In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
They Spend Millions and Their Entire Lives Speculating Based On That Which They Call Psychopathy, Dark Traits, Meanness, Disinhibition, Deceptiveness, Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Egocentricity and Manipulativeness, Yet They Miss The Basis of All Evil, Which Is Kufr [Disbelief], Shirk [Polytheism, ascribing partners with Allaah] And Nifaaq [Hypocrisy in belief]!
Quote: Imaaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said:
One of the most noble and beneficial sciences is the knowledge regarding the hudood [the limits], especially the divine limits – the commands and prohibitions (ordained by Allaah and His Messenger). The most knowledgeable people are those who have the most knowledge regarding those divine limits, hence they neither include – within those limits – that which is not from them nor remove that which is included in them. Allaah [The Most High] said: [ٱلۡأَعۡرَابُ أَشَدُّ ڪُفۡرً۬ا وَنِفَاقً۬ا وَأَجۡدَرُ أَلَّا يَعۡلَمُواْ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ – The bedouins are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be in ignorance of the limits (Allah’s Commandments and His Legal Laws, etc.) which Allah has revealed to His Messenger]. [Soorah At-Tawbah’ Aayah 97]
Therefore, the most just, balanced and upright people are those who stay within the limits of the Akhlaaq, actions and the deeds legislated in the Islamic legislation- in knowledge and practice. [Al-Fawaa’id 209]
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said: Akhlaaq [i.e. manners, moral character] have limits. Transgression occurs when one goes beyond its limits and deficiency and humiliation occurs when one falls short.
The limits of Anger are: Praiseworthy bravery and having a dislike for despicable and deficient [behaviour etc.]. This is its perfection; but when one goes beyond its limits, the person transgresses and oppresses; and if his anger is deficient, he’ll behave in a cowardly manner and will not detest despicable [behaviour etc.].
The limits of Eagerness are: To obtain what suffices one’s [needs] in the worldly affairs and employ the [means] to reach them. Humiliation and a waste of [valuable time or opportunity] occurs when a person lacks eagerness; but when he goes beyond its limits, it leads to vehement greed and unpraiseworthy desire.
The limits of Envy are: [Praiseworthy] competition in seeking after perfection and not wanting the other competitor to excel you; [but] if a person goes beyond its limits, it leads to jealous animosity and oppression by way of which a person wishes that the one he envies is deprived of blessings and is eager to harm him. And if a person lacks [what is required of it], it leads to disesteem and a weakness in one’s ambition. The Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said: “There should be no envy except in two [people]: a person whom Allah has given wealth and he spends it in the right way, and a person whom Allah has given wisdom [i.e. religious knowledge] and he judges by way of it and teaches it to the others.” This type of envy [necessitates praiseworthy] competition between one another and the Haasid [i.e. the one who is envious of his or her competitor] seeks -by way of it- to be similar to the one he envies, whilst not [harbouring that] despised envy which [necessitates that he] wishes that the blessings bestowed upon the envied one should cease to exist.
The limits of Desires are: [Desires are a means] of relaxation for the heart and intellect after exerting oneself in acts of obedience and seeking to accomplish virtuous deeds. However, when a person goes beyond its limits, it leads to a strong and barely uncontrollable emotion and lewdness, and thus the person descends to the level of animals. However, when a person is lacking in desire and does not [utilised it as a means] of seeking after perfection and virtue, it leads to weakness, impotence and humiliation.
The limits of Relaxation are: It gives renewed strength to the self and strengthens one’s mental ability, in order to facilitate [him with the ability] to carry out acts of obedience and accomplish virtuous deeds, and so that one is not weakened by toil and tiredness. However, when a person goes beyond its limits, it leads to unenthusiasm, laziness, waste [of time and opportunity] and many beneficial affairs of a person are missed due to that. And when a person lacks sufficient relaxation, it harms his strength and may even become enfeebled [by way of it].
The limits of Generosity are between two extremes; when one goes beyond its limits, it leads to extravagance and squander. And when a person is lacking in generosity, it leads to miserliness and tight-fistedness.
The limits of Bravery: When a person goes beyond its limits, it leads to recklessness; and when a person lacks bravery, it leads to cowardice and weakness. Its limit is to take action during occasions in which such action is required and to refrain when not required.
The limits of Jealousy: When one goes beyond its limits, it leads to false accusation and [unjustified] evil suspicion against one who is free from blame. And when one lacks jealousy, it leads to heedlessness and a lack of giving importance to one’s honour.
The limits of Humility: When one goes beyond its limits, it leads to indignity and humiliation. And when one lacks humility, it leads to pride and boasting. Honour has limits. When a person goes beyond its limits, it leads to pride. And when a person lacks honour, it leads to humiliation and indignity.
What gives an upright balance to all these affairs? Justice provides a precise and upright balance for [all the above-mentioned qualities] and this necessitates that a person adheres to the balanced path ordained by the Islamic legislation-the path that is free from exaggeration and negligence. All beneficial affairs of the worldly life and the afterlife are based on this; rather physical well-being cannot be achieved except by way of it, because when some of the elements of the human body are distanced from its appropriate balance -either due to exceeding its limits or falls short – it loses its well-being and strength in accordance with the degree of [this imbalance]. Likewise, when those natural acts, such as sleep, staying up late at night, eating, drinking, sexual intercourse, movement, recreation, seclusion, keeping company with the people and other than that are performed with moderation – neither being excessive nor lacking in what is required – it is regarded to be [upright, appropriate, balanced]; but when a person deviates to one of the two extremes, it is regarded to be a deficiency and will have deficient end results.
And one of the most noble and beneficial sciences is the knowledge regarding the hudood [the appropriate limits], especially the divine limits-the commands and prohibitions [ordained by Allaah (The Most High) and His Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam)]. The most knowledgeable people are those who have the most knowledge regarding those divine limits, hence they neither include- within those limits- that which is not from them nor remove that which is included in them. Allaah [The Most High] said: [ٱلۡأَعۡرَابُ أَشَدُّ ڪُفۡرً۬ا وَنِفَاقً۬ا وَأَجۡدَرُ أَلَّا يَعۡلَمُواْ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ – The bedouins are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be in ignorance of the limits (Allah’s Commandments and His Legal Laws, etc.) which Allah has revealed to His Messenger]. [Soorah At-Tawbah’ Aayah 97]
Therefore, the most just, balanced and upright people are those who stay within the limits of the Akhlaaq, actions and the deeds legislated in the Islamic legislation- in knowledge and practice. [Source: An Excerpt from ‘Al-Fawaa’id page 207- 209]
Imaam Ibnul Jawzi [rahimahullaah] said:
know that desires [i.e. unrestrained or forbidden desires] urges a person towards immediate pleasures without him pondering upon its evil consequences- urges him towards short-lived pleasures, even though it is a cause of pain and harm in this life and a barrier to pleasure in the Afterlife. As for a sensible person, he keeps away from pleasures whose result will be pain and desires whose result will be regret. This is enough as praise regarding what sound intellect necessitates and a rebuke against uncontrolled desires. Know that desires [forbidden or unrestrained] can overcome a person in the different fields of study, exits him from the confines of sound reasoning and enters him into behaviour that is tantamount to madness [or folly]. It may enter affairs of knowledge and thus leads a person to oppose that which sound knowledge commands, and it may enter Zuhd and thus leads him to Riyaa.
A sensible person should know that those who are addicted to lowly desires reach a state in which they no longer enjoy themselves, but at the same time they are unable to abandon those desires, because it becomes as if it is a necessity of life. And due to this, you’ll find that alcoholics and sex addicts do not even enjoy a tenth of those desires, but they put themselves in a perilous situation that compels them to keep on returning to the act. However, if- based on clear-sightedness- the [false] beautification of those lowly desires cease, a person realise that he has exposed himself to some ruin that is contrary to well-being, a situation of grief instead of happiness and [exposed] to pain, whilst seeking after pleasure. So, he resembles an animal that was led to a trap- neither reached the thing that was utilised to lure it into the trap nor able to escape.
A person should ponder upon the fact that a human being was not created so that he can fulfil desires; rather he was facilitated [with sound knowledge based on the divine revelation and sound perception] to reflect on the consequences of his actions and perform righteous deeds for the Afterlife. An animal receives pleasure through eating, drinking and sex much more than a human being, whilst living a life devoid of reflection and concern. Therefore, it is drawn towards its desires due to being ignorant of the outcomes of its actions [i.e. it does not possess the knowledge given to humans through sound reasoning and reflection guided by the divine revelation].
A person should ponder upon the consequences of [unrestrained] desires, because many people are deprived of virtue and find themselves in a state of depravity due to it. And how many types of [unhealthy] food are there that leads to illness due to an unrestrained desire! And how many mistakes violates the honour of a person, leads to an evil mention of him as well as the guilt of sinning due to unrestrained desires, yet he still does not give thought to anything else except his desires! The best description regarding him is that of one who finds himself in a tannery, for he does not really notice its smell properly until he exits it and then realises where he was. A sensible person should imagine the dishonour that will come to him due to his desires and the harm that results from those pleasures, for indeed he will see that- in most cases- they occur as result of those desires and pleasures.
A person should think about how [the consequences of unrestrained desires and pleasures do affect] others, then he should ponder and get a hint of its end results, for indeed he will see the blameworthiness of that which is known regarding them if he were to be guilty of it. A person should reflect upon those pleasures, because [sound] intellect [or sound perception guided by the pure divine revelation] will make him realise that they are nothing more than [lowly] desires and a state of blindness.
A person should contemplate on the honour a person receives due to been given the upper hand and the humiliation found in subjugation, for indeed there is none who overcomes his desires except that his honour is strengthened; and there is none who is subjugated by his desires except that he will find humiliation and subjugation in his soul. A person should contemplate on the benefits of opposing one’s desires, such as the commendation attached to it in this worldly life, safety of the soul and safeguard of one’s honour, as well as reward in the afterlife. [Source: An Excerpt from Dhammul Hawaa’ pages 36-38. Slightly paraphrased]
The Perils of Lust And Evil Desires
Allaah [The Most High] said: [ أَفَرَءَيۡتَ مَنِ ٱتَّخَذَ إِلَـٰهَهُ ۥ هَوَٮٰهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ عِلۡمٍ۬ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ سَمۡعِهِۦ وَقَلۡبِهِۦ وَجَعَلَ عَلَىٰ بَصَرِهِۦ غِشَـٰوَةً۬ فَمَن يَہۡدِيهِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ٱللَّهِۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ – Have you seen him who takes his own lust (vain desires) as his ilah (god), and Allah knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight. Who then will guide him after Allah? Will you not then remember? [45:23]
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said: Disobedience is the cause of being in shaytaan’s captivity and a prisoner of lowly desires. A disobedient person is always in the captivity of his devil, the prison of his lusts and leadership of his desires. He is a captive and a shackled prisoner. There is neither a captive whose state of affairs is more evil than that of a captive whose captor is his worst enemy, nor is there a prison more restricted than the prison of desires, and shackles that are more restrictive than the shackles of lust; so how can a heart that is a captive and a shackled prisoner follow the path to Allaah and the home of the afterlife? How can he follow a single path when the heart is shackled and stricken with harm from every angle as a result of the [severity] of its shackles? The likeness of the heart is that of a bird; it distances from harm whenever it flies high and surrounded by harm whenever it lands. It is reported in a hadeeth: ‘’Shaytaan is a wolf to a human being.’’ And just as an unprotected sheep in the midst of wolves is quickly destroyed, likewise if there is no protection from Allaah for the slave, it is inevitable that his wolf will prey on him.
He is protected by Allaah through Taqwaah. Taqwaah is a shield and shelter from Allaah between the person and his wolf; just as it is a shield against punishment in this life and the afterlife. Whenever the sheep is closer to its shepherd, it is safer from the wolf and whenever it is distanced from the shepherd, it comes closer to being destroyed. So the sheep is more protected when it is closer to the shepherd, for the wolf only takes away the [sheep, cattle] that are distanced and far away from the shepherd.
The basis of this affair is that whenever the heart is distanced from Allaah, then harm upon it is quicker, and whenever it is comes closer to Allaah, it is distanced from harm. Being distanced from Allaah is of various levels and some are more severe than others. Being distanced from [Allaah] through disobedience is greater than being distanced from [Allaah] through thoughtlessness; being distanced from [Allaah] through bidah is greater than being distanced from [Allaah] through disobedience, and being distanced from [Allaah] through hypocrisy and shirk is greater than all of that. [Ref 1]
The Manipulative Ones Experiment With People’s Lives
Imaam Sadi [rahimahullaah] said: Allaah [The Most High] said:
[ لَقَدۡ مَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِذۡ بَعَثَ فِيہِمۡ رَسُولاً۬ مِّنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡ يَتۡلُواْ عَلَيۡہِمۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ وَيُزَڪِّيہِمۡ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحِڪۡمَةَ وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبۡلُ لَفِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ – Indeed, Allah conferred a great favour on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qur’an), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qur’an) and Al-Hikmah [the wisdom and the Sunnah of the Prophet (i.e. his legal ways, statements, acts of worship, etc.)], while before that they had been in manifest error. [3:164]
Allaah [The Most High] said:[ وَٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِذۡ كُنتُمۡ أَعۡدَآءً۬ فَأَلَّفَ بَيۡنَ قُلُوبِكُمۡ فَأَصۡبَحۡتُم بِنِعۡمَتِهِۦۤ إِخۡوَٲنً۬ا وَكُنتُمۡ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفۡرَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلنَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنۡہَاۗ كَذَٲلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَہۡتَدُونَ – And remember Allah’s Favour on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islamic Faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus, Allah makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that you may be guided. [3:103]
Allaah [The Most High] said: [ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أَكۡمَلۡتُ لَكُمۡ دِينَكُمۡ وَأَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِى وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ ٱلۡإِسۡلَـٰمَ دِينً۬اۚ – This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion]. [5:3]
Allaah [The Most High] said: [وَمَنۡ أَحۡسَنُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ حُكۡمً۬ا لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُوقِنُونَ – And who is better in judgement than Allah for a people who have firm Faith]. [3:50] Whoever utilises sound intellect to examine what the Messengers brought [i.e. the revelation] – what they commanded and guided the people to, such as knowledge and Awareness of Allaah, the worship of Allaah alone, turning to Allaah in repentance and obedience with true Faith (Islamic Monotheism) and the command to fulfil all the rights [of the people] based on courteous good will, perfecting one’s actions [i.e. based on sincerity to Allaah alone] and treating others with kindness [by sincerely seeking to benefit them though one’s knowledge, wealth or position], and that which they [i.e. Messengers] forbade; then thereafter he examines what the Mul’hidoon call to, he will know that good [and its outcomes], success, sound rectification of the hearts and deeds, [sound rectification of] the worldly affairs and [sound rectification of the religious affairs and their end results in the afterlife] are all in agreement with what the Messengers called to.
On the other hand, he will know that the call of the Mul’hidoon is designed to do away with good manners [traits, characteristics etc], whose end result is nothing but complete chaos and a state in which one goes along with lust [or evil desires of the soul] until the animals become more noble and beneficial than humans. This is no doubt their state of affairs – clearly manifested by what they are upon and what they proclaim with their tongues. Among the most amazing of affairs is that many contemporary writers and politicians seek to remedy the many social ills and try to do so do from many angles, however as for the problem of Il’haad – whose surge has carried away the majority of young people – they have not rushed to stop it by returning to sound Eemaan and certainty; rather they [i.e. the Mul’hidoon] have been abandoned to wander blindly in their misguidance and wavering in beguilement, and thus the social ills they seek to remedy gives birth to other social ills- because if the path to remedying social ills is not based on Eemaan and sound Deen, they will increase and become worse. [End of quote] [Ref 2]
Meaning of the terms Il’haad, and Mul’hid [plural (Mul’hidoon)]: The Mul’hidoon are the people of Il-haad. Ilhaad means to turn away from that which one is obligated to believe in or do. This is a general definition of Il’haad and anyone who turns away from that which is obligated upon him to believe or do, then such a person is referred to as a Mul’hid. But Il’haad is of two types: Major Il’haad and Minor Il-haad.
Complete Il’haad is to turn away from Islaam completely and that is Major Il’haad, which exits a person from the fold of Islaam, such as the Il’haad of the communists, the idol worshippers and those similar to them. Minor Il-haad does not exit a person from the Religion of Islaam, such as turning away from some actions. Allaah [The Most High] said: [وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ -And whoever inclines to evil actions therein or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste a painful torment.” [22:25] [Ref 3]
[Ref 1: An Excerpt from ‘Ad-Daa’u Wad-Dawaa’u’ page 119-120’. slightly paraphrased]; [Ref 2: An Excerpt from ‘Al-Adillatul Qawaatiq’ pages 40-41′. slightly paraphrased]; Ref 3: http://www.ajurry.com/vb/showthread.php?t=13326 http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/noor/article_1802.shtml