In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Firstly: We repeat once again the fact that rebutting false beliefs, ideas and views does not necessitate bad behaviour, rather Muslims are commanded to behave well towards others.
Allaah [The Most High] said:
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ ڪَلِمَةٍ۬ سَوَآءِۭ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ أَلَّا نَعۡبُدَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَلَا نُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُنَا بَعۡضًا أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَقُولُواْ ٱشۡهَدُواْ بِأَنَّا مُسۡلِمُونَ
–Say (O Muhammad): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims]. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 64]
Meaning: say to the people of the scripture – the Jews and Christians,
[تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ ڪَلِمَةٍ۬ سَوَآءِۭ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ – Come to a word that is just between us and you]- Meaning: Come let us unite upon the statement which all the Prophets and Messengers agreed upon and none opposes it except the obstinate and misguided. This statement is not specific to anyone of us; rather it is something that you and us should establish between us, so this is justice and fairness in debate. Then Allaah explains this and said:
[أَلَّا نَعۡبُدَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَلَا نُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا – that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him]- Meaning: We should single out Allaah in worship, devoting all love, fear and hope to Him alone, and we should not associate anyone as partner with Allaah in worship- neither a Prophet, an Angel, a Righteous Person, an Idol, a Deified image, a living or non-living thing, [وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُنَا بَعۡضًا أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۚ – and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allaah]; rather all obedience is to be devoted to Allah and His Messengers. [فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَقُولُواْ ٱشۡهَدُواْ بِأَنَّا مُسۡلِمُونَ – Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims]”. [Tafsir As-Sadi]
The Christians [i.e. those deviated ones whom Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah refuted] said that the Jews [i.e. those Jews who deviated] committed a severe act of disbelief because they affirmed the Trinity but denied its meaning; so Shaikhul Islaam [rahimahullaah] replied to them in brief as follows:
This is a manifest slander against those Jews. Even though those Jews are disbelievers, but their disbelief was not due to their rejection of the trinity, and had they affirmed the trinity they would have increased in their disbelief that which would increase their punishment; rather they have something in the Tawraat that which nullifies the Trinity which is not hidden except from the one who has wilfully turned away from Allaah’s revelation.
[Al-Jawaabus Saheeh Liman Baddala Deen Al-Maseeh. 2/203]
This above statement of Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] clearly shows that the upright scholars of Islaam stand firm for Justice even on behalf of those who deviated from Allaah’s revelation.
Allaah [The Exalted ] said:
وَمَا تَفَرَّقُوٓاْ إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلۡعِلۡمُ بَغۡيَۢا بَيۡنَہُمۡۚ وَلَوۡلَا كَلِمَةٌ۬ سَبَقَتۡ مِن رَّبِّكَ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ى لَّقُضِىَ بَيۡنَہُمۡۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ أُورِثُواْ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ لَفِى شَكٍّ۬ مِّنۡهُ مُرِيبٍ۬
فَلِذَٲلِكَ فَٱدۡعُۖ وَٱسۡتَقِمۡ ڪَمَآ أُمِرۡتَۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ أَهۡوَآءَهُمۡۖ وَقُلۡ ءَامَنتُ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِن ڪِتَـٰبٍ۬ۖ وَأُمِرۡتُ لِأَعۡدِلَ بَيۡنَكُمُۖ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمۡۖ لَنَآ أَعۡمَـٰلُنَا وَلَكُمۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُڪُمۡۖ لَا حُجَّةَ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمُۖ ٱللَّهُ يَجۡمَعُ بَيۡنَنَاۖ وَإِلَيۡهِ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
And they divided not till after knowledge had come to them, through selfish transgression between themselves. And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord for an appointed term, the matter would have been settled between them. And verily, those who were made to inherit the Scripture [i.e. the Taurah (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] after them (i.e. Jews and Christians) are in grave doubt concerning it (i.e. Allah’s true religion Islam or the Qur’an). So unto this (religion of Islam, alone and this Qur’an) then invite (people) (O Muhammad), and Istaqim [(i.e. stand firm and straight on Islamic Monotheism by performing all that is ordained by Allah (good deeds, etc.), and by abstaining from all that is forbidden by Allah (sins and evil deeds, etc.)], as you are commanded, and follow not their desires but say: “I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book and I am commanded to do justice among you, Allah is our Lord and your Lord. For us our deeds and for you your deeds. There is no dispute between us and you. Allah will assemble us (all), and to Him is the final return.
Regarding the statement: [وَأُمِرۡتُ لِأَعۡدِلَ بَيۡنَكُمُۖ – and I am commanded to do justice among you]– Meaning, when passing judgement in that which you differ. O people of the Scripture! Your enmity and hatred will not stop me from doing justice between you and between people who hold different views – whether amongst the people of the Scripture or other than them – by accepting that which is with them of truth and rejecting what is with them of falsehood.
[ٱللَّهُ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمۡۖ – Allah is our Lord and your Lord], Meaning: Allaah is the Lord of everyone and you are not more worthy of being His servant than us. [لَنَآ أَعۡمَـٰلُنَا وَلَكُمۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُڪُمۡۖ – For us our deeds and for you your deeds], Meaning: Good and evil. [لَا حُجَّةَ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَكُمُۖ – There is no dispute between us and you], Meaning, after the realities have been manifested and thus truth is made clear as opposed to falsehood, guidance made clear as opposed to misguidance; then there remains no room for debate and disagreement, because the aim behind debate is to clarify and distinguish truth from falsehood, so that the guided one is guided by way of it and the evidence is established against the deviated one. Therefore, this Aayah does not mean that the people of the Scripture are not debated with, because Allaah [The Exalted] stated in another Aayah:
[وَلَا تُجَـٰدِلُوٓاْ أَهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ إِلَّا بِٱلَّتِى هِىَ أَحۡسَنُ – And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses)]. [Surah Al-Ankabut. Aayah 46]
[ٱللَّهُ يَجۡمَعُ بَيۡنَنَاۖ وَإِلَيۡهِ ٱلۡمَصِير – Allah will assemble us (all), and to Him is the final return], meaning: on the day of resurrection, and everyone will be rewarded based on his deeds, and the truthful one will be distinguished from the liar.
[An Excerpt from Tafseer As-Sadi. Slightly paraphrased]
Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullah] also said:
And when it is case that the true followers of the Prophets [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon them] are people of knowledge and justice, therefore the speech of the people of Islaam and the true adherents to the Prophetic Sunnah regarding the unbelievers and the proponents of religious innovations has to be based on knowledge and justice, and not conjecture and what the soul desires. And due to this the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said: “The judges are three: one will go to Paradise and two to Hell. A man who knows the truth and judges with it will enter paradise; a man who knows the truth but judges with the opposite of it will enter the fire, and a man who judges for the people based on ignorance will enter the fire’’. [Reported by Imaam Abu Dawud 3573]
And when it is the case that the one who judges between the people in [affairs] of wealth, blood [i.e. murder cases, physical violence etc] and honour will enter the hell fire if he is not a just scholar, then how about the one who passes judgements – without knowledge and justice – on creeds, religions, the fundamentals of belief, divine knowledge and the general fundamental principles related to different subject matters, as is the case with ahlul bidah wal ahwaa [the proponents of religious innovations and desires]- those who follow the ambiguous doubtful matters, abandon those explicitly clear texts that have been transmitted by the Prophets [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon them], cling to affairs that share an ambiguous similarity through mere analogy and opinions, and then present affairs whose differences can neither be reconciled nor equated, just as is the case with the unbelievers and all the proponents of religious innovation and followers of desires, who liken the creation to the Creator [i.e. they give the creation the Perfect Attributes that only belong to the Creator], and liken the Creator to the creation [i.e. by describing the Creator with the imperfect attributes of the Creation], and then they put forward an evil similitude for Allaah by way of thoughtless and confusing speech. This is because the false religion of the Christians is an innovated [or concocted] religion- innovated after the departure of the Messiah [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] and altered the religion of the Messiah through it; so they deviated from the Messiah’s [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] path and remained upon that which they innovated.
[Al-Jawaabus Saheeh 1/26-30. Slightly paraphrased]
Finally, we repeat once again the fact that rebutting false beliefs, ideas and views does not necessitate bad behaviour, rather Muslims are commanded to behave well towards others.
To be continued InShaaAllaah
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