In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

And just as Allaah [Glorified be He and free is He from all imperfections] attached Al-Hudaa [Guidance] and At-Tuqaa [Piety] together; Dalaal [misguidance related to knowledge and creed] and Ghay [Misguidance related to knowledge and deeds]; likewise, He attached guidance and mercy together, and misguidance and misery together.

Regarding the first affair, Allaah said:

أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ عَلَىٰ هُدً۬ى مِّن رَّبِّهِمۡ‌ۖ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

Such are on guidance from their Lord, and such are the successful.

[Surah Luqmaan. Aayah 5]

 

Allaah said:

أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ صَلَوَٲتٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّهِمۡ وَرَحۡمَةٌ۬‌ۖ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدُونَ

They are those on whom are the Salawat (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones. [Surah Al-Baqarah Aayah 157]

And Allaah stated regarding [a supplication of the believers that they say]:

رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغۡ قُلُوبَنَا بَعۡدَ إِذۡ هَدَيۡتَنَا وَهَبۡ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحۡمَةً‌ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلۡوَهَّابُ

(They say): “Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower.” [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 8]

And Allaah stated that the young men of the cave said:

رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحۡمَةً۬ وَهَيِّئۡ لَنَا مِنۡ أَمۡرِنَا رَشَدً۬ا

“Our Lord! Bestow on us mercy from Yourself, and facilitate for us our affair in the right way!”  [Surah Al-Kahf. Aayah 10]

And Allaah said:

لَقَدۡ كَانَ فِى قَصَصِہِمۡ عِبۡرَةٌ۬ لِّأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ‌ۗ مَا كَانَ حَدِيثً۬ا يُفۡتَرَىٰ وَلَـٰڪِن تَصۡدِيقَ ٱلَّذِى بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ وَتَفۡصِيلَ ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةً۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُؤۡمِنُونَ

Indeed in their stories, there is a lesson for men of understanding. It (the Qur’an) is not a forged statement but a confirmation of the Allah’s existing Books [the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel) and other Scriptures of Allah] and a detailed explanation of everything and a guide and a Mercy for the people who believe. [Surah Yoosuf. Aayah 111]

Allaah said:

وَمَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى ٱخۡتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ‌ۙ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةً۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُؤۡمِنُونَ

And We have not sent down the Book (the Qur’an) to you (O Muhammad), except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe. [Surah An-Nahl. Aayah 64]

And Allaah said:

وَنَزَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ تِبۡيَـٰنً۬ا لِّكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةً۬ وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ

And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims). [Surah An-Nahl. Aayah 89]

And Allaah said:

يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ قَدۡ جَآءَتۡكُم مَّوۡعِظَةٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّڪُمۡ وَشِفَآءٌ۬ لِّمَا فِى ٱلصُّدُورِ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةٌ۬ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

‘’O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord (i.e. the Qur’an, ordering all that is good and forbidding all that is evil), and a healing for that (disease of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences, etc.) in your breasts, – a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful things, etc.) for the believers.’’

Then Allaah reiterated and mentioned them, saying:

قُلۡ بِفَضۡلِ ٱللَّهِ وَبِرَحۡمَتِهِۦ فَبِذَٲلِكَ فَلۡيَفۡرَحُواْ

Say: “In the Fadl of Allah, and in His Mercy-therein let them rejoice.”

[Soorah Yoonus. Aayaat 57-58]

There are various statements of the Salaf [the pious predecessors] regarding the explanation of Fadl and Rahma, and the correct saying is that they mean guidance and bounty – Allaah’s Fadl is His Guidance and His Mercy is His bounty, and that is why He attached guidance and bounty together [in the above Aayah], which is similar to His statement in Surah Al-Faatihah:

ٱهۡدِنَا ٱلصِّرَٲطَ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقِيمَ

صِرَٲطَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ غَيۡرِ ٱلۡمَغۡضُوبِ عَلَيۡهِمۡ

Guide us to the Straight Way. The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace… [Surah Al-Faatihah. Aayaat 6-7]

And also in Allaah’s statement to his Prophet regarding the blessings  bestowed on him:

أَلَمۡ يَجِدۡكَ يَتِيمً۬ا فَـَٔاوَىٰ

وَوَجَدَكَ ضَآلاًّ۬ فَهَدَىٰ

وَوَجَدَكَ عَآٮِٕلاً۬ فَأَغۡنَىٰ

Did He not find you (O Muhammad) an orphan and gave you a refuge? And He found you unaware (of the Qur’an, its legal laws, and Prophethood, etc.) and guided you? And He found you poor, and made you rich (self-sufficient with self-contentment, etc.)? [Surah Ad-Duhaa. Aayaat 6-8]

So, Allaah gave him [i.e. the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi wasallam)] a combination of guidance and blessing- by granting him refuge, self-sufficiency with self-contentment.

And regarding this also is the statement of Allaah that Nooh [alayhis salaam] said:

قَالَ يَـٰقَوۡمِ أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِن كُنتُ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ۬ مِّن رَّبِّى وَءَاتَٮٰنِى رَحۡمَةً۬ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦ

O my people! Tell me, if I have a clear proof from my Lord, and a Mercy (Prophethood, etc.) has come to me from Him.. [Surah Hud. Aayah 28]

And Allaah said that Shu’aib [alayhis salaam] said:

أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِن كُنتُ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ۬ مِّن رَّبِّى وَرَزَقَنِى مِنۡهُ رِزۡقًا حَسَنً۬ا‌ۚ

Tell me, if I have a clear evidence from my Lord, and He has given me a good sustenance from Himself (shall I corrupt it by mixing it with the unlawfully earned money). [Surah Hud. Aayah 88]

And Allaah said about Khidr [alayhis salaam]:

فَوَجَدَا عَبۡدً۬ا مِّنۡ عِبَادِنَآ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُ رَحۡمَةً۬ مِّنۡ عِندِنَا وَعَلَّمۡنَـٰهُ مِن لَّدُنَّا عِلۡمً۬ا

Then they [i.e. Moosaa (alayhis salaam and his boy servant) found one of Our slaves, unto whom We had bestowed mercy from Us, and whom We had taught knowledge from Us. [Surah Al-Kahf. Aayah 65]

And Allaah said to His Messenger [Muhammad (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam)]:

إِنَّا فَتَحۡنَا لَكَ فَتۡحً۬ا مُّبِينً۬ا

لِّيَغۡفِرَ لَكَ ٱللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنۢبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعۡمَتَهُ ۥ عَلَيۡكَ وَيَہۡدِيَكَ صِرَٲطً۬ا مُّسۡتَقِيمً۬ا

وَيَنصُرَكَ ٱللَّهُ نَصۡرًا عَزِيزًا

Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His Favour on you, and guide you on the Straight Path; And that Allah may help you with strong help. [Surah Al-Fath. Aayah 1-3]

And Allaah said:

وَأَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمۡ تَكُن تَعۡلَمُ‌ۚ وَكَانَ فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكَ عَظِيمً۬ا

Allah has sent down to you the Book (The Qur’an), and Al-Hikmah (Islamic laws, knowledge of legal and illegal things i.e. the Prophet’s Sunnah – legal ways), and taught you that which you knew not. And Ever Great is the Grace of Allah unto you (O Muhammad). [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayah 113]

And Allaah said:

وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُ ۥ مَا زَكَىٰ مِنكُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ أَبَدً۬ا

And had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy on you, not one of you would ever have been pure from sins. [Surah An-Noor. Aayah 21]

The Fadl [bounty] of Allaah [in this Aayah] means His Guidance, Mercy, Blessings, Kindness and Generosity which He bestowed on them.

And Allaah said:

فَإِمَّا يَأۡتِيَنَّڪُم مِّنِّى هُدً۬ى فَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَ هُدَاىَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشۡقَىٰ

Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery. [Surah Taahaa. Aayah 123]

Guidance is barrier against misguidance, and mercy is a barrier against misery. This is what Allaah stated in the beginning of Surah Taahaa, saying:

طه

مَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لِتَشۡقَىٰٓ

Taa-Haa.  We have not sent down the Qur’an unto you (O Muhammad) to cause you distress. [Surah Taahaa. Aayah 1-2]

Allaah bestowed on him the ‘Sending down the Qur’aan to him’ [i.e. the Prophet (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam)] and negated misery from him, just as Allaah stated at the end of Surah Taa Haa regarding those who follow the guidance [or revelation]:

فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشۡقَى

Shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery.

Therefore, Al-Hudaa [Guidance], Al-Fadl [Bounty], An-Ni’mah [Blessing] and Rahma [Mercy] are attached to each other and they are not separated from each another, just as misguidance and misery are two affairs that are attached to each another and do not separate from each another.

Allaah [The Exalted] said:

إِنَّ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ وَسُعُرٍ۬

Verily, the Mujrimun (polytheists, disbelievers, sinners, criminals, etc.) are in error (in this world) and will burn (in the Hell-fire in the Hereafter). [Surah Al-Qamar. Aayah 47]

The word Su’ur is the plural of Sa’eer, and it is that punishment that necessitates extreme misery and distress.

Allaah [The Exalted] said:

وَلَقَدۡ ذَرَأۡنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ ڪَثِيرً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ‌ۖ لَهُمۡ قُلُوبٌ۬ لَّا يَفۡقَهُونَ بِہَا وَلَهُمۡ أَعۡيُنٌ۬ لَّا يُبۡصِرُونَ بِہَا وَلَهُمۡ ءَاذَانٌ۬ لَّا يَسۡمَعُونَ بِہَآ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ كَٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِ بَلۡ هُمۡ أَضَلُّ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡغَـٰفِلُونَ

And surely, We have created many of the jinns and mankind for Hell. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, they have eyes wherewith they see not, and they have ears wherewith they hear not (the truth). They are like cattle, nay even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones. [Surah Al-A’raaf. Aayah 179]

And Allaah said about them [i.e. the criminals]:

وَقَالُواْ لَوۡ كُنَّا نَسۡمَعُ أَوۡ نَعۡقِلُ مَا كُنَّا فِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلسَّعِيرِ

And they will say: “Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been among the dwellers of the blazing Fire!” [Surah Al-Mulk. Aayah 10]

And based on this, Allaah attached guidance, Inshiraah As-Sadr [i.e. when one’s heart is opened to Islaam] and Al-Hayaat At-Tayyibah [i.e. a good life] together; and He attached misguidance, a constricted heart and a life of hardship together. Allaah [The Exalted] said:

فَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ أَن يَهۡدِيَهُ ۥ يَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَهُ ۥ لِلۡإِسۡلَـٰمِ‌ۖ وَمَن يُرِدۡ أَن يُضِلَّهُ ۥ يَجۡعَلۡ صَدۡرَهُ ۥ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجً۬ا

And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted. [Surah Al-An’aam. Aayah 125]

And Allaah said:

أَفَمَن شَرَحَ ٱللَّهُ صَدۡرَهُ ۥ لِلۡإِسۡلَـٰمِ فَهُوَ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ۬ مِّن رَّبِّهِ

Is he whose breast Allah has opened to Islam, so that he is in light from His Lord (as he who is a disbeliever)? [Surah Az-Zumar. Aayah 22]

And likewise, Allaah attached guidance and Inaabah [i.e. the act of turning repentantly to Him with submission and Eemaan] together, and He attached misguidance and hard heartedness together.

Allaah [The Most High] said:

ٱللَّهُ يَجۡتَبِىٓ إِلَيۡهِ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَہۡدِىٓ إِلَيۡهِ مَن يُنِيبُ

Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself who turns to Him in repentance and in obedience. [Surah Ash-Shooraa. Aayah 13]

And Allaah [The Exalted] said:

فَوَيۡلٌ۬ لِّلۡقَـٰسِيَةِ قُلُوبُہُم مِّن ذِكۡرِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ

So, woe to those whose hearts are hardened against remembrance of Allah! They are in plain error! [Surah Az-Zumar. Aayah 22]

Source: Al-Fawaa-id. Pages 198-201. Paraphrased]

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