In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Firstly: We repeat once again the fact that rebutting false beliefs, ideas and views does not necessitate bad behaviour, rather Muslims are commanded to behave well towards others.
Allaah [The Most High] said: [ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ ڪَلِمَةٍ۬ سَوَآءِۭ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ أَلَّا نَعۡبُدَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَلَا نُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُنَا بَعۡضًا أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَقُولُواْ ٱشۡهَدُواْ بِأَنَّا مُسۡلِمُونَ –Say (O Muhammad): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims]. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 64]
Meaning: say to the people of the scripture – the Jews and Christians, [تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ ڪَلِمَةٍ۬ سَوَآءِۭ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ – Come to a word that is just between us and you]- Meaning: Come let us unite upon the statement which all the Prophets and Messengers agreed upon and none opposes it except the obstinate and misguided. This statement is not specific to anyone of us; rather it is something that you and us should establish between us, so this is justice and fairness in debate. Then Allaah explains this and said: [أَلَّا نَعۡبُدَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَلَا نُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا – that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him]- Meaning: We should single out Allaah in worship, devoting all love, fear and hope to Him alone, and we should not associate anyone as partner with Allaah in worship- neither a Prophet, an Angel, a Righteous Person, an Idol, a Deified image, a living or non-living thing, [وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُنَا بَعۡضًا أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ – and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allaah]; rather all obedience is to be devoted to Allah and His Messengers. [فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَقُولُواْ ٱشۡهَدُواْ بِأَنَّا مُسۡلِمُونَ – Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims]”. [Tafsir As-Sadi]
The Messenger of Allaah [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] came with signs which manifested his Prophethood. The miracles which Allaah gave him are more than a thousand, such as the splitting of the moon (ref 1) and other signs. The Qur’aan itself is a miracle, such as the news related regarding the people of the Scripture before the advent of the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him], the glad tidings given by the other Prophets [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon them] about his advent, the protection of the heavens with stern guards and flaming fires against the devils who seek to (steal) a hearing, which was not the case before his birth, the affairs of the unseen which Allaah informed him, such as the story of Aadam, Nuh, Ibraaheem, Moosaa, the Messiah, Hud, Shuaib, Saaleh and others [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon them] as well as affairs of the future. His people knew that he has never learnt anything from the people of the Scripture nor from other than them. He neither learnt from a single scholar amongst the people of the Scripture nor sit with anyone of them who knew the Arabic language nor other than them; nor did he read any written book. He never travelled anywhere before his Prophethood, except twice (Ref 2)– travelled with his uncle when was young and during that journey, neither was he out of his uncle’s sight nor did he sit with anyone from the people of the Scripture, rather those whom he travelled with were informed – by Baseerah, the monk – that he will be a Prophet due to the signs of Prophethood that manifested from him. This is why Khadeejah [may Allaah be pleased with her] married him before he was a Prophet due to that which she was informed regarding him. These affairs have been mentioned in detail elsewhere, but the intent here is to notify the reader that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] was given miracles, such as water coming out from his finger nails (Ref3), food increased until a great number of people ate from it (Ref 4) and the increase of a small amount of water until a great number of people drank from it (Ref 5). And also some of the things – in the Qur’aan- which he informed the people regarding events in the past, which none knew, and this is from that which established the proofs against the people, even though they harboured severe enmity against him and were eager to speak ill of him. All the nations knew that his people wilfully opposed him and made strenuous effort to speak ill of him, and they were able to say, “He was taught these affairs of the unseen by a human being”, but everyone knew that no human taught him. And due to this Allaah said: [تِلۡكَ مِنۡ أَنۢبَآءِ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ نُوحِيہَآ إِلَيۡكَۖ مَا كُنتَ تَعۡلَمُهَآ أَنتَ وَلَا قَوۡمُكَ مِن قَبۡلِ هَـٰذَاۖ – This is of the news of the unseen which We reveal unto you (O Muhammad ), neither you nor your people knew them before this]. [Surah Hud. Aayah 49]
Allaah [The Exalted] stated that neither the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] nor his people knew these affairs, and his people affirmed that he never learnt anything from anyone besides his people. This is why when some of them claimed that he was taught by a human, the lie became manifest to everyone. Allaah said:
فَإِذَا قَرَأۡتَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ فَٱسۡتَعِذۡ بِٱللَّهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ
إِنَّهُ ۥ لَيۡسَ لَهُ ۥ سُلۡطَـٰنٌ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ يَتَوَڪَّلُونَ
إِنَّمَا سُلۡطَـٰنُهُ ۥ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوۡنَهُ ۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم بِهِۦ مُشۡرِكُونَ
وَإِذَا بَدَّلۡنَآ ءَايَةً۬ مَّڪَانَ ءَايَةٍ۬ۙ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُفۡتَرِۭۚ بَلۡ أَكۡثَرُهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
قُلۡ نَزَّلَهُ ۥ رُوحُ ٱلۡقُدُسِ مِن رَّبِّكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لِيُثَبِّتَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَهُدً۬ى وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ
وَلَقَدۡ نَعۡلَمُ أَنَّهُمۡ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّمَا يُعَلِّمُهُ ۥ بَشَرٌ۬ۗ لِّسَانُ ٱلَّذِى يُلۡحِدُونَ إِلَيۡهِ أَعۡجَمِىٌّ۬ وَهَـٰذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِىٌّ۬ مُّبِينٌ
So when you want to recite the Qur’an, seek refuge with Allah from Shaitan (Satan), the outcast (the cursed one). Verily! He has no power over those who believe and put their trust only in their Lord (Allah). His power is only over those who obey and follow him (Satan), and those who join partners with Him (Allah) [i.e. those who are Mushrikun – polytheists]. And when We change a Verse [of the Qur’an, i.e. cancel (abrogate) its order] in place of another, and Allah knows the best of what He sends down, they (the disbelievers) say: “You (O Muhammad) are but a Muftari! (forger, liar).” Nay, but most of them know not. Say (O Muhammad) Ruh-ul-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel)] has brought it (the Qur’an) down from your Lord with truth, that it may make firm and strengthen (the Faith of) those who believe and as a guidance and glad tidings to those who have submitted (to Allah as Muslims). And indeed We know that they (polytheists and pagans) say: “It is only a human being who teaches him (Muhammad).” The tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur’an) is a clear Arabic tongue. [Surah An-Nahl. Aayaat 98-103]
There was a non-Arab slave of one of the Quraish, whom some claimed that Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] used to learn from, so Allaah clarified that this is a manifest lie, because it was impossible for that man to learn a single sentence from the Arabic Qur’aan and Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] was an Arab and did not know any other language. Neither could Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] understand anyone who spoke to him in another language nor was that man fluent in the Arabic language. Allaah [The Exalted] said: [لِّسَانُ ٱلَّذِى يُلۡحِدُونَ إِلَيۡهِ أَعۡجَمِىٌّ۬ وَهَـٰذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِىٌّ۬ مُّبِينٌ – The tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur’an) is a clear Arabic tongue]. [Surah An-Nahl. Aayah103]
Also Allaah [The Exlated] informed us that some people tried to say: [إِنۡ هَـٰذَآ إِلَّآ إِفۡكٌ ٱفۡتَرَٮٰهُ وَأَعَانَهُ ۥ عَلَيۡهِ قَوۡمٌ ءَاخَرُونَ – This (the Qur’an) is nothing but a lie that he (Muhammad) has invented, and others have helped him at it”, so Allaah said: [فَقَدۡ جَآءُو ظُلۡمً۬ا وَزُورً۬ا – Indeed, they have produced an unjust wrong (thing) and a lie]. [Surah Al-Furqaan. Aayah 4]
Then Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَقَالُوٓاْ أَسَـٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ ٱڪۡتَتَبَهَا فَهِىَ تُمۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِ بُڪۡرَةً۬ وَأَصِيلاً۬
قُلۡ أَنزَلَهُ ٱلَّذِى يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ ڪَانَ غَفُورً۬ا رَّحِيمً۬ا
And they say: “Tales of the ancients, which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.” Say: “It (this Qur’an) has been sent down by Him (Allah) (the Real Lord of the heavens and earth) Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Surah Al-Furqaan. Aayaat 5-6]
Allaah [The Exalted] clarified that this is a manifest lie that is known to his enemies, let alone his allies, because they knew that he had no one to help him in that – neither amongst his people nor in his land, and this is why Allaah said, [فَقَدۡ جَآءُو ظُلۡمً۬ا وَزُورً۬ا – Indeed, they have produced an unjust wrong (thing) and a lie]. [Surah Al-Furqaan. Aayah 4]
All the people of his country and those who wilfully opposed him knew that this was an unjust thing and a lie, and that was why not a single sensible one amongst them uttered such a thing.
They also tried to say, “Tales of the ancients, which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon”, however his people knew that he had none to dictate a book to him and thus their lie was manifested. Then Allaah [The Exalted] said:
قُلۡ أَنزَلَهُ ٱلَّذِى يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ ڪَانَ غَفُورً۬ا رَّحِيمً۬ا
Say: “It (this Qur’an) has been sent down by Him (Allah) (the Real Lord of the heavens and earth) Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful”; because indeed there are secrets in the Qur’aan which no human knew except by way of Allaah’s revelation, because Allaah alone knows the secrets in the heavens and the earth.
Then after the falsity of their statement was made known, they started disparaging his Prophethood as Allaah stated that they said:
وَقَالُواْ مَالِ هَـٰذَا ٱلرَّسُولِ يَأۡڪُلُ ٱلطَّعَامَ وَيَمۡشِى فِى ٱلۡأَسۡوَاقِۙ لَوۡلَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡهِ مَلَكٌ۬ فَيَكُونَ مَعَهُ ۥ نَذِيرًا
أَوۡ يُلۡقَىٰٓ إِلَيۡهِ ڪَنزٌ أَوۡ تَكُونُ لَهُ ۥ جَنَّةٌ۬ يَأۡڪُلُ مِنۡهَاۚ وَقَالَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا رَجُلاً۬ مَّسۡحُورًا
And they say: “Why does this Messenger (Muhammad) eat food, and walk about in the markets (like ourselves). Why is not an angel sent down to him to be a warner with him? “Or (why) has not a treasure been granted to him, or why has he not a garden whereof he may eat?” And the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.) say: “You follow none but a man bewitched.” [Surah Al-Furqaan. Aayaat 7-8]
This was a statement of his opponents who disapproved that he should buy his livelihood from the markets in which were sold food and clothing, so they said, “Why is not an angel sent down to him to be a warner with him? Or (why) has not a treasure been granted to him, or why has he not a garden whereof he may eat?” – Meaning: to suffice him from having to buy provisions from the market! So Allaah [The Exalted] said: [وَقَالَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا رَجُلاً۬ مَّسۡحُورًا – And the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.) say: “You follow none but a man bewitched.”]
Then Allaah said:[ٱنظُرۡ ڪَيۡفَ ضَرَبُواْ لَكَ ٱلۡأَمۡثَـٰلَ فَضَلُّواْ فَلَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلاً۬ – See how they coin similitudes for you, so they have gone astray, and they cannot find a (Right) Path] – Meaning: They coin similitudes for you that you are a liar, bewitched and that you transmit from others, but the lie of the lie of the one who says all of this became clear to everyone who knows you, and this why Allaah said: [فَضَلُّواْ فَلَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلاً۬ – so they have gone astray, and they cannot find a (Right) Path]. The misguided one – the who cannot find a right path- cannot find the path that will lead him to the right goal; rather his inability and lack of ability to argue truthfully is clear. [An Excerpt from Al-Jawaabus Saheeh Liman Baddala Deenul Maseeh by Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah). 1/132-134. Slightly paraphrased]
Finally, we repeat once again the fact that rebutting false beliefs, ideas and views does not necessitate bad behaviour, rather Muslims are commanded to behave well towards others.
To be continued InShaaAllaah
Ref 1: Anas [radiyallaahu-anhu] narrated that the people of Makkah asked the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] to show them a miracle, so he showed them (the miracle) of the cleaving of the moon”. [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari. Number 4867]
Ibn Mas’ood [radiyallaahu-anhu] narrated that during the lifetime of Allaah’s Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam], the moon was split not two parts; one part remained over the mountain and the other part went beyond the mountain. On that, Allaah’s Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] said, “Witness this miracle”. [Saheeh al-Bukhaari 4864]
Ref 2: He [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] travelled to Shaaam for trade on behalf of Khadeejah [may Allah be pleased with her] before they got married.
Ref 3 & Ref 5: Jaabir Bin Abdillaah [radiyallaahu-anhu] narrated , “I was with the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] and the time for the Asr prayer became due. We had no water with us except a little which was put in a vessel and was brought to the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam]. He put his hand into it and spread his fingers and then said, ‘Come along! Hurry up! All those who want to perform ablution. The blessing is from Allaah’. I saw the water gushing out from his fingers. So, the people performed ablution and drank, and I tried to drink more water (beyond my thirst and capacity), for I knew it was a blessing”. The sub-narrator said, “I asked Jaabir, ‘How any person were you then?’ He replied, ‘We were one thousand four hundred men’”. [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari 3579/5639]
Ref 4: Increase in the amount of dates in Jaabir’s garden after the Prophet went round the heap of dates and invoked Allaah for His blessings. [Saheeh al-bukhaari. Number 3580]