In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Allaah [The Most High] said:
قُلِ ٱللَّهُمَّ فَاطِرَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ عَـٰلِمَ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّہَـٰدَةِ أَنتَ تَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَ عِبَادِكَ فِى مَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُونَ
Say (O Muhammad): “O Allah! Creator of the heavens and the earth! All-Knower of the Ghaib (unseen) and the seen. You will judge between your slaves about that wherein they used to differ.” [Surah Az-Zumar. Aayah 46]
Indeed, Allaah [The Exalted] commanded His Prophet Muhammad [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] to make this supplication after rebuking the Mushrikoon due to their love of Shirk and turning away from Tawheed. The Meaning of This Supplication necessitates: O Prophet! Invoke Allaah alone and ascribe no partner with Him – the creator of the heavens and the earth, who created them when there was nothing similar to them before that. [عَـٰلِمَ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّہَـٰدَ – (Allaah), The All-Knower of the Ghaib (unseen) and the seen]- Meaning: Knower of both the secrets and what is made known. [أَنتَ تَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَ عِبَادِكَ فِى مَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُون – You will judge between your slaves about that wherein they used to differ]- Meaning in their worldly affairs and you will judge between them on the day they are returned to the hereafter and raised from their graves.
In this supplication, there is a lesson for the servants that they turn to Allaah and supplicate to Him through His perfect Names, seek His aid and assistance whilst being in a state of humility and invoking Him to repel the plots of the enemy and grant you safety against their evil. It has been reported in Saheeh Muslim from Aaisha [radiyallaahu anhaa] who said that when the Messenger of Allaah [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] used to stand up in Salaah at night, he used to begin his Salaah [i.e. after the Takbeer and before recitation of Al-Faatiha] with [the supplication]:
اللهُمَّ! رَبَّ جَبْرَائِيلَ، وَمِيكَائِيلَ، وَإِسْرَافِيلَ، فَاطِرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ، عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ، أَنْتَ تَحْكُمُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِكَ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ، اهْدِنِي لِمَا اخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِكَ، إِنَّكَ تَهْدِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ
O Allah, Lord of Jibraa’eel, Meekaa’eel and Israafeel; Creator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the unseen and the seen; You judge between Your slaves concerning wherein they differ. Guide me to the truth in that which they differ by permission, for indeed You are the One Who guides whom You will to the Straight Path.[Saheeh Muslim 770]
[An Excerpt from Fiqhul Ad’iyah Wal-Ad’kaar. Vol 4. Pages 420-421. Slightly paraphrased]