Contemplation On Some Aayaat On The Subject Matter of Tawheed: [An Excerpt from Tafseer Ibn Katheer and Imaam Sadi’s Tafseer] [PDF 3 pages]
In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy
Allaah [The Most High] said:
هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۖ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِۖ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَيۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَڪَبِّرُۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِڪُونَ
هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ
He is Allah, than Whom there is Laa ilaaha illaa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen (open). He is the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. He is Allah than Whom there is Laa ilaaha illaa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names . All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. [Surah Al-Hashr. Aayaat 22-24]
[هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۖ – He is Allah, than Whom there is none that has the right to be worshipped but He)]: Meaning: Allaah [The Most High] informed us that He alone has the right to be deified and worshipped, for there is no deity worthy of worship besides Him. And that is because He is Perfect [free is He from all imperfections, deficiencies, weaknesses, similarities, co-equals, faults, defects etc]. He alone bestowed everything to the creation out of His All-Encompassing Generosity and He alone controls all the affairs of the universe in perfect order. Every other thing taken as a deity besides Him is false and does not have an atom’s weight of right to be worshipped. Any other thing taken as a deity besides Him is deficient and dependent [or in need].
[عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِۖ – The All-Knower of the unseen and the seen (open)]; Meaning: Allaah [The Most High] described Himself as having All Encompassing knowledge. His knowledge encompasses what is hidden from the creation and that which can be seen.
[هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ – (He is Ar-Rahmaan-The Most Merciful)]: Meaning: Allaah described Himself that He has an All-Encompassing Mercy which reaches everything and every living thing [Ref: A]; [And He is Ar-Raheem-The Bestower of Mercy]: Meaning: He bestowed special mercy to the believers, just as He said in another Ayah:[وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًا -And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers (33:43)][Ref: B)]
Then Allaah [The Most High] reiterated that He alone is the true and only deity worthy of worship, saying: [هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ – He is Allah than Whom there is Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He)].
Then Allaah [The Most High] stated that He is [ٱلۡمَلِكُ -The King]: Meaning: The owner of everything in the heavens and the earth. All the inhabitants and everything in the heavens and the earth belong to Him, completely in need of Him and under His dominion.
Then Allaah [The Most High] said that He is [ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ- The Pure and Perfect; The One Free from all defects]; [ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ –The True and Trustworthy, The Granter of Security]; [ٱلۡمُهَيۡمِنُ -The Trustworthy and Ever Watchful Witness]; [ٱلۡعَزِيزُ – The All-Mighty or The Invincible]; [ٱلۡجَبَّارُ-The Exalted and All-Mighty Compeller]; [ٱلۡمُتَڪَبِّرُۚ – The One Supreme in Glory, The Justly and Rightfully Proud].
Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِڪُونَ – Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him]. This statement declares Allaah free from all that is falsely ascribed to Him by those who associate partners with Him and those who wilfully turn away from Him.
Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ – He is Allah, the Creator]: Meaning: The Creator of all the creation. [ ٱلۡبَارِئُ- The Originator]; [ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُ-The Bestower of forms].
Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ – To Him belong the Best Names]: Meaning: He has many Names, which none can enumerate nor does anyone know all of them except Himself. All His Names and Attributes are perfect -[free from all deficiencies, defects etc].
Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ – All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him].
[وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ – And He is The All-Mighty or The Invincible; The All-Wise]: Meaning: Whatever He wants to occur will occur, and nothing occurs except due to a perfect wisdom and benefit. [Ref 1]
[Ref 1 & Ref A: Source: (Tayseer al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan). slightly paraphrased]
[Ref B: Al-Misbaah Al-Muneer Fee Tahdheeb Tafseer Ibn Katheer]
NB: Translation of the Names of Allaah in this article were taken from the translation of the Noble Qur’aan’ by Dr Muhsin Khan and Shaikh Taqi-yuddeen al-Hilaali, as well as from a poster by Salafipublications.