Contemplation On Some Aayaat On The Subject Matter of Tawheed: [An Excerpt from Imaam Sadi’s Tafseer] [PDF 5 pages]
In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy
مَآ أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِۗ وَمَن يُؤۡمِنۢ بِٱللَّهِ يَہۡدِ قَلۡبَهُ ۥۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ۬
وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَىٰ رَسُولِنَا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۚ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَڪَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ
No calamity befalls, but with the Leave [i.e. decision and Qadar (Divine Preordainments)] of Allah, and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart [to the true Faith with certainty, i.e. what has befallen him was already written for him by Allah from the Qadar (Divine Preordainments)], and Allah is the All-Knower of everything. Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger [Muhammad], but if you turn away, then the duty of Our Messenger is only to convey [the Message] clearly. Allah! Laa ilaaha illaa Huwa [none has the right to be worshipped but He], and in Allaah [Alone], therefore, let the believers put their trust. [Surah At-taghaabun. Aayaat 11-13]
[مَآ أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِۗ – No calamity befalls, but with the Leave [i.e. decision and Qadar (Divine Preordainments)] of Allah]: Meaning: All the calamities a person faces- be it a calamity that afflicts a person himself, his wealth, children, loved ones and other than that- occur by Allaah’s Divine Will and Decree. Allaah [The Most High] knew of it before its occurrence and it was written [in the Preserved Tablet fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth] based on Allaah’s perfect Wisdom. And the most important thing is whether a person will fulfil the obligations he is commanded when faced with calamities, because in that case he will receive a great reward and a beautiful recompense in this life and the next. If a person firmly believes that such calamity was decreed by Allaah, surrenders his affairs to Allaah [i.e. by relying on Allaah, asking Allaah for ease and patience, and neither despairing nor questioning Allaah, nor violating what Allaah has commanded during such calamities], Allaah [The Most High] will guide his heart, grant him tranquillity and prevent him from being in a state of anxiety. Allaah will grant him firmness and patience, so that he receives reward in this worldly life and there is also reward for him in the afterlife, just as Allaah said [in another Aayah]: [إِنَّمَا يُوَفَّى ٱلصَّـٰبِرُونَ أَجۡرَهُم بِغَيۡرِ حِسَابٍ۬ – Only those who are patient shall receive their rewards in full, without reckoning. (39:10)].
Therefore, based on this we know that the one who neither has firm Eemaan during calamities nor affirms that such calamities occur by the divine will and decree of Allaah, rather he sees them as events that merely occur due to other causes, then indeed such a person will be forsaken and Allaah will leave him to his [incapable] self. And if a person is left to himself, then indeed his soul will contain nothing else but anxiety and impatience, which are a punishment in this worldly life before the punishment in the afterlife in accordance with the impatience he displayed during such calamities.
This affair [i.e. patience during calamities and affirming that such calamities occur by the divine will and decree of Allaah] is connected to Allaah’s statement: [وَمَن يُؤۡمِنۢ بِٱللَّهِ يَہۡدِ قَلۡبَهُ – And whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart [to the true Faith with certainty, i.e. what has befallen him was already written for him by Allah from the Qadar (Divine Preordainments)]: Meaning: Allaah will guide his heart during calamities in particular.
As for belief in Allaah in general, then indeed Allaah has informed us that everyone who believes in what He [The Most High] has commanded a person to believe in, such as belief in Allaah [i.e. Tawheed A-Ruboobiyyah, Tawheed Al-Uloohiyyah, Tawheed Al-Asmaa Was Sifaat etc], belief in the Angels, belief in the Books revealed by Allaah, belief in the Messengers, belief in the last Day, and belief in Qadar -its good aspects and evil- truthfully acts upon what this belief necessitates and obligates, then indeed these affairs are the means by way of which Allaah [The Most High] guides a person in all his affairs, statements, deeds and knowledge. This is the best reward Allaah has bestowed on the people of Eemaan, just as Allaah said that He will make the believers steadfast in this life and the next life. And the basis of steadfastness is the heart’s patience and certainty during every trial. Allaah [The Most High] said:
[يُثَبِّتُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِٱلۡقَوۡلِ ٱلثَّابِتِ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَفِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِۖ- Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. (14:27)].
The people of Eemaan have the most rightly guided and steadfast hearts during times of anxiety and instability, and that is due to their Eemaan.
Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَۚ – Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger (Muhammad)]: Meaning: obey Allaah and obey the Messenger by doing what they have commanded and keep away from what they have forbidden, for indeed obedience to Allaah and His Messenger is the basis of well-being and success [in this life and the hereafter]; [فَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَىٰ رَسُولِنَا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ – but if you turn away, then the duty of Our Messenger is only to convey (the Message) clearly]: Meaning: the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] conveys to you what has been sent down to you-clearly explained and the proofs established against you. Guidance [i.e. to change your hearts and make you accept the truth] is something he is unable to do and he is not responsible for recompensing you for your good and evil deeds, rather you will be recompensed by Allaah based on your obedience or disobedience to Him and His Messenger, and Allaah alone is the Knower of the seen and unseen.
Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۚ – Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He]: Meaning: Allaah is the only one worthy of being worshipped and deified, and every other thing worshipped besides Him is false; [وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَڪَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ -and in Allah (Alone), therefore, let the believers put their trust]: Meaning: rely on Allaah in all your affairs because no affair can be made easy or accomplished except by [Allaah’s Will, Aid, Assistance etc]. And reliance upon Allaah [The Most High] cannot be fulfilled until a person has a good suspicion of His Lord and steadfastly suffices himself with Allaah, whilst seeking to accomplish what he desires. The strength of a person’s reliance upon Allaah is connected to the strength of his Eemaan, and whenever the Eemaan of the person is stronger, his reliance upon Allaah becomes stronger. [Ref 1]
Placing one’s reliance upon Allaah – [By Shaikh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah)]:
Placing reliance upon something is to depend upon it; and placing reliance upon Allaah, the Most High, is to depend upon Allaah, the Most High, and to accept Him as being the One who suffices you in bringing whatever is beneficial to you and protecting you from whatever is harmful. This is from the completion of true Faith (eemaan) and is a sign of it, as He, the Most High, says, “And put your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true Believers.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):23] If the person is sincere in his reliance and trust in Allaah, the Most High, then Allaah, the Most High, will take care of whatever troubles or concerns him, as He, the Most High, says, “And whoever places his reliance and trust in Allaah then He will suffice him.” [Soorah at-Jalaaq (65):3] Meaning that He will suffice him, then He sets the mind of the one who trusts in Him at rest with His Saying, “Allaah will certainly bring about whatever He has decreed.” [Soorah at-Talaaq (65):3] So nothing at all can prevent Him from whatever He wills. Furthermore it should be known that placing reliance and trust is of different types:
 Trust and reliance upon Allaah, the Most High, is from the completion of eemaan, and one of the signs of its sincerity, it is obligatory since eemaan cannot be completed without it, and the proof has preceded.
 Secret trust and dependence, such that he depends upon someone deceased to bring him some benefit or remove some harm, this is major shirk. This is because it will not occur except from a person who believes that this deceased person has some hidden control over the creation. There is no difference in this matter whether the deceased is a prophet, a pious person, or an evil enemy of Allaah, the Most High, who is worshipped by the people.
 Placing reliance upon someone else in the affairs, whilst feeling that he himself is of a low standing and the one he depends upon is therefore of higher standing, for example that he depends upon him to bring him sustenance and the like, then this is a type of lesser shirk due to the strong connection his heart forms towards him and his dependence upon him. But if he merely relied upon him being certain that he is just a means, and that Allaah, the Most High, is the One Who alone has the power to bring that about in His Hand, then there is no harm in that, since the one on whom he places reliance does have an effect in causing it to occur.
 Relying upon someone else and allowing someone else to act on your behalf with regard to a matter where one is allowed to depute someone. This is something about which there is no harm, as shown by the evidence of the Book, the Sunnah and the consensus (ijmaa’). Ya’qoob said to his sons: “O my sons go back and seek news of Yoosuf and his brother.” [Soorah Yoosuf (12):87] Also the Prophet deputed men to take charge of collection and looking after the zakaat; he deputed people to establish and carry out the prescribed punishment; and deputed ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, to take charge of some of his sacrificial animals during the Farewell Pilgrimage, and to give their skins and covering sheets in charity, and to sacrifice the remainder of the hundred camels after he had sacrificed sixty three with his own hand. As for the consensus (ijmaa) upon permissibility of this, then it is something known. [Ref 2]
[Ref 1: (Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer kalaam Al-Mannaan). Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 2: Explanation of The Three Fundamental Principles by Shaikh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah). Translated by Ustaadh Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank (may Allaah have mercy on him and his wife) pages 49-50]