In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Imaam Maalik [rahimahullaah] said:
May Allaah curse Amr Ibn Ubaid, for indeed he innovated this innovation from Al-Kalaam. If Kalaam was knowledge, the companions of the Messenger and the Taabi’een would have spoken about it just as they spoke about rulings and laws of the religion, however it is falsehood and leads to falsehood.
Dhammul Kalaam by Al-Harwee 5/73
Indeed, the heretical Raafidah are well known for their wretched state of affairs due to the hatred they harbour in their hearts against the Sahaabah [radiyallaahu-anhum]. They are well known for their vile false accusations against Mu’aawiyah and others amongst the Sahaabah [radiyallaahu-anhum]. Therefore, we’ll suffice with the statement of Imaam Al-Laalikaa’ee [rahimahullaah] who reported that Imaam Maalik [rahimahullaah] said:
Whoever curses the companions of Allaah’s Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] has no right to the war booty. Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] said: [لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ ٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُخۡرِجُواْ مِن دِيَـٰرِهِمۡ وَأَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ يَبۡتَغُونَ فَضۡلاً۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرِضۡوَٲنً۬ا – (And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants, who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking Bounties from Allah and to please him(Surah Al-Hashr. Aayah 8)]. These are the companions of the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] who migrated with him. Then Allaah said: [وَٱلَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُو ٱلدَّارَ وَٱلۡإِيمَـٰنَ – And those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith]. These are the Ansaar. Then Allaah said: [وَٱلَّذِينَ جَآءُو مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٲنِنَا – And those who came after them say: Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith]. Therefore, the war booty is for these three [categories of people]– whoever curses the companions of the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] is not counted amongst [these people] and he has no right to the war booty. [Ref A]
Brief Acquaintance With The Noble Companion Mu’aawiyah Bin Abee Sufyaan [radiyallaahu-anhumaa]
As for Ed Husain – ex-member of the khaarijites of Hizb at-Tahreer and now an Averroist- he praises Mu’aawiyah [radiyallaahu-anhumaa], but then makes a claim without providing a single proof. He claims that the noble companion Mu’aawiyah Bin Abee Sufyaan [radiyallaahu-anhumaa] “Held sessions of debate and discussion in court on history, theology and philosophy”. Indeed, the burden of proof is upon the claimant and we wait for Ed Husain – Mr Averroist – to provide proof for his claim that this noble companion entertained philosophy, because it is well known that the Salafus Saaleeh [pious predecessors] did not engage in ilmul kalaam. Shaikh Shamsuddeen Al-Afghaanee As-Salafi [rahimahullaah] said:
Allaah [The Most High] guided mankind though Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] and though what he brought of clear manifest evidences and guidance-a guidance that could not be described by those who were proficient in giving descriptions and surpassed the knowledge of those with great perception. So, though this guidance that was given to the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi- wasallam], Allaah [The Most High] opened the eyes of the blind ones, the ears of the deaf ones and the hearts of the heedless ones. Allaah [The Most High] united them upon one religion-[the religion of Islamic monotheism; Ibraaheem’s [alayhis-salaam] religion of pure monotheism]-after they had been in complete disunity, enmity towards one another, upon destructive and corrupt creeds. Allaah united their hearts and they became true brothers in Islaam by way of this great blessing. And thereafter everything that was worshiped besides Allaah-such as graves, trees, stones, graven images, idols etc- ceased to exist and all worship was carried out for Allaah (alone).
The people followed the true Religion of Islamic monotheism; they worshipped Allaah alone and established worship sincerely for Allaah, except those whom Allaah willed that they were to remain as people of polytheism, hypocrisy and followers of the altered and distorted previous scriptures. The darkness of shirk was dispelled and the banner of Tawheed was raised in the lands-amongst the Arabs and non-Arabs.
Allaah [The Most High] took away the soul of His Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallaam], whilst Islaam was established and in authority-superseding all other ways of life and creeds. Then the rightly guided khulafaa of the Messenger continued upon this path until the two powerful and great nations at the time-Rome and Persia-ended up in humiliation, degradation and in a state of fear after they had been in a state of security, and thus Caesar was restricted and besieged, and khosrau was subdued and destroyed.
So when the enemies of Islaam saw that they were unable to do away with this religion, they implanted their disbelieving agents within Islam, who pretended to be Muslims in order to foment confusion, trials and tribulations; and in order to spread shirk by exaggerating the status of the pious people and exalting their graves with [beliefs and practices] that were not ordained by Allaah.
So, this Ummah was put to trial through the plots of the [atheist, heretic and hypocrite] Abdullaah Bin Saba, who claimed Uloohiyyah [i.e. the right to be worship] for Ali Ibn Abee Taalib [radiyallaahu- anhu]. Abdullaah Bin As-Sabah’s followers were known as the Saaba-iyyah, and later on they were known as the rawaafid (shiites), the ismaaliyyah (shittes), the nusayriyah (shiites) and other than them amongst the Baatiniyyah. They used to worship the graves and the dead, and they used to build places of worship and domed [shaped] shrines upon these graves. So, by way of this they revived the practices of the Yahood, the Nasaaraa and the idol worshippers, and thus the practices of the worshippers of graves in this Muslim Ummah manifested itself in actions that were carried out by the rawaafid (shiites).
Secondly: The books of Greek philosophy that contained the ideas of grave and idol worship were translated into Arabic, so many of those who attributed themselves to Islam busied themselves with these books, such as the likes of Al- Faraabee (a) Ibn Sinaa Al-Hanafi (b) Naseer At- Toosee the advocator of disbelief and shirk (c) and other than them amongst those who played tricks with Islaam, just as Paul played tricks with Christianity.
They were influenced by the ideas of the Greek Philosophers, such as the creed of grave worship, so they became callers to grave worship through Greek Philosophy. The practices of these people was rife within the ranks of the people of rhetoric amongst the Hanafi Maatooreediyyah (d) and the Ash-ariyyah Kullaabiyyah due to busying themselves with the Books of the Philosophers; so they were influenced by the creed of grave worship. They became callers to grave worship and callers to the creed of the Jahmiyyah at the same time, such as the likes of Taftaazaanee Al-Hanafi [The Philosopher of the Maatooreediyyah and Grave worshipers] and Jurjaanee Al-Hanafi [a caller to superstition]
[a] Al-Faraabee: Al-Faraabee said that Philosophy is more perfect than Prophet hood. Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said about him: “Misguided, a disbeliever’’. Ibn Sinaa adopted his books and ideas of disbelief. [For further details concerning Al- Faraabee, See Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 2/67—86] [Dar At-Ta’aarud 1/10] [Ighaathatul Luhfaan 2/372-373].
[a] Ibn Sinaa: Imaam Ibnu Salaah (rahimahullaah) said about him, “He was a devil amongst the human devils.’’ [See Fataawaa Ibn Salaah 1/209] [Also see: ‘Ar-Radd Alal Mantaqiyyeen’ of Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah 278-279] [‘Ighaathatul Luhfaan’ of Imaam Ibnul Qayyim 2/373-380] [Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah’ of Imaam Ibn Katheer 12/43]
[b] Naasir At-Toosee: He was a magician and a minister of the Tartars. He rejected the ‘resurrection’. For further details, see: As-Sawaa-iq Al-Mursalah of Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) 2/790; 3/1077-1078
[C]Followers of the Jahmi Abu Mansoor Al- Maatooreedi Al-Hanafi [For further details, see the Book of Shaikh Shamsud-deen al-Afghaanee titled: ‘Al-Maatooreediyyah’ 1/205—376] [Re 1]
Shaikh Abdul Waahid Abu Khadeejah [hafidhahullaah] quotes:
The Tabi’ī who said: “I do not know which of the two blessings of Allah upon me is greater: that He guided me to Islam or that He saved from [following] these desires?!”
Statements of The Salafus Saaleh [Pious Predecessors] And The Upright Scholars Eegarding Ilmul Kalaam
Imaam Maalik [rahimahullaah] said,
“May Allaah curse Amr Ibn Ubaid, for indeed he innovated this innovation from Al-Kalaam. If Kalaam was knowledge, the companions of the Messenger and the Taabi’een would have spoken about it just as they spoke about rulings and laws of the religion, however it is falsehood and leads to falsehood. [Ref 2]
Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee [rahimahullaah] said,
“Ilmul Kalaam is ignorance”. Imaam Abu Yusuf [rahimahullaah] said, “Ilmul kalaam is ignorance and to be ignorant of Ilmul Kalaam is knowledge”. [Ref 3]
Yoonus Ibn Abdil A’laa (rahimahullaah) said, “I heard Ash-Shaafi’ee (rahimahullaah) saying, ‘It is better for a man to be put to trial with everything that Allaah has forbidden except Shirk than looking into (or engaging himself in) ilmul kalaam; for indeed I have come across affairs from the proponents of ilmul kalaam that which I never thought I would come across’”. [Ref 4]
Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaah) said,
“I am neither a person of Ilmul Kalaam nor do I recognize Ilmul Kalaam in anything. (I only recognize) that which is found in the Book of Allaah or in the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam)”. [Ref 5]
Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaah) also said,
“Do not sit with the proponents of ilmul kalaam even if they defend the Sunnah”. [Ref 6]
A man asked Qaasim Bin As-Sallaam [rahimahullaah] about Ilmul Kalaam, so he said to him, “Indeed, your Lord has guided to the path of uprightness and to the path of truth. Allaah [The Exalted] said:
فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً
(And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayah 59]
Do you not have what suffices in what your Lord guided you to regarding His speech and the Sunnah of His Prophet, so that you do not return to your opinion and thus become destroyed! Indeed, your Lord has forbidden you from speaking about His Essence and Attributes, except that which He has made know to you. [Ref 7]
Ibn Aqeel [rahimahullaah] said, “There is none more harmful on the sharee’ah than the innovators of the people of kalaam [i.e. the people of philosophical rhetoric] and the ignorant soofees”. [Ref 8]
Question to Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee [hafidhahullaah]:
May Allaah reward you with good; this is also a question from the brothers who are present, saying: Assalaamu Alaykum Warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuhu. Virtuous Shaikh, is it permissible for me to learn [or study] the knowledge of philosophical logic? Benefit me [i.e. with a response] and may Allaah [The Exalted] reward you with good.
Answer: The knowledge of philosophical logic is a corrupt knowledge and the Salaf- by way of consensus- declared that it is Haraam [forbidden] to study it due to the misguidance and disgustingly evil consequences within it. Shaikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said, “Neither does a dull-witted person benefit from it nor is an intelligent person in need of it”. An intelligent person is not in need of it because he is sensible in himself, in his natural disposition and intellect; and a dull-witted person does not benefit from it. Even if he studied all the books of philosophical logic, he will not benefit from it. Shaikh Albaani [rahimahullaah] used to debate against the scholars of philosophical logic and they used to be like children in his presence, yet he never studied philosophical logic; rather Allaah granted him [sound] speech and [Sharee’ah] knowledge, and there is no proof stronger than the proofs of the Kitaab [i.e. the Qur’aan] and the [authentic] Sunnah. The people of philosophical logic are always defeated [or overwhelmed]. By Allaah, regardless how much they [utilise] philosophical speech and how strong they are in philosophical logic, they are defeated [or overwhelmed] in the presence of the methodology of the Salafus Saaleh [which is] founded on the Book [i.e. the Qur’aan] and the [authentic] Sunnah. [Ref 9]
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee [hafidhahullaah] also said:
The final affair of Ahlul Kalaam [the proponents of theological rhetoric] are a state of doubt and confusion, and the final affair of Ahlut Tasawwuf [the people of the Sofee paths] are a state of wild irrational behaviour and false claims. Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said, “And because of this, the innovators of Ahlul Kalaam [proponents of theological rhetoric] have something of resemblance to the Yahood and the innovators in acts of worship have something of resemblance to the Nasaaraa. The final affair of ahlul kalam are a state of doubt and confusion and the final affair of the innovators in acts of worship are a state of wild irrational behaviour and false claims. That is because these ones [i.e. ahlul kalaam] deny the truth and thus it leads them to doubt and those ones [i.e. innovators in acts of worship] believe in falsehood and it leads them to a state of wild irrational behaviour. These ones [i.e. ahlul kalam] are like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with a great wave topped by a great wave, topped by dark clouds, darkness, one above another; and those ones [i.e. innovators in acts of worship] are like a mirage in a desert, the thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it and finds it to be nothing”. [Ref 10]
The Consequences of Conjecture And Desires
[إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهۡوَى ٱلۡأَنفُسُۖ – They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire].
Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq Al-Badr [hafidhahullaah] said: The one deprived of sound Eemaan and the sound creed sent down as revelation by Allaah- The Lord of the Aalameen, then his affair is one of two: Corruption in Knowledge or Corruption in his Intent– corruption in knowledge occurs as a result of following conjecture and corruption in one’s intent occurs as a result of following desires, or the person may combine both of them.
Another benefit derived from this is that the rectification or well-being of a person cannot be attained except by way of two affairs: Upright Knowledge and Upright Intent. This is why Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said in Miftaah Daarus Sa’aadah that a person is in need of two things: “Sound Knowledge by way of which he is rightly guided and lofty aspiration by way of which he is urged towards that”. That is because it maybe that a person has beneficial knowledge but not sound intent and aspiration, therefore one cannot be upright except by way of upright knowledge and intent. Sound knowledge is corrupted through following conjecture and sound intent is corrupted through following the desires of one’s soul. [Ref 11]
Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [rahimahullaah] said:
There is nothing- based on what I can see or what I hold – more harmful to the Muslims in their creed than Ilmul Kalaam and philosophical logic. Many of the senior scholars of philosophical rhetoric affirmed – at the end of their lives – that they wished to die upon the religion [i.e. the religion that is in conformity with what is found in the Qur’aan, authentic Sunnah and understanding of the pious predecessors] and return to their natural disposition [i.e. Islaam as revealed in the authentic texts]. Shaikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said, “The ones it is feared for the most that they will fall into misguidance are those scholars of philosophical rhetoric at the intermediate level, because those who did not engage in it were safe from its evils; and those who engaged in it and reached a high level became acquainted with its corruption and falsity, and thus left it”. He [Shaikhul Islaam] spoke the truth, for this is what is feared in every affair of knowledge. It is what is feared for the ones at the intermediate level in knowledge- those who are exploring the path [or are in the path of study], because indeed they consider themselves as ones who have entered into affairs of knowledge and do not leave the affair to others [i.e. they enter into affairs that are above their ability to deal with], whilst – in reality- they have not reached the highest level in knowledge and are not grounded; so they become misguided and misguiding others. [Ref 12]
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee [may Allaah preserve him] also said: Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:
The people in their pursuit of knowledge and religion have two innovated paths and a path legislated in the Sharee’ah. The path of the Islamic legislation is to look at that which the Messenger brought, utilise it as evidence and act upon that which it necessitates; therefore, there has to be knowledge based on that which he [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] came with and to act upon it, and only one of them is not enough. This path is built upon the sound intellectual proofs and the sound proofs that are based on absolute certainty [in conformity with the revelation], for indeed the Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] clarified the sound intellectual proofs whose limits are determined by the [infallible] divine texts and the Messengers clarified the sound rational proofs which the people are in need of, just as Allaah put forth in the Qur’an every kind of similitude. This is the straight path which Allaah commanded His servants to ask Him to guide them to.
As for the two innovated paths, one of them is the path of the people of innovated theological speech and views, for indeed there is much falsehood in this. Many of its people become negligent in the deeds commanded by Allaah and His Messenger, so they remain upon corruption in knowledge and deeds. These people stray towards false Judaism.
The second is the path of people who employ ways of strengthening the soul, the people of the Soofi paths and innovated acts of worship. These ones stray towards false Christianity, because they say that if a person purifies his soul based on the manner in which they have stated, then the sciences of the religion will come to him in abundance without learning. The acts of worship of many amongst these people are innovated; rather they are in opposition to that which the Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] came with and thus they remain upon corruption in their deeds and corruption due to deficiency in knowledge, since they do not know what the Messenger came with. These people often malign one another and every group speaks ill against the other, whilst each of them claims to be following the Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam]; however, what the Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] came with is neither in agreement with what these ones say and what those ones say. Allaah said:
مَا كَانَ إِبۡرَٲهِيمُ يَہُودِيًّ۬ا وَلَا نَصۡرَانِيًّ۬ا وَلَـٰكِن كَانَ حَنِيفً۬ا مُّسۡلِمً۬ا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
Ibrahim (Abraham) was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism – to worship none but Allah Alone) and he was not one who associated partners to Allaah in worship. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 67]
Neither the Messenger of Allaah [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] nor his companions were upon the path of the people of religions innovations amongst the proponents of Theological Rhetoric and Views, nor upon the path of the people of religious innovations amongst the proponents of innovated worship and Soofiyyah; rather he was upon that which Allaah sent him with based on the Qur’aan and Sunnah. [Ref 13]
We wait for Ed Husain to provide authentic sources to prove that the noble companion Mu’aawiyah Bin Abee Sufyaan [radiyallaahu-anhumaa] entertained philosophy.
Read more here about Ilmul kalaam:
To be continued InShaaAllaah
[Ref 1: Excerpt from Juhoodu Ulamaa Al-Hanafiyyah Fee Ibtaal Aqaa’id Al-Qubooriyyeen. Vol 1. Page 19-25]
[Ref 2: Dhammul Kalaam by Al-Harwee 5/73]
[Ref 3: Aqeedah Ash-Shaafi’ee. Page 87. http://al-badr.net/sub/228 ]
[Ref 4: Aqeedah Ash-Shaafi’ee. Page: 86]
[Ref 5: Source: Quoted in ”An-Nahjul Aqwaa. Introduction by Shaikh Saaleh Al-Fawzaan and Shaikh Abdul Azeez Aala Shaikh. page: 126]
[Ref 6: An-Nahjul Aqwaa’ with the introduction of Shaikh Fawzaan and Shaikh Abdul Azeez Aala Shaikh. Page: 127
[Ref 7: Reported by Al-Ajlee in Dhammul Kalaam 1/85]
[Ref 8: As-Sawaa-iq Al-Mursalah Alal Jahmiyyah Wal-Mu-attilah 4/1346]
[Ref 9: An Excerpt from Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm page 347. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 10: Al-Mukhtaaraat Al-Bahiyyah Min Kutub Shaikhil Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah. Page 281. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 11: An Excerpt from Sharh Kitaab At-Tawheed. Lesson 4]
[Ref 12: Sharh Hilyati Taalibil Ilm page 28. paraphrased]
[Ref 13: Al-Mukhtaaraat Al-Bahiyyah Min Kutub Shaikhil Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah. 290-291. Slightly paraphrased]