In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of mercy.
Question to Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [rahimahullaah]:
If I enter the masjid whilst the Imam is praying the Jumu’ah prayer and sitting for the Tashahud, do I pray it as Jumu’ah prayer or Dhur?
Answer: If the late comer did not catch – from the Jumu’ah prayer- except Sujood or Tashahud, then indeed he prays Dhur and not Jumu’ah, because the prayer is caught by way of a Rak’ah due to the statement of Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam], “Whoever catches a Rak’ah of the prayer has caught the prayer”. [ref 1] And also the statement of the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam], “Whoever catches a Rak’ah of Jumu’ah prayer or another prayer, then let him add other Rak’aat [i.e. the remaining Rak’ah or Rak’aat] to it and indeed his prayer is completed”. [ref 2]
So, it is known from these two hadeeths that the one who has not caught a Rak’ah from the Jumu’ah prayer, then he has missed Jumu’ah and it is obligated on him to pray Dhur.
[Majmoo Fataawaa Wa Maqaalaat Ash-Shaykh Ibn Baaz 12/330]
When Is a Person Considered to Have Caught a Rak’ah?
The Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] said,
“When you come [to the Salaah] whilst the Imaam is in Ruku, then perform Ruku. If he is in Sujood, then perform Sujood and do not consider that you’ve caught the Rak’ah through Sujood if it was not done with Ruku”. [ref 3]
Some Statements And Actions of The Sahaabah Regarding This Affair:
Ibn Mas’ood [radiyallaahu anhu] said, “Whoever has not joined the Imaam whilst he [i.e. the Imaam] is in Ruku, he has not caught that rak’ah”. [ref 4]
Ibn Abee Shaybah, At-Tahaawi, At-Tabaraanee and Al-Bayhaqqi [rahimahumullaah] reported from Zayd Ibn Wahb [rahimahullaah], who said, “I went out with Abdullah (Ibn Mas’ood) from his house to the Masjid, and when we reached the middle of the Masjid the imaam went into Ruku; so Abdullah performed Takbeer and went into Ruku and I performed Ruku with him; then we walked whilst in that state of Ruku until we reached the row and the people raised their heads from Ruku”. Zayd said, “When the Imaam finished the Salaah, I stood up and thought that I did not catch the Rak’ah, so Abdullaah grabbed my hand and made me sit down, and said, ‘Indeed, you caught (the rakah)’”. [ref 5]
Zayd Bin Thaabit [radiyallaahu-anhu] used to say, “Whoever catches the Rak’ah before the Imaam raises his head (from ruku), then indeed he has caught the rak’ah”. [ref 6]
Abubakr Bin Abdir Rahmaan Ibn Al-Haarith Bin Hishaam [rahimahullaah] said, “Abubakr As-Siddeeq and Zayd Bin Thaabit [radiyallaahu-anhumaa] entered the Masjid whilst the Imaam was in Ruku, so they made Ruku and then moved slowly whilst in Ruku until they reached the row”. [ref 7]
Then Imaam Al-Albaanee [rahimahullaah] said, “This shows that the Rak’ah is caught by catching the Ruku”.
One Takbeer or Two When Catching The Ruku?
Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [rahimahullaah] was asked, “If a person comes to the Salaah whilst the Imaam is in Ruku, does he perform the opening Takbeer [i.e. Takbeeratul Ihraam] and the Takbeer for Ruku, or does he just perform Takbeer [for Ruku] and perform Ruku?”
Answer: What is more appropriate and safe is that he performs two Takbeers- the first one for Takbeeratul Ihraam [i.e. the opening Takbeer of the prayer] which is a pillar of the prayer and must be performed whilst standing, and the second Takbeer before going into Ruku; but if he fears that he’ll miss the Rak’ah, then the Takbeeratul Ihraam suffices and this is the most correct view of the scholars in this affair, because they are two acts of worship performed at the same time; therefore the greater one suffices.
[Majmoo Fataawaa Ibn Baaz 11/244-245]
Making Ruku outside the Saff and then moving towards the Saff
[Ref 1: Bukhaari 580 and Muslim 607]
Ref 2: Reported by Imaam An-Nasaa’ee. Declared authentic by Imaam Al-Albaanee in Irwaa Al-Ghaleel’- Hadeeth Number 622. Vol 3, page 84. Publishers: Al-Maktabah Al-Islaamee, 2nd edition 1405 AH (1985)]
[Ref 3: Reported by Imaam Al-Bayhaqqi. Imaam Al-Albaanee said that all its narrators are reliable. See Irwaa Al-Ghaleel Vol 2, page 261. Publishers: Al-Maktabah Al-Islaamee, 2nd edition 1405 AH (1985)]
[Ref 4: Reported By Bayhaqqi. Declared authentic by Imaam Al-Albaanee in Irwaa al-Ghaleel Vol 2, page 262. Publishers: Al-Maktabah Al-Islaamee, 2nd edition 1405 AH (1985)]
[Ref 5: Imaam Al-Albaanee said that its chain is authentic and it has another chain in At-Tabaraanee. See Irwaa al-Ghaleel Vol 2, page 263. Publisher: Al-Maktabah Al-Islaamee, 2nd edition 1405 AH (1985)]
[Ref 6: Repoeted by Bayhaqqi. Imaam Al-Albaanee said that Its chain is Jayyid. See Irwaa Al-Ghaleel Vol 2, page 263. Publisher: Al-Maktabah Al-Islaamee, 2nd edition 1405 AH (1985)]
[Ref 7: Reported by Al-Bayhaqqi. Imaam Al-Albaanee said that its chain is Hasan. See Irwaa Al-Ghaleel Vol 2, page 264. Publisher: Al-Maktabah Al-Islaamee, 2nd edition 1405 AH (1985)]