hold that the hadeeth requires a Niyyah [i.e. sincere intention for seeking knowledge of hadeeth], but then I realised [or understood] that every hadeeth requires a [sincere] intention.

Therefore, when you narrate or speak, do you desire praise from the people or do you desire the Face of Allaah [The Blessed and Exalted]? Do you desire that it is said, “He is a scholar; he is intelligent; he is a learned person of sound, precise and robust understanding;” or do you desire the Face of Allaah and to fulfil the responsibility you carry [i.e. knowledge of the religion]. (5)

One of The Reasons Behind Abandonment of Fairness

Imaam Ash-Shawkaanee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “Among the reasons that leads to the abandonment of fairness and thus distances one from the truth -leads to concealment of truth and not clarifying that which Allaah has obligated – is love of high status and wealth. Both these affairs are a greater enemy to a person than two hunting wolves just as Allaah’s Messenger described (a), because indeed that was the reason that led the people of the scripture to distort Allaah’s Books and concealed that which came to them of clear proofs and guidance, such as what happened to the Jewish Rabis, and indeed Allaah informed us about this in His Mighty Book and the Messenger (also) informed us about it in the authentic narrations”. (6)

Forbearance In The Gatherings

Ibraaheem Ibn Bash-shaar [rahimahullaah] said: Ibraaheem Ibn Adham [rahimahullaah] watched a man who was speaking to another man; so he [i.e. the man] got so angry that he uttered an ugly statement. So Ibraaheem said to him: O such and such! Fear Allaah and it is obligatory that you keep quiet, exercise forbearance and restraint; so the man kept quiet. Then Ibraaheem said to him: It has reached me that Ahnaf Ibn Qais [rahimahullaah] said: We frequently went to Qais Ibn Aasim [rahimahullaah] to learn forbearance from him, just as we frequently went to the scholars to seek knowledge. So he [i.e. the man] said [to ibraaheem]: You don’t have to repeat it [i.e. what you have said is enough as an admonition etc]. [Taareekh Dimashq 26/219]

Allaah Loves The Pious, Self-sufficient and Unnoticed One

Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Allah loves a slave who is pious, self-sufficient and unnoticed.” [Saheeh Muslim 2965]

Taqiy- Pious: Fears Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic], so he fulfils Allaah’s commands and keeps away from what Allaah has prohibited. Fulfils Allaah’s commands, such as performance of the prayer and performs it in congregation in the Masjid, pays the zakaat and gives it to the one entitled to it, fasts the month of Ramadhaan, treats orphans with kindness and other types of acts of piety, righteousness and means to doing good.

Ghaniy- self-sufficient: Has no need of the people and suffices himself with Allaah. He does not ask the people anything (I) and does not lower himself to the people (i.e due to being in need of them) (II); rather he is not in need of the people. He knows himself, suffices himself with his Lord and does not pay attention to other than his Lord.

Khafiy- hidden or unnoticed: He does not make himself manifest and does not give importance to manifesting himself amongst the people, to be pointed out or for people to speak about him. You find him between his house and his (local) Masjid vice versa; from his house to his relatives and his brothers, whilst being unnoticed, and makes himself unnoticed. However, this does not mean that if Allaah grants a person knowledge, he confines himself in his house and does not teach the people. This is in opposition to piety (because) teaching the people is better for him than being confined in his house and does not benefit the people with his knowledge, (III) or he sits in his house and does not benefit the people with his wealth; rather if the affair is between being conspicuous- to manifest himself or make himself visible, and between hiding himself (i.e. without a need to make himself manifest), then he chooses to hide himself; but if it is the case that he must make himself apparent, then he has to make himself apparent. This is beloved to Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]. [Explanation of Riyaadus Saaliheen. Chapter 69. Vol 3. Page 509. Publisher: Al-Maktabah Al-Arabiyyah As-Su’oodiyyah Edition 1425AH. slightly paraphrased]

Imaam Sufyan Ath-Thawree: Khalaf Bin Tameem [rahimahullaah] said: I saw Ath-Thawree at Makkah and many people came to him; so he said: “To Allaah do we belong! I fear that Allaah has made this Ummah to be lost when the people are in need of the likes of me”. [Siyar 7/275]

Imaam Ash-Sahbee: Maalik Bin Maghool (rahimahullaah) said: It was said to Shabee (rahimahullaah): ” scholar”. He said: The scholar is the one who fears Allaah. [Hilyatul awliyaa: 4/311]

Ibraaheem An-Nakha’ee: Al-A’mash (rahimahullaah) said: I approached Khaythama (rahimahullaah) and said, Indeed I saw something from Ibraaheem (An-Nakha’ee) the likes of which I have not seen (before); he (Khaythama) said, What is it? I said, I saw him sitting with strangers and informed him about it, so he said, I was sitting close to them and disliked that by leaving them people might see that as a sign of some superiority I have over them, so I sat with them. [Source: التواضع والخمول – pages 113-114]

Imaam Ibraaheem An-Nakha’ee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “It is enough a trial that a person is pointed out due to his religious or worldly affairs, except the one whom Allaah protects”. [Taareekh Dimashq 18/33]

Imaam Fudayl Ibn Iyaadh [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “If you are able not to be known, then do so. Is there anything against you if you are unknown? Is there anything against you if you are not praised? Is there anything against you if you are considered blameworthy in the sight of the people but praiseworthy in the sight of Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]?” [Hilyatul Awliyaa 8/89]

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “There are many cases in which the souls are mixed with Ash-Shahawaat Al-Khafiyyah [i.e. desires that are concealed, subtle etc] that corrupts its fulfilment of (perfect) love of Allaah, servitude to Him and establishment of the religion sincerely for the sake of Allaah, just as Shaddaad Ibn Aws [may Allaah be pleased with him] said, ‘O Arabs! Indeed, the affair I fear for you the most is Riyaa [showoff] and Shahwa Al-Khafiyyah’. It was said to Abu Daawud As-Sijistaani, ‘What is Ash-Shahwa Al-Khafiyyah?’ He said, ‘Love of leadership’”. [Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 10 /214-215]

Give Room to Others And Allaah Will Give You Ample Room From His Mercy

Allaah [The Most High] said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمْ تَفَسَّحُوا فِي الْمَجَالِسِ فَافْسَحُوا يَفْسَحِ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۖ وَإِذَا قِيلَ انْشُزُوا فَانْشُزُوا يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ

O you who believe! When you are told to make room in the assemblies, [spread out and] make room. Allah will give you [ample] room [from His Mercy]. And when you are told to rise up, rise up. Allah will exalt in degree those of you who believe, and those who have been granted knowledge. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.

This is a practical code of behaviour commanded by Allaah to His believing slaves- that when they come together in one of their gatherings, some of them or some of those who have already arrived should make room [for others]; for indeed it is part of good etiquettes to make room for him [i.e. the other person] to reach his goal. And this is not to harm the one who is [already] in the gathering in anyway; rather he enables his [Muslim] brother to reach his goal without him being harmed, and reward is given in accordance with a deed; for indeed whoever makes room, Allaah makes room for him, and whoever shows generosity to his brother, Allaah will show him generosity.

[وَإِذَا قِيلَ انْشُزُوا – And when you are told to rise up]- Meaning: To rise up and retire from your gathering for an [obligatory or important] need [i.e. prayer etc], then [فَانْشُزُوا – rise up] – Meaning: proceed towards the fulfilment of that beneficial affair, for indeed the fulfilment of the likes of these affairs is connected to knowledge and Eemaan. And Allaah [The Most High] will exalt in degree the people of knowledge and Eemaan in accordance with what He has portioned out for them from knowledge and Eemaan.

[وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِير -And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do]- Meaning: Allaah [The Most High] rewards every performer of deeds in accordance with his [or her] deeds-if they are good, there will be good recompense, and if evil deeds, there will be an evil recompense. And in this Ayah [i.e. 58:11] is [a mention] of the virtue of knowledge, whose beautification and benefit is that one disciplines [himself or herself] with its etiquettes and act in accordance with what it necessitates. [An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan) by Imaam As-Sadi (rahimahullaah). slightly paraphrased]

Be Truly Humble and Useful In The Gatherings

Imaam As-Sadi (rahimahullaah) stated: When you sit with the people, make humility the sign by which you are recognized. Fear of Allaah should be your shield and giving advice to the servants of Allaah as your constant habit. Be eager to (make) every gathering in which you sit one of goodness- either research into affairs of knowledge or advice on religious matters; either directing (others) towards a general or a particular beneficial affair, or making a mention of the blessings of Allaah; either making a mention of the superior status of praiseworthy manners and good etiquettes or warning against that which is detrimental to the well-being of one’s religious or worldly (affairs). The least of this (i.e. your companionship and advice to those you sit with) is that the earnings from their occupations should be by way of permissible (means) and not what is forbidden.

Behave well towards the young, the old and your peers. Deal with each of them in a way they deserve and have respect for the one who deserves to be respected and honoured. Be eager to make your congregation relaxed by way of speech that is appropriate and good, even if that was in relation to the worldly (affairs).

The sensible and determined person achieves abundant goodness through the gatherings of the people and he becomes more beloved to them than all (beloved things). This is because he approaches the people with what they approve (i.e. good) and statements they desire, and the foundation in this is success in taking over control of all the affairs placed before them.

And these affairs (i.e. good advice and companionship) become more emphasized on a journey, because during a journey sitting together is prolonged and the travellers are in need of having someone who revives their hearts with good statements, the news of events and joke–if all of that is truth and not too much–and to assist them with the essential affairs of travel. And Allaah is the One Who grants all success. [ Noorul Basaa’ir Wal al-baab fee ahkaam al ‘Ibaadaat Wal Mu‘aamalaat Wal Huqooq Wal Aadaab’ pages 64-65]

Neither Isolate Nor Be Snobbish

Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah protect him] said: And one of those etiquettes [to be observed in a] social gathering [or when sitting together] is that two [people] should not have a private conversation in isolation of a third person [i.e. a third person who is also present in the same gathering or sitting], because that will offend him. He may harbour an evil suspicion towards them – that they are either conspiring against him or reviling him, or backbiting him, or may think that they are looking down on him. The Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, ‘’When three persons are together, then no two of them should hold secret counsel excluding the third person’’. The Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, ‘’When you are three persons sitting together, then no two of you should hold a secret counsel excluding the third person until you are with some other people too, for that would grieve him’’. (7)

This hadeeth is [about the] etiquettes that should be observed when sitting together. If there are three people [together], it is forbidden for two of them to speak in private; because if they speak in private without the third person, he will harbour some doubts – fearing that they are talking about him. Also if they speak in secret without him, he will feel that they are looking down on him and that they do not give him any value, and that is why they hide their affair from him and speak in private without him, because they do not trust him. This will enter his heart and that is why the Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, ‘’For that would grieve him’’- Meaning: It will bring about sadness in his heart, so he says [to himself], ‘’They are either speaking about me or looking down on me’’, so he becomes sad. Therefore, from the etiquettes of sitting together is that one speaks openly, and speaking should not be between two people in isolation of a third person. As for when there are many people in a sitting – more than three – there is no harm if two people speak in private because the other people are many and they will not harbour anything in their hearts.

This is from the etiquettes of sitting together. The hadeeth forbids two people from speaking to each other in private, whilst isolating a third [person who is also present in the same sitting]. It shows that if there are more than three people, then there is no harm if two people speak in private due to the statement of the Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam], ‘’Until you are with some other people too.’’ So if the reason behind the caution is non-existent [i.e. if there are many other people in the same sitting], then there is no harm [if two people speak in private]. (8)

Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: And also if there are four people, they [i.e. three people] should not speak privately in isolation of the fourth person. The intent behind this is that there should be more than one person remaining if the rest are having a private conversation. If a group speaks privately in isolation of another group, then there is no harm in doing so as has preceded in the hadeeth reported by Aa’isha that the Prophet spoke to Faatimah in private [about something] in the house, but not to his wives. (9) Here is the Hadeeth: Imaam Bukhaari Said, ‘’Chapter: Whoever has a confidential talk with somebody in front of the people and the latter does not disclose his companion’s secret, but when his companion dies, he discloses it. http://www.salaficentre.com/2016/10/heart-warming-incident-prophet-sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam-beloved-daughter-faatimah-radiyallaahu-anhaa/ (10)

Do Not Poke Your Nose Into The Private Conversations of Others

It is forbidden for a person to just come and sit with a person who is talking to another person because it may be that they are engaged in a private conversation. The Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, “Whoever listens to the talk of some people who do not like him [to listen] or they run away from him, then molten lead will be poured into his ears on the Day of Resurrection. [Sahih Al-Bukhaari Number 7042]. This is a severe threat, so one should not listen to the speech of the people if they do not want anyone to know what they are talking about. (11)

Al-Allaamah Zayd Bin Haadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: It may be that two or more people gather to speak about a particular affair that concerns them, and they do not want anyone else to know about it; but then a person or more than one person becomes an obstacle by listening to their speech and [wants] to know what they are talking about, whilst they are not pleased with that. This is an act of transgression and foolishness – that a person involves himself into something that does not concern him. And from the perfection of a person’s Islaam is to leave that which does not concern him. However, there is an exception to this prohibition such as when a person listens into the speech of those who are focused or [involved] in seeking to breach the state of safety and security of the Muslims. (12)
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Footnote a: “Two hungry wolves let loose among sheep are not more harmful than a person’s craving after wealth and status is to his eeligion”. [Saheeh Sunan Tirmidhee. Number 2376]

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “He (i.e. the Prophet) clarified that the corruption (caused) through craving for wealth and high status in the religion cannot be lesser than the corruption (caused) by two hungry wolves let loose among a livestock and that is (something) manifest, because indeed there is (nothing) of this craving in the sound religion. That is because when the heart tastes the sweetness of servitude to Allaah and love of Him, nothing else becomes more beloved, and by way of this, evil and immorality are averted from the people who are sincere to Allaah”. [Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 10/215]

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] also said, “The seeker of leadership- even through falsehood- becomes pleased with a statement that contains an exaltation of him, even if it is falsehood; and becomes angered by a statement that contains a rebuke against him, even if it is truth. [As for] the believer [i.e. the one with strong Eemaan and fear of Allaah], he is pleased with a statement of truth whether it is for or against him; and he is angered by a statement of falsehood whether it is for or against him. That is because Allaah [The Most High] loves truth, truthfulness and justice, and He hates lies and oppression”. [Majmoo Al-Fataawaa: 10/600]

Imaam Muhamad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “Two hungry wolves let loose on a flock! Then what will remain from the flock?! Even when a single wolf stops eating because its stomach is full, it still kills the rest of the flock; then what about two hungry wolves let loose on a flock!! Not a single will remain. Likewise, a person who craves for wealth or status will corrupt the religion. And because of this it is obligated on a person that his intention is far removed from this- far removed from craving for wealth and status in the religion. We ask Allaah to aid us to accomplish this. There are many people who do not give concern except to wealth or status, so that they are pointed at (i.e. recognized). This destroys the religion because one’s soul inclines towards wealth and status and as a result of this a person forgets what is more important – the affair of the religion (i.e. sincerity etc). [At-taleeq Alaa Siyaasah Shar’iyyah. pages 454-455. slightly paraphrased]

Footnotes:
(I) Asking the people: Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee [may Allaah preserve him] quoted Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] who stated, “The initiate affair with regards to asking the creation is that it is forbidden to do so, but it is permissible in when there is a necessity, but it is better to abandon doing so out of reliance on Allaah. [See Qaa’idah Jaleelah Fee at-tawassul Wal-Waseelah. page 7. Publisher Maktabah al-Furqan. 1st Edition 1422 (Year 2001)]

(II) Lowering Oneself: Imaam Ibn Hibbaan [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “It is obligated on a sensible person that he adheres to humility and avoids pride. Humility is of two types- the first one is praiseworthy and the other is blameworthy. Praiseworthy humility is that one abandons insolence and mockery. Blameworthy humility is that a person humbles himself in the presence of one who possesses the things of the worldly life and desiring what such a person possesses. Therefore, a sensible person maintains his abandonment of blameworthy humility in all circumstances and he does not depart from praiseworthy humility. [An Excerpt from Rawdatul Uqalaa page 58]

(III) The Scholars are three types: Shaikh Abdullah Al-Bukhaari [may Allaah preserve him] stated, Shaikh Abdullah Al-Bukhaaree [may Allaah preserve him] stated, “Ibn Abee Shaybah [may allaah have mercy upon him] reported in Al-Musannaf and Abu Nu-aym [may Allaah have mercy upon him] in Al-Hilya [5/12] with an authentic chain from Abu Muslim Al-Khawlaani [may Allaah have mercy upon him], who said, ‘The scholars are three types- a man who lives with his knowledge and the people live with it alongside him; a man who lives with his knowledge and none else lives with it alongside him, and as for the third man, the people live with his knowledge and it destroys him’. The intent behind this speech: Indeed the first (man) knows, acts and teaches. As for the second, he knows and acts, but does not teach. As for the third, he knows and teaches, but does not act! We ask Allaah for steadfastness and well-being”. [ المقالات الشرعية– pages: 23-24]


[Ref 1: See the full hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim 220]
[Ref 2: An Excerpt from ‘Al-Qawlus Sadeed Sharh Kitaab At-Tawheed’. page 77. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 3: An Excerpt from ‘Al-Qawlul Mufeed Alaa Kitaab At-Tawheed’. Vol 1. Page 97. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 4: An Excerpt from ‘Sharh Fat-hul Majeed Li-Sharh Kitaab At-Tawheed. Vol 1. Page 162’. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 5: Source: Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm’ pages 53-55. abridged & slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 6: Adabud Talab Wa Muntahaa Al-Adab. Page 93. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: An Excerpt from ‘It’haaf At-tullaab Bi-Sharh Mandhoomah Al-Aadaab’ page 149. paraphrased]
[Ref 8: An Excerpt from ‘Tasheelul Ilhaami Bi-Fiqhil Ahaadeethi Min Bulooghil Maraam’ 6/172 paraphrased]
[Ref 9: An Excerpt from ‘Al-Hulalul Ibreeziyyah Min At-taleeqaat Al-Baaziyyah Alaa Saheeh Al-Bukhaari’ Vol 4′ page 192′ footnote number 2′. paraphrased]
[Ref 10: Al-Hulalul Ibreeziyyah Min At-taleeqaat Al-Baaziyyah Alaa Saheeh al-Bukhaari Vol 4′ page 191]
[Ref 11: An Excerpt from ‘It’haaf At-Tullaab Bi-Sharhi Mandhoomah Al-Aadaab’ page 149′ paraphrased]
[Ref 12: An Excerpt from ‘Awnul Ahadis Samad Sharh Al-Adabil Mufrad’ Vol 3 page 281′. paraphrased]