In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Imaam Laalikaa’ee [rahimahullaah] reported that Imaam Maalik [rahimahullaah] said: Whoever curses the companions of Allaah’s Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] has no right to the war booty. Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] said: [لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ ٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُخۡرِجُواْ مِن دِيَـٰرِهِمۡ وَأَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ يَبۡتَغُونَ فَضۡلاً۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرِضۡوَٲنً۬ا – (And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants, who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking Bounties from Allah and to please him(Surah Al-Hashr. Aayah 8)]. These are the companions of the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] who migrated with him.
Then Allaah said: [وَٱلَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُو ٱلدَّارَ وَٱلۡإِيمَـٰنَ – And those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith]. These are the Ansaar.
Then Allaah said: [وَٱلَّذِينَ جَآءُو مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٲنِنَا – And those who came after them say: Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith].
Therefore, the war booty is for these three [categories of people]– whoever curses the companions of the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] is not counted amongst [these people] and he has no right to the war booty.
[Sharh Usool Al-Ittiqaad Ahlis Sunnah Wal-Jamaa-ah: 7/1268-1269]