5 Categories of Patience Explained by Al-Imām Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh)
Patience falls into five categories as Al-Imām Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) explained in his tremendous book, ‘Iddatu as-Ṣābirīn
Patience is categorised into five: Wājib (Obligatory), Mandūb (Recommended), Maḥḍhūr (Prohibited), Makrūh (Disliked) and Mubāḥ (permissible).
Obligatory Patience is of three types:
- Restraining oneself from the prohibited affairs. (Muḥaramāt)
- Perseverance upon the performance of the obligatons. (Wājibāt)
- Patience upon afflictions, such as illnesses, poverty etc.
- Restraining oneself from the disliked actions. (Makrūhāt)
- Perseverance upon the recommended actions. (Mustaḥabāt)
Prohibited Patience is of types from them:
- Restraining oneself from food and drink, to the extent that a person dies,
- Likewise restraining oneself from carrion, blood and meat of swine at the time of starvation is prohibited if he fears death.
As for Disliked Patience, then it is of types:
- Restricting oneself from food and drink, clothing and intimate relations to the extent that it harms the body
- Restricting oneself from intimate relations with his wife, if he has the need for that and he isn’t harmed by it.
- Persisting upon the performance of the disliked actions. (Makrūhāt)
- Restricting oneself from performance of the recommended actions. (Mustaḥabāt)
As for the Mubāḥ Ṣabr [i.e. the patience which is permissible to act upon, but one is not blameworthy for abandoning it], it is the patience that is besides those [four types], so one can either choose to act upon it or abandon it or persevere.
- Patience upon an obligation is an obligation and refraining from an obligation is prohibited.
- Abstaining from the impermissible is an obligation and persisting upon the impermissible is prohibited.
- Patience upon the recommended deeds is recommended and refraining from them is disliked.
- Abstaining from the disliked affairs is recommended and persisting upon them is disliked.
- And Patience on the permissible affairs is permissible.
‘Iddatu as-Ṣābirīn pgs. 36-38 Dār al-Fīḥā