In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Firstly: We repeat once again the fact that rebutting false beliefs, ideas and views does not necessitate bad behaviour, rather Muslims are commanded to behave well towards others.
Allaah [The Most High] said:
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ ڪَلِمَةٍ۬ سَوَآءِۭ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ أَلَّا نَعۡبُدَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَلَا نُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُنَا بَعۡضًا أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَقُولُواْ ٱشۡهَدُواْ بِأَنَّا مُسۡلِمُونَ
–Say (O Muhammad): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims]. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 64]
Meaning: say to the people of the scripture – the Jews and Christians,
[تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ ڪَلِمَةٍ۬ سَوَآءِۭ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ – Come to a word that is just between us and you]- Meaning: Come let us unite upon the statement which all the Prophets and Messengers agreed upon and none opposes it except the obstinate and misguided. This statement is not specific to anyone of us; rather it is something that you and us should establish between us, so this is justice and fairness in debate. Then Allaah explains this and said:
[أَلَّا نَعۡبُدَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَلَا نُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا – that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him]- Meaning: We should single out Allaah in worship, devoting all love, fear and hope to Him alone, and we should not associate anyone as partner with Allaah in worship- neither a Prophet, an Angel, a Righteous Person, an Idol, a Deified image, a living or non-living thing, [وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُنَا بَعۡضًا أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ – and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allaah]; rather all obedience is to be devoted to Allah and His Messengers. [فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَقُولُواْ ٱشۡهَدُواْ بِأَنَّا مُسۡلِمُونَ – Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims]”. [Tafsir As-Sadi]
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَإِذۡ قَالَتِ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةُ يَـٰمَرۡيَمُ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصۡطَفَٮٰكِ وَطَهَّرَكِ وَٱصۡطَفَٮٰكِ عَلَىٰ نِسَآءِ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ
And (remember) when the angels said: “O Maryam (Mary)! Verily, Allah has chosen you, purified you (from polytheism and disbelief), and chosen you above the women of the ‘Alamin (mankind and jinns) (of her lifetime).” [Surah Aal Imran. Aayah 42]
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
ثُمَّ قَفَّيۡنَا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَـٰرِهِم بِرُسُلِنَا وَقَفَّيۡنَا بِعِيسَى ٱبۡنِ مَرۡيَمَ وَءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُ ٱلۡإِنجِيلَ وَجَعَلۡنَا فِى قُلُوبِ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُ رَأۡفَةً۬ وَرَحۡمَةً۬ وَرَهۡبَانِيَّةً ٱبۡتَدَعُوهَا مَا كَتَبۡنَـٰهَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ إِلَّا ٱبۡتِغَآءَ رِضۡوَٲنِ ٱللَّهِ فَمَا رَعَوۡهَا حَقَّ رِعَايَتِهَاۖ فَـَٔاتَيۡنَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنۡہُمۡ أَجۡرَهُمۡۖ وَكَثِيرٌ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ فَـٰسِقُونَ
Then, We sent after them, Our Messengers, and We sent ‘Iesa (Jesus) – son of Maryam (Mary), and gave him the Injeel (Gospel). And We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him, compassion and mercy. But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them, but (they sought it) only to please Allah therewith, but that they did not observe it with the right observance. So We gave those among them who believed, their (due) reward, but many of them are Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah). [Surah Al-Hadeed. Aayah 27]
And Allaah [The Exalted] said:
لَيۡسُواْ سَوَآءً۬ۗ مِّنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ أُمَّةٌ۬ قَآٮِٕمَةٌ۬ يَتۡلُونَ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ ءَانَآءَ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَهُمۡ يَسۡجُدُونَ
يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ وَيَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِ وَيُسَـٰرِعُونَ فِى ٱلۡخَيۡرَٲتِ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ
Not all of them are alike; a party of the people of the Scripture stand for the right, they recite the Verses of Allah during the hours of the night, prostrating themselves in prayer. They believe in Allah and the Last Day; they enjoin Al-Ma’ruf (Islamic Monotheism, and following Prophet Muhammad ) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and opposing Prophet Muhammad); and they hasten in (all) good works; and they are among the righteous. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayaat 113-114]
The great praise stated about the Messiah and his mother [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon them] is truth, and also the praise stated about those who were upon the religion of the Messiah- those who did not change his religion before the advent of Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him], or they remained upon the true religion of the Messiah [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] until Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] was sent and they believed in him. These people were believers, Muslims and rightly guided. Likewise, is the case of those who were upon the religion of Moosaa [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] and they did not change his religion until the Messiah [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] was sent and they believed in him. These people were also believers, Muslims and rightly guided.
The [latter Muslims – i.e. the Ummah of Muhammad] are those upon the middle path, neither deviating towards exaggeration nor complacency. Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَكَذَٲلِكَ جَعَلۡنَـٰكُمۡ أُمَّةً۬ وَسَطً۬ا لِّتَڪُونُواْ شُہَدَآءَ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ ٱلرَّسُولُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ شَهِيدً۬اۗ
Thus We have made you [true Muslims – real believers of Islamic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways)], a Wasat [just and the best] nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger (Muhammad) be a witness over you. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 143]
Allaah [The Exalted] also said:
وَرَحۡمَتِى وَسِعَتۡ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬ۚ فَسَأَكۡتُبُہَا لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ وَيُؤۡتُونَ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ ٱلرَّسُولَ ٱلنَّبِىَّ ٱلۡأُمِّىَّ ٱلَّذِى يَجِدُونَهُ ۥ مَكۡتُوبًا عِندَهُمۡ فِى ٱلتَّوۡرَٮٰةِ وَٱلۡإِنجِيلِ يَأۡمُرُهُم بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡہَٮٰهُمۡ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنڪَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡخَبَـٰٓٮِٕثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنۡهُمۡ إِصۡرَهُمۡ وَٱلۡأَغۡلَـٰلَ ٱلَّتِى كَانَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡۚ فَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِهِۦ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَٱتَّبَعُواْ ٱلنُّورَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ ۥۤۙ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
My Mercy embraces all things. That (Mercy) I shall ordain for those who are the pious, and give Zakat; and those who believe in Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs and revelations, etc.); those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e.Muhammad) whom they find written with them in the Taurat (Torah) (Deut, xviii, 15) and the Injeel (Gospel) (John xiv, 16) , – he commands them for Al-Ma’ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained); and forbids them from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden); he allows them as lawful At-Taiyibat [(i.e. all good and lawful) as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.], and prohibits them as unlawful Al-Khaba’ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.), he releases them from their heavy burdens (of Allah’s Covenant), and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. So those who believe in him (Muhammad), honour him, help him, and follow the light (the Qur’an) which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful . [Surah Al-A’raaf. Aayaat 156-157]
This is why those amongst the Muslims who deviate towards the doubts of the Jews and Christians are commanded to abandon such deviation and that they follow the straight path – the path which Allaah bestowed on the Prophets, the truthful ones, the martyrs and righteous, and not the path of those who have earned Allaah’s Anger, such as those Jews who disbelieved in the Messiah after having knowledge, and those who went astray such as those Christians who deviated from the path of the Messiah, exaggerated his status by worshipping him and worshipped Allaah based on ignorance.
And similar to them is the one who [ascribed to Islaam], but goes beyond bounds in avoiding impure things and thus declares impure that which has not been declared impure by Allaah and His Messenger; makes unlawful that which Allaah and His Messenger have not made unlawful, captured by the whispers of shaytaan and forbids the good things which Allaah made lawful for the Muslims, such as the one who holds the opinion that if impurity is removed and there is nothing remaining of it, then the place it was found is still impure if the impurity was not removed by that which has been prescribed as a condition for its removal such as water or other than it; or he holds that good water and other good liquids that have not been affected by something filthy is unlawful merely due to the reason that they have come into contact with some filth. [Ref 1. See detail about the ruling on water at the end of this article]
And even worst is the affair of those who excommunicate Muslims who oppose them, as is the view of many of ahlul bidah amongst the Raafidha, the Khawaarij and other than them, so if others eat from their utensils, they declare it impure. [Ref 2. See – at the end of this article- details about the falsehood of the khawaarij and Raafidha, as well as the fiqh regarding utensils]
As for that which many people do [without any sound proof provided by a scholar from the texts of the sharee’ah], such as one who commands a menstruating woman that she must change or wash the first clothing she wore whilst she was on her menses, or forbids a person who is in a state of Janaabah from eating or drinking until he takes a shower (or bath), these opinions are often that of those who resemble those Jews who went astray; rather they resemble the Samaritans. [Ref 3. See at the end of this article regarding the extremism of those Jews who went astray after rejecting the path of the Messiah]
As for those who resemble the Christians [i.e. those Christians who became misguided after abandoning the path of the Messiah and disbelieved in Muhammad], it is for example the affair of the one who has a good suspicion regarding that which is impure, such as those who are in toilets – places of the devils and impurity – and defiled with urine. He neither performs wudhu nor does he take a bath or shower after being in a state of Janaabah, nor does he perform the Salaah, or he prays without wudhu, whilst knowing that it is known by necessity in the religion that the five daily prayers are obligated on every person, that one has to make Wudhu if he is a state of Hadath and should take a bath when in a state of Janaabah, and cannot perform Tayammum when he is able to make wudhu. [An Excerpt From Al-Jawaabus Saheeh Liman Baddala Deen Al-Maseeh. 1/204-207. Slightly paraphrased]
Finally, we repeat once again the fact that rebutting false beliefs, ideas and views does not necessitate bad behaviour, rather Muslims are commanded to behave well towards others.
To be continued InShaaAllaah
Ref 1: The Ruling On Water:
Narrated Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī: Allāh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Water is pure and nothing can make it impure.”
Narrated Abū Umāma al-Bahīli: Allāh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Water cannot be rendered impure by anything except something which changes its smell, taste and colour.”
If you have a bowl of water and something fell into that water and either the colour, the smell or the taste of the water changed as a consequence, this bowl of liquid can no longer be considered water, and whatever has fallen in it can either be pure or impure.
For example, if you have a bowl of water and you poured some orange squash in it, the colour of the water would become orange, the taste would change and be orange flavoured, and as a consequence, this liquid can no longer be called water. Similarly, a hundred tea bags in water will change the colour to brown, the smell and taste will be different as well, as a consequence it will be tea, not water. Even though tea and coffee are pure, the substance itself has affected the water to such a degree that the smell, taste and colour no longer resemble water, therefore it is no longer water and has changed due to something pure being added into it.
If the water has changed to such a degree that it can no longer be termed water then you cannot use it to make wuḍūʿ.
If you have a large amount of water, for example, a bath tub of water, and you drop in a small amount of squash, 100ml. This small amount will not create a significant change in the water, and neither the colour, smell or taste will change. If a small amount of a pure substance falls into the water, the consistency of the water does not change; it is still water and can be used for purification. If you have a big bath tub of water and drop something impure into it, for example, five litres of urine, the colour and the smell would be different, [and not that you would check, but the taste would also be altered]. It will become impure because the substance that fell in it was an impure substance. However, if you have a big bath tub of water and you have a small bottle sample of urine, and you get a pen and dip it into the urine and then put the pen in the bathtub, a few drops of urine will go in. But, the colour, taste and smell will not change. The three characteristics have not changed, can it be used for purification?
Narrated ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar (raḍī Allāhu ʿanhu): Allāh’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “If there is enough water to fill two pots (Qulla), it carries no impurity.” Another version has: “It does not become unclean.”
Here the scholars differ because this Ḥadith indicates when the volume of water gets to a certain amount then dropping things into it does not render it impure.
Some say if the water has reached that quantity of qullatain, then after that even if impurity falls into it, it does not become impure (i.e. if it is below the level of qullatain it is instantly considered as impure). This is not the strongest opinion but it is an opinion.
Other scholars say when water reaches that large volume, when impurity falls into it, typically, it would not change the water’s characteristics. The correct opinion however, is that when there is a small amount of water and impurity falls into it, then it is very likely that the three characteristics will change. Whereas with large amounts of water, typically they won’t. [Lessons delivered by Ustaadh Abu Mu’aadh (Taqweem Aslam – hafidhahullaah) at Troid (may Allaah preserve the brothers and their Dawah Aameen):https://www.troid.org/ibadah/salaah/taharah/2572-bulugh-al-maram-the-chapter-of-purification ]
Ref 2: Misguidance of The Raafidha and Khawaawij
The Ruling on Utensils:
Narrated Abū Thaʿlaba al-Khushni (raḍi Allāhu ʿanhu): I said “O Allāh’s Messenger! We are living in a land inhabited by the People of the Scriptures; can we take our meals in their utensils?” He said, “If you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat in theirs, but if you cannot get other than theirs, wash them and eat in them” [Agreed upon].
It is allowed under two conditions:
1.That there is no other alternative
2.You must wash it before using
Narrated ʿImrān ibn Ḥussayn (raḍi Allāhu ʿanhu): The Prophet (ﷺ) and his Companions performed wuḍūʿ [ablution] from a water skin container belonging to a polytheist woman [Agreed upon].
This Ḥadīth is an excerpt from a longer Ḥadīth. The story is that on one occasion, they were on a journey and their water ran out, so the Prophet (ﷺ) sent ʿAlī (raḍi Allāhu ʿanhu and another man to find some water. They soon came across a woman on a camel who had two water skins with her, so they asked her where the water was from, and she replied that the source of the water was a distance of 24 hours away. So they asked her to come with them to the Prophet (ﷺ). She came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and he took a small amount of water from each of the water skins, made duʿāʾ and spittled into it. Allāh put barakah in the water that he had taken out such that the whole battalion made wuḍūʿ and there was still extra to drink.
There are few examples narrated where similar miracles have taken place. In one narration, in one of the battles in Ṭabūk, they ran out of all of their provisions and the Prophet (ﷺ) asked them all to bring what they had from the small items remaining. The Prophet (ﷺ) then made duʿāʾ and the provisions were made sufficient for everybody.
What is the purpose of the narration? The vessels of the disbelievers are not permissible. But the other narration shows that he took water from the disbelieving Muslim woman.
What we understand from this, is that it is mentioned in ṣīrah, at the end of battles they would come across the war booty, and there would have been vessels present. The Muslims also used to trade in clothes with non-Muslims, and it is not mentioned in the ṣīrah that the Muslims would thoroughly wash the clothes and utensils obtained in battle and trade before using. Therefore, it indicates that the default with the clothes and utensils which are sold by the kuffār, is that they are actually pure.
Shaykh Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān says that the aṣl is that the utensils of the kuffār are, by default, pure as long as you do not know of any impurity.
However, the first narration the Prophet (ﷺ) said only if you can’t find anything else, and even then you have to wash it first. As for the ṣīrah of Abū Thaʿlaba then, and Allāh knows best, when a Ḥadīth gives a command or prohibition, as in the first Ḥadīth, the prohibition, by default equals ḥarām, but then we said that sometimes you may come across other evidence, which when put together, highlight that the command here does not intend it to be wujūb. Instead due to other evidence, it is actually mustaḥabb. It is not an outright prohibition and indicates that it is not obligatory to have to wash the items out before using; it is only mustaḥabb to wash them out.
If there is a kāfir owned restaurant which sells ḥalāl food, then you can use their utensils as you have no doubt about what has been in them since they don’t serve alcohol or pork.
Shaykh Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān mentions that if you do not know of any impurity, then the utensils and clothes of the kuffār are pure by default, and you can use them without washing; however, if you know of an impurity then you have to wash it. Therefore, the correct opinion is what the majority of the scholars say, and that is that the products of the kuffār, by default, are pure, and the only time it would be a problem is when you know they have been using it for something impure. [Lessons delivered by Ustaadh Abu Mu’aadh (Taqweem Aslam – hafidhahullaah) at Troid (may Allaah preserve the brothers and their Dawah Aameen):https://www.troid.org/ibadah/salaah/taharah/2572-bulugh-al-maram-the-chapter-of-purification ]
Ref3:Another example regarding the extremism of those Yahood who became misguided after disbelieving in the Messiah and Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon both of them and all the Prophets:https://salaficentre.com/2016/04/24/2-some-few-affairs-about-husbands-and-wives-permissible-to-have-sex-with-ones-wife-from-all-directions-behind-or-front-as-long-as-it-is-in-the-vigina-but-not-in-the-anus/