In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Allaah [The Most High] said:
وَأَقۡسَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ جَهۡدَ أَيۡمَـٰنِہِمۡ لَٮِٕنۡ أَمَرۡتَہُمۡ لَيَخۡرُجُنَّۖ قُل لَّا تُقۡسِمُواْۖ طَاعَةٌ۬ مَّعۡرُوفَةٌۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
قُلۡ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيۡڪُم مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهۡتَدُواْۚ وَمَا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
They swear by Allah their strongest oaths, that if only you would order them, they would leave [their homes for fighting in Allah’s Cause]. Say: ‘’Swear you not; [this] obedience [of yours] is known [to be false]. Verily, Allah knows well what you do.’’ Say: ‘’Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he [Messenger Muhammad] is only responsible for the duty placed on him [i.e. to convey Allah’s Message] and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey [the message] in a clear way [i.e. to preach in a plain way].’’ [Surah an-Noor Aayaat 53-54]
Allaah [The Most High] informs us of the situation of those hypocrites who stayed behind and did not join the Messenger in Jihaad (Ref 1) – those in whose hearts there is a disease – that they swear by Allaah that if they are commanded in future to go out for Jihaad, they will do so; but Allaah rebutted them saying: [قُل لَّا تُقۡسِمُواْۖ -Swear you not]: Meaning: [Say to them O Muhammad], ‘’Neither are we in need of your oath nor your excuses, for indeed we have been informed about your affair and this obedience of yours is known to be false. This sluggishness and laziness of yours is known to us, even if you do not give an excuse. Therefore, your oath and excuse is nothing really; rather those in need of making an oath and an excuse are those whose affair is ambiguous, for maybe such excuse will benefit them and absolve them of blame. As for yourselves, then your excuses and oaths do not count; rather what is feared for you is Allaah’s punishment’’ and this is why Allaah said: [إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ – Verily, Allah knows well what you do]: Meaning: Allaah will recompense you fully in accordance with this state of yours. As for the Messenger, his duty is only to give you commands and prohibitions, and this is why Allaah said: [قُلۡ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَۖ – Say: “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger]; [فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيۡڪُم مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡۖ – but if you turn away, he (Messenger Muhammad) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to convey Allah’s Message) and you for that placed on you]: Meaning: If you turn away from the message, then the Messenger has already conveyed it and you are held accountable. Your situation has manifested; your misguidance and deviation is clear, and you deserve punishment. [ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهۡتَدُواْۚ – And if you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance]: Meaning: You will be guided to the straight path- in speech and deeds- and you have no other path to guidance except through obedience to Allaah and His Messenger. And without [obedience to Allaah and the Messenger], then it is impossible to be guided.
[وَمَا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ – The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way (i.e. to preach in a plain way)]: Meaning: He has clearly conveyed the message, therefore, neither is anyone to be in doubt nor in a state of ambiguity. The Messenger has clearly conveyed the message and Allaah is the only one who will call you to account and recompense you. The Messenger has no authority over reward or punishment after fulfilling his responsibility.
[Source: (Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan). Slightly paraphrased]
Ref 1: Read: Salafi Shaikh Fawzaan on Jihaad in our times and the guidelines of Jihaad according to Islam
Consequences of disobeying the Messenger