In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Aadam [alayhis salaam]
Allaah [The Most High] said that Aadam and Hawwaa [alayhimas salaam] said:
[رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَتَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرِينَ – Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers]- Meaning: Indeed, we committed the sin You forbade us from committing; we have harmed ourselves by committing the sin and have fallen into that which is a cause of loss unless you forgive us, wipe away the consequences of the sin and the punishment attached to it; grant us mercy by accepting our repentance and [free us from the calamity, harms etc] of the likes of these mistakes. So, Allaah forgave them just as Allaah stated:
وَعَصَىٰٓ ءَادَمُ رَبَّهُ ۥ فَغَوَىٰ
ثُمَّ ٱجۡتَبَـٰهُ رَبُّهُ ۥ فَتَابَ عَلَيۡهِ وَهَدَىٰ
Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance. [Surah Tahaa. Aayaat 21-22]
Aadam attained success through five affairs: Acknowledgement of his sin, showed regret, blamed himself, hasten towards repentance and did not lose hope in Allaah’s Mercy. And Iblees was condemned to wretchedness through five affairs: He did not acknowledge his sin, he was not regretful, he did not blame himself, rather he blamed his Lord; he did not repent and he lost hope in Allaah’s Mercy.
[Fiqhul Ad’iyah Wal adkaar vol 4/343-346]
Nooh [alayhis salaam]
Allaah [The Most High] said that Nooh[alayhis salaam] said:
قَالَ رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوۡمِى كَذَّبُونِ
فَٱفۡتَحۡ بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَهُمۡ فَتۡحً۬ا وَنَجِّنِى وَمَن مَّعِىَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
He said: “My Lord! Verily, my people have belied me. Therefore judge You between me and them, and save me and those of the believers who are with me. [Surah Ash-Shu’araa. Aayaat 117-118]- Meaning: Judge between me and them – a judgement of Yours by way of which You’ll destroy the deniers and inflict punishment against those who disbelieve in You – those who wilfully deny that you alone have the right to be worshipped and belie Your Messenger. And he [i.e. Nooh] asked Allaah to save him and the people of Eemaan with him. Indeed, Allaah [The Exalted] clarified that He answered the supplication of His slave and Prophet, Nooh [alayhis salaam]. Allaah said:
فَأَنجَيۡنَـٰهُ وَمَن مَّعَهُ ۥ فِى ٱلۡفُلۡكِ ٱلۡمَشۡحُونِ
ثُمَّ أَغۡرَقۡنَا بَعۡدُ ٱلۡبَاقِينَ
إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَةً۬ۖ وَمَا ڪَانَ أَكۡثَرُهُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
And We saved him and those with him in the laden ship. Then We drowned the rest (disbelievers) thereafter. Verily, in this is indeed a sign, yet most of them are not believers. And verily! Your Lord, He is indeed the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful. [Surah Ash-Shu’araa. 119-122]
[An Excerpt from Fiqhul Ad’iyah Wal-Adkaar. Vol 4. Page 348]
Ibraaheem [alayhis salaam]
Allaah [The Most High] informed us of a supplication of Prophet Ibraaheem [alayhis salaam] in Surah Ash-Shu’araa Aayaat 83-89:
[ رَبِّ هَبۡ لِى حُڪۡمً۬ا وَأَلۡحِقۡنِى بِٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ – My Lord! Bestow Hukman on me, and join me with the righteous]- Meaning: Grant me abundant knowledge through which I will acquire knowledge of the rulings on what is halaal and haraam, and utilise it as a means of judging between the people. Place me together with the righteous people in this Dunyaa and Aakhirah; place me in the same station and status together with those Prophets who came before me.
[وَٱجۡعَل لِّى لِسَانَ صِدۡقٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرِينَ – And grant me an honourable mention in later generations]- Meaning: That I become one who is mentioned with good amongst the people who come after me.
The scholars say that indeed Allaah did answer Ibraaheem’s [alayhis salaam] supplications by granting him knowledge and wisdom which made him one of the most virtuous messengers; placed him in the same station with his brothers amongst the Messengers, one who is loved, accepted and praised amongst all the people who received revelation [i.e. nations of the Prophets who came after him].
[ وَٱجۡعَلۡنِى مِن وَرَثَةِ جَنَّةِ ٱلنَّعِيم- And make me one of the inheritors of the Paradise of Delight]- Meaning: Amongst those whom You will grant paradise and blessed with entry into paradise. Indeed, Allaah accepted his supplication by raising his status in the gardens of paradise.
وَلَا تُخۡزِنِى يَوۡمَ يُبۡعَثُونَ
يَوۡمَ لَا يَنفَعُ مَالٌ۬ وَلَا بَنُونَ
إِلَّا مَنۡ أَتَى ٱللَّهَ بِقَلۡبٍ۬ سَلِيمٍ۬
And disgrace me not on the Day when [all creation] will be resurrected; the Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail; except him who brings to Allah a clean heart.
Meaning: O Allaah! Grant me [safety] from disgrace on the day of resurrection- the day in which all humankind will be resurrected, the first to the last of them; help me on that day in which neither wealth nor children will benefit a person except those with a clean heart. This is what will benefit a person, save him from Your punishment, bring a noble reward and a beautiful final abode.
The Clean Heart: It is the heart that is free of Shirk, doubt [in Allaah’s religion], love of evil, free from persistence upon bidah and sins. Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said, “The clean heart is the heart that is free from Shirk, [blameworthy] hatred, malice, [blameworthy] envy, vehement greed, pride, [blameworthy] love of the worldly life [i.e. it prefers the worldly life over the Aakhirah] and love of leadership [Ref 1]. It is the heart that is free from every evil that distances it from [obedience] to Allaah, free from every Shubhah – [i.e. beliefs, views, opinions etc that resemble the truth but are falsehood in reality] – that opposes what Allaah has stated; free from every desire that opposes Allaah’s command; free from every want that contradicts what Allaah wants from a person and free from every obstacle that obstructs a person from [obedience to Allaah]. This clean heart is in a paradise of this quick passing worldly life [i.e. due to the pleasure derived from obedience to Allaah, love of Allaah, fear of Allaah, hope in Allaah etc]; and it will be in paradise in the life of the grave [i.e. bliss of the grave] and in paradise in the Hereafter. This heart cannot completely obtain safety until it is safe from five affairs: Safe from shirk which is a nullifier of Tawheed; safe from bidah which is a nullifier of the authentic Sunnah; safe from evil desire which is a nullifier of obedience to Allaah’s command; safe from heedlessness which is a nullifier of remembrance of Allaah and safe from vain desires which is a nullifier of obedience to Allaah and His Messenger, and sincerity. These five affairs [i.e. shirk, bidah, evil desires, heedlessness and vain desires] veils a person from [the path of] Allaah and under each of them there are many other affairs that cannot be enumerated. [Ref 2]
We ask Allaah- The Most Kind- to put us together with the righteous people and include us amongst those who will inherit the gardens of bliss in paradise, and that He does not disgrace us on the day humankind is resurrected – the day in which neither wealth nor children will benefit, except the one who comes to Allaah with a clean heart.
[An Excerpt from ‘Fiqhul Ad’iyah Wal Ad’kaar’ Vol 4. Pages 359-36]
Ref 1: Further read: https://salaficentre.com/2019/09/hadeeth-verily-the-example-of-this-world-and-myself-is-that-of-a-rider-who-seeks-shade-under-a-tree-then-he-moves-on-and-leaves-it-behind/ https://salaficentre.com/2019/08/difference-between-one-whose-leadership-in-religion-is-to-benefit-others-through-righteous-example-and-the-one-who-wants-it-to-control-the-people/ https://salaficentre.com/2020/02/the-limits-of-anger-eagerness-envy-desires-relaxation-generosity-bravery-jealousy-humility-and-honour-by-imaam-ibnul-qayyim-rahimahullaah/
Yoosuf [alayhis salaam]
Allaah [The Most High] stated that Yoosuf [alayhis salaam] said:
رَبِّ قَدۡ ءَاتَيۡتَنِى مِنَ ٱلۡمُلۡكِ وَعَلَّمۡتَنِى مِن تَأۡوِيلِ ٱلۡأَحَادِيثِۚ فَاطِرَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَنتَ وَلِىِّۦ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأَخِرَةِۖ تَوَفَّنِى مُسۡلِمً۬ا وَأَلۡحِقۡنِى بِٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ
My Lord! You have indeed bestowed on me of the sovereignty, and taught me the interpretation of dreams; The (only) Creator of the heavens and the earth! You are my Wali (Protector, Helper, Supporter, Guardian, etc.) in this world and in the Hereafter, cause me to die as a Muslim (the one submitting to Your Will), and join me with the righteous.” [Soorah Yoosuf: Ayah:101]
Regarding the statement: [أَنتَ وَلِيِّي فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ تَوَفَّنِي مُسْلِمًا وَأَلْحِقْنِي بِالصَّالِحِينَ – You [Allaah] are my Wali [Protector, Helper, Supporter, Guardian, etc.] in this world and in the Hereafter, cause me to die as a Muslim, and join me with the righteous], Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said: This supplication gathers within it a firm acknowledgement of Allaah’s Oneness [i.e Tawheed], submission to the Lord [Allaah], a manifestation of one’s need of Allaah, a declaration of one’s innocence from having a protector besides Allaah, [free is He from all imperfections], and that being enabled to die upon Islaam is the loftiest goal of the slave, and that it is [an affair] only in the hands of Allaah and not in the hands of the slave; an acknowledgement of the afterlife and seeking [to be included in the] company of those granted happiness and success.
[An Excerpt from ‘Al-Fawaa’d. page 286. slightly paraphrased]
Loot [alayhis salaam]
Allaah [The Exalted] stated that Loot [alayhis salaam] supplicated, saying:
رَبِّ نَجِّنِى وَأَهۡلِى مِمَّا يَعۡمَلُونَ
My Lord! Save me and my family from what they do. [Surah Ash-Shu’araa. Aayah 169]
This supplication teaches and guides the servants to hold on firmly to Allaah [The Exalted] and to seek Allaah’s rescue from evil deeds and statements; seek safety from its disgusting consequences, its evil and corruption, especially when evil becomes rife and the people openly commit it.
Punishment was sent upon the people. Allaah said:
إِنَّا مُنزِلُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡقَرۡيَةِ رِجۡزً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفۡسُقُونَ
وَلَقَد تَّرَڪۡنَا مِنۡهَآ ءَايَةَۢ بَيِّنَةً۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ
Verily, we are about to bring down on the people of this town a great torment from the sky, because they have been rebellious (against Allah’s Command). And indeed We have left thereof an evident Ayah (a lesson and a warning and a sign the place where the Dead Sea is now in Palestine) for a folk who understand. [Surah Al-Ankabut. Aayaat 34-35]
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّآ أُرۡسِلۡنَآ إِلَىٰ قَوۡمٍ۬ مُّجۡرِمِينَ
لِنُرۡسِلَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ حِجَارَةً۬ مِّن طِينٍ۬
مُّسَوَّمَةً عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ
فَأَخۡرَجۡنَا مَن كَانَ فِيہَا مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
فَمَا وَجَدۡنَا فِيہَا غَيۡرَ بَيۡتٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ
وَتَرَكۡنَا فِيہَآ ءَايَةً۬ لِّلَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ ٱلۡعَذَابَ ٱلۡأَلِيمَ
They [i.e. the angels] said: “We have been sent to a people who are Mujrimun (polytheists, sinners, criminals, disbelievers in Allah); to send down upon them stones of baked clay. Marked by your Lord for the Musrifun (polytheists, criminals, sinners those who trespass Allah’s set limits in evil-doings by committing great sins). So We brought out from therein the believers. But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one [i.e. Lout (Lot) and his two daughters]. And We have left there a sign (i.e. the place of the Dead Sea , well-known in Palestine) for those who fear the painful torment. [Surah Adh-Dhaariyaat. Aayaat 32-37]
Allaah [The Exlated] said:
فَلَمَّا جَآءَ أَمۡرُنَا جَعَلۡنَا عَـٰلِيَهَا سَافِلَهَا وَأَمۡطَرۡنَا عَلَيۡهَا حِجَارَةً۬ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ۬ مَّنضُودٍ۬
مُّسَوَّمَةً عِندَ رَبِّكَۖ وَمَا هِىَ مِنَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بِبَعِيدٍ۬
So when Our Commandment came, We turned (the towns of Sodom in Palestine) upside down, and rained on them stones of baked clay, piled up; marked from your Lord, and they are not ever far from the Zalimun (polytheists, evil-doers, etc.). [Surah Hud. Aayaat 82-83]
[An Excerpt from ‘Fiqhul Ad’iyah Wal Ad’kaar Vol 4. Pages 378-381]
Islam and Homosexuality: What happened in Sodom and Gomorrah? The Prophet Lot (Loot) and his Daughters: In the Bible and the Qur’an.
Shu’aib [alayhis salaam]
Allaah [The Exalted] stated that Shu’aib [alayhis salaam] supplicated saying:
رَبَّنَا ٱفۡتَحۡ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَ قَوۡمِنَا بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَأَنتَ خَيۡرُ ٱلۡفَـٰتِحِينَ
Our Lord! Judge between us and our people in truth, for You are the Best of those who give judgment. [Surah Al-A’raaf. Aayah 89]
Meaning: “Judge between us because Your Judgement contains no wrong, inequity and oppression. Aid the truth and its people, and humiliate falsehood and its people. You are the best of those who judge”. Indeed, Allaah accepted Shu’aib’s [alayhis salaam] supplication, aided him and the believers and destroyed the unbelievers. Allaah [The Exalted] said: [وَلَمَّا جَآءَ أَمۡرُنَا نَجَّيۡنَا شُعَيۡبً۬ا وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَعَهُ ۥ بِرَحۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَّا وَأَخَذَتِ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ ٱلصَّيۡحَةُ فَأَصۡبَحُواْ فِى دِيَـٰرِهِمۡ جَـٰثِمِينَ – And when Our Commandment came, We saved Shu’aib and those who believed with him by a Mercy from Us. And As-Saihah (torment – awful cry, etc.) seized the wrong-doers, and they lay (dead) prostrate in their homes]. [Surah Hud. Aayah 94]
An Excerpt from Fiqhul Ad’iyah Wal Ad’kaar vol 4. Pages 384-385
Moosaa and Haaroon [alayhimas salaam]
After Allaah [The Most High] inspired Moosaa [alayhis-salaam], appointed him a Prophet and showed him magnificent signs, he was then sent to Fir’awn – the king of Misr [Egypt]. Allaah [The Most High] said to Moosaa [alayhis-salaam]: [ٱذۡهَبۡ إِلَىٰ فِرۡعَوۡنَ إِنَّهُ ۥ طَغَىٰ- Go to Fir’aun (Pharaoh)! Verily, he has transgressed all bounds] – Meaning: Fir’awn has rebelled and transgressed all the limits in disbelief and corruption. He has become haughty in the earth, overpowered the weak, claimed Ar-Ruboobiyyah [i.e. Lordship] and al-Uloohiyyah [i.e. that he deserves to be worshipped].
This transgression of his was the cause of his destruction, but due to Allaah’s Perfect Mercy, Wisdom and Justice, He does not punish anyone until after establishing the proofs by sending Messengers. Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] knew that he was going to carry a great responsibility because he was going to be sent to an obstinate and arrogant dictator, who had no opponent in Misr [Egypt] -amongst the people- to oppose him.
Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] was by himself after he accidentally killed someone [i.e. when he accidentally killed one of Fir’awn’s people, whilst defending a man from Bani Israaeel, so Fir’awn and his chiefs were determined to kill him]; however after Allaah [The Most High] commanded him to go to Fir’awn, he obeyed Allaah’s [The Most High] command, accepted it wholeheartedly, asked Allaah [The Most High] for assistance and to facilitate him with the ability to [fulfil the task].
Allaah [The Most High] said that Moosaa [alayhis salaam] said: [رَبِّ ٱشۡرَحۡ لِى صَدۡرِى – O my Lord! My expand my heart]- Meaning: Grant me self-confidence and courage so that I can bear both verbal and physical harm, and so that I neither grieve nor become fed up due such harm; for indeed a person with an aggrieved heart is not fit to guide and invite the people to [Allaah’s guidance].
[وَيَسِّرۡ لِىٓ أَمۡرِى – And ease my task for me]- Meaning: Grant me ease in every affair I pursue and every path I intend to follow, whilst calling to your guidance; and lighten the difficulties in front of me.
The caller is granted ease when he approaches all affairs in the appropriate manner; addresses every person based on what they should be addressed with, and calls them through a path that is easier for them to understand, which will enable them to accept his speech.
[وَٱحۡلُلۡ عُقۡدَةً۬ مِّن لِّسَانِى – And make loose the knot (the defect) from my tongue, (i.e. remove the incorrectness from my speech) [That occurred as a result of a brand of fire which Musa (Moses) put in his mouth when he was an infant]; [يَفۡقَهُواْ قَوۡلِى – That they understand my speech].
Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] used to suffer from a speech impediment and it was difficult to understand his speech as the Mufassiroon have stated, just as Allaah [The Most High] said in another Aayah that Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] said: [وَأَخِى هَـٰرُونُ هُوَ أَفۡصَحُ مِنِّى لِسَانً۬ا– And my brother Haaroon (Aaron) he is more eloquent in speech than me]. Therefore, Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] asked Allaah [The Most High] to remove the speech impediment in order that what he says can be understood and the people he speaks to can clearly grasp what is intended by his speech.
[وَٱجۡعَل لِّى وَزِيرً۬ا مِّنۡ أَهۡلِى – And appoint for me a helper from my family];[ هَـٰرُونَ أَخِى- Haaroon (Aaron), my brother]; [ٱشۡدُدۡ بِهِۦۤ أَزۡرِى Increase my strength with him]-Meaning: To be my helper and my assistant in delivering the message to those whom you have sent me to deliver your message, just as Allaah [The Most High] said in another Aayah: [سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَكَ بِأَخِيكَ وَنَجۡعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلۡطَـٰنً۬ا – We will strengthen your arm through your brother, and give you both power]. [وَأَشۡرِكۡهُ فِىٓ أَمۡرِى – And let him share my task]- Meaning: Grant him prophet-hood and make him a Messenger, just as you have made me a Prophet and a Messenger.
Then Allaah [The Most High] informed us of the benefit Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] was seeking by asking for such favours, which is: [كَىۡ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيرً۬ا – That we may glorify You much]; [وَنَذۡكُرَكَ كَثِيرًا – And remember You much].
Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] knew that acts of worship and the religion revolves around remembrance of Allaah, so he asked Allaah to make his brother a partner in that – aiding and helping one another in righteousness and piety; remembering Allaah [The Most High] profusely by way of Tasbeeh [i.e. Subhaanallaah], Tahleel [i.e. laa ilaaha illal laah] and other type types of worship.
[إِنَّكَ كُنتَ بِنَا بَصِيرً۬ا- Verily! You are of us Ever a Well-Seer] – Meaning: You know our situation and weaknesses; what we can and cannot do, and our complete need of You in every affair. You see our affair more than us [i.e. you see everything and nothing escapes your sight] and you are more Merciful to us than we have for ourselves; therefore bestow upon us what we have asked You and respond to our supplication.
After Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] made these supplications and requests, Allaah [The Most High] said to him: [قَدۡ أُوتِيتَ سُؤۡلَكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ -You are granted your request, O Musa (Moses)]- Meaning: I will grant you everything you’ve asked. I will grant you courage, make your task easy and remove the speech impediment from your tongue, so that your speech is understood; and I will make your brother -Haaroon- your helper. Allaah [The Most High] said in another Aayah:
[وَنَجۡعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلۡطَـٰنً۬ا فَلَا يَصِلُونَ إِلَيۡكُمَاۚ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ أَنتُمَا وَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَكُمَا ٱلۡغَـٰلِبُونَ- And give you both power, so they shall not be able to harm you, with Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), you two as well as those who follow you will be the victors].
These requests made by Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] shows his perfect knowledge and awareness of Allaah [The Most High], his perfect discernment, perfect knowledge about affairs and perfect sincerity. That is because the caller to the path of Allaah- the one who guides the people, especially if the one being invited to the path of Allaah is from the obstinate and haughty ones, and transgressors- is need of a courageous heart and complete forbearance, in order to bear the harm he might come across. He is in need of clear speech, in order to be able to express himself to the one he intends and wishes to address. Rather, a person in such a situation [i.e. the caller] is need of clear eloquent speech in order to present the truth in a proficient manner, beautify it as much as he is able and make it appealing to the people. On the other hand, he shows the ugliness of falsehood, so as to repel people from it.
Besides this, the caller is in need of being granted ease in his task by approaching affairs in the proper manner – calling to the path of Allaah with wisdom, fine admonition and arguing in the best way. He should deal with every person whilst taking into consideration the situation of each person he addresses.
This affair becomes more accomplished when the caller has helpers and assistants, who will help him to reach this goal- because when many people speak, it will have an effect and that is why Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] made those requests. And if you examine the situation of the prophets – those sent to the people- you will discover this affair, especially the seal and most virtuous amongst them, Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam]; for indeed he [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] was at the highest peak in every perfect and good human characteristic. He had a courageous heart and was facilitated with the means of calling to Allaah. His speech was eloquent – with fine expression and explanation- and he had companions who aided him to convey the truth, and [besides the Prophets and Messengers] none can ever excel those companions of Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] after their departure from this world.
[Source: An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer kalaam al-Mannaan’. explanation of Aayaat 24-36 Surah Taahaa). Slightly paraphrased]
Sulaymaan [alayhis salaam]
Allaah [The Most High] said:
وَحُشِرَ لِسُلَيۡمَـٰنَ جُنُودُهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ وَٱلطَّيۡرِ فَهُمۡ يُوزَعُونَ
حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَآ أَتَوۡاْ عَلَىٰ وَادِ ٱلنَّمۡلِ قَالَتۡ نَمۡلَةٌ۬ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّمۡلُ ٱدۡخُلُواْ مَسَـٰكِنَڪُمۡ لَا يَحۡطِمَنَّكُمۡ سُلَيۡمَـٰنُ وَجُنُودُهُ ۥ وَهُمۡ لَا يَشۡعُرُونَ
فَتَبَسَّمَ ضَاحِكً۬ا مِّن قَوۡلِهَا وَقَالَ رَبِّ أَوۡزِعۡنِىٓ أَنۡ أَشۡكُرَ نِعۡمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَٲلِدَىَّ وَأَنۡ أَعۡمَلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا تَرۡضَٮٰهُ وَأَدۡخِلۡنِى بِرَحۡمَتِكَ فِى عِبَادِكَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ
And there were gathered before Sulaiman (Solomon) his hosts of jinns and men, and birds, and they all were set in battle order (marching forwards). Till, when they came to the valley of the ants, one of the ants said: “O ants! Enter your dwellings, lest Sulaiman (Solomon) and his hosts crush you, while they perceive not.” So he [Sulaiman (Solomon)] smiled, amused at her speech and said: “My Lord! Inspire and bestow upon me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favours which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, and admit me by Your Mercy among Your righteous slaves. [Surah An-Naml. Aayaat 17-19]
Brief Reminders From The Supplication
رَبِّ أَوۡزِعۡنِىٓ أَنۡ أَشۡكُرَ نِعۡمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَٲلِدَىَّ وَأَنۡ أَعۡمَلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا تَرۡضَٮٰهُ وَأَدۡخِلۡنِى بِرَحۡمَتِكَ فِى عِبَادِكَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِين
My Lord! Inspire and bestow upon me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favours which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, and admit me by Your Mercy among Your righteous slaves.
This is one of the most comprehensive supplications, the most suitable for Sulaymaan’s [alayhis salaam] circumstances and that which Allaah bestowed on him of mighty kingship and manifest bounty.
[رَبِّ أَوۡزِعۡنِىٓ أَنۡ أَشۡكُرَ نِعۡمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَىَّ – My Lord! Inspire and bestow upon me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favours which You have bestowed on me] – Meaning: Seeking from Allaah to bestow on him in particular the ability to be thankful due to that which Allaah bestowed upon him- the specific blessings given to him, such as enabling him to understand the speech of birds and being able to hear the speech of the ant. [وَعَلَىٰ وَٲلِدَىَّ – and on my parents]- Meaning: This shows that the blessings bestowed upon the two parents is a blessing for the child, so that is why Sulaymaan [alayhis salaam] asked his Lord to grant him the power and ability to be thankful for both the religious and worldly blessings that has been bestowed upon him and his parents – his father Dawud [alayhis-salaam] and his mother [i.e. Dawud’s wife] because she was one of the righteous and devoted worshipers of Allaah.
[وَأَنۡ أَعۡمَلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا تَرۡضَٮٰهُ – and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You]- Meaning: Grant me the guidance and ability to perform righteous deeds that are pleasing to You, due to the fact that those deeds are in conformity with Your command- sincerely for your sake, free from corruption and deficiencies. It is obligatory that one contemplates on this statement [صَـٰلِحً۬ا تَرۡضَٮٰهُ- righteous good deeds that will please You]- Meaning: This statement shows that a deed might be considered as one performed sincerely, but Allaah is not pleased because it is [either] not in conformity with His command or not performed sincerely for His Sake. Allaah is not pleased with deeds except that which is in conformity with His Sharee’ah and carried out sincerely for His sake.
[وَأَدۡخِلۡنِى بِرَحۡمَتِكَ فِى عِبَادِكَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِين- and admit me by Your Mercy among Your righteous slaves]- Meaning: When You [Allaah] take my life, put me together with the righteous amongst your slaves- the people of the highest company amongst your awliyaa. Include me amongst them, place my name with theirs and raise me in their group.
[An Excerpt from Fiqh al Ad’iyah Wal Adkaar. Vol 4. Pages 410-41. Slightly paraphrased]
Leader and Seal of The Prophets [Muhammad (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam)]
Allaah [The Most High] said:
قُلِ ٱللَّهُمَّ فَاطِرَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ عَـٰلِمَ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّہَـٰدَةِ أَنتَ تَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَ عِبَادِكَ فِى مَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُونَ
Say (O Muhammad): “O Allah! Creator of the heavens and the earth! All-Knower of the Ghaib (unseen) and the seen. You will judge between your slaves about that wherein they used to differ.” [Surah Az-Zumar. Aayah 46]
Indeed, Allaah [The Exalted] commanded His Prophet Muhammad [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] to make this supplication after rebuking the Mushrikoon due to their love of Shirk and turning away from Tawheed. The Meaning of This Supplication necessitates: O Prophet! Invoke Allaah alone and ascribe no partner with Him – the creator of the heavens and the earth, who created them when there was nothing similar to them before that. [عَـٰلِمَ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّہَـٰدَ – (Allaah), The All-Knower of the Ghaib (unseen) and the seen]- Meaning: Knower of both the secrets and what is made known. [أَنتَ تَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَ عِبَادِكَ فِى مَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُون – You will judge between your slaves about that wherein they used to differ]- Meaning in their worldly affairs and you will judge between them on the day they are returned to the hereafter and raised from their graves.
In this supplication, there is a lesson for the servants that they turn to Allaah and supplicate to Him through His perfect Names, seek His aid and assistance whilst being in a state of humility and invoking Him to repel the plots of the enemy and grant you safety against their evil. It has been reported in Saheeh Muslim from Aaisha [radiyallaahu anhaa] who said that when the Messenger of Allaah [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] used to stand up in Salaah at night, he used to begin his Salaah [i.e. after the Takbeer and before recitation of Al-Faatiha] with [the supplication]:
اللهُمَّ! رَبَّ جَبْرَائِيلَ، وَمِيكَائِيلَ، وَإِسْرَافِيلَ، فَاطِرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ، عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ، أَنْتَ تَحْكُمُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِكَ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ، اهْدِنِي لِمَا اخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِكَ، إِنَّكَ تَهْدِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ
O Allah, Lord of Jibraa’eel, Meekaa’eel and Israafeel; Creator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the unseen and the seen; You judge between Your slaves concerning wherein they differ. Guide me to the truth in that which they differ by permission, for indeed You are the One Who guides whom You will to the Straight Path.[Saheeh Muslim 770] [An Excerpt from Fiqhul Ad’iyah Wal-Ad’kaar. Vol 4. Pages 420-421. Slightly paraphrased]
One of those places [in the Qur’aan] where the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] was commanded to supplicate to Allaah as follows: [وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدۡنِى عِلۡمً۬ا – And say: “My Lord! Increase me in knowledge]. [Surah Tahaa. Aayah 114]
Imaam At-Tabariy [rahimahullaah] said that this means, “Say O Muhammad! My Lord, increase me in knowledge in addition to what You have taught me”. So Allaah commanded the Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] to ask Him for those benefits of knowledge which he does not know.
Imaam As-Sadi [rahimahullaah] said: Allaah command the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] to ask for an increase in knowledge, for indeed knowledge is something good and abundant good is something to be sought after; it is bestowed by Allaah and the path leading to it are: earnest striving, desiring for knowledge, asking Allaah, seeking Allaah’s Aid and Assistance, and declaring one’s need and poverty in Allaah’s presence in every instance. Indeed, the fact that the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] gave importance to this supplication is something well established in the [authentic] Sunnah. In a hadeeth reported by Tirmidhee and Ibn Maajah, Abu Hurairah [radiyallaahu anhu] said: The Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] used to say: [للَّهُمَّ انْفَعْنِي بِمَا عَلَّمْتَنِي، وَعَلِّمْنِي مَا يَنْفَعُنِي، وَزِدْنِي عِلْمًا – O Allaah! Benefit me through that which You have taught me; teach me what benefits me and increase me in knowledge].
Sufyaan Bin Uyaynah [rahimahullaah] said, “The Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] did not cease in increasing in knowledge till the time death”.
Also the Salafus Saaleh [pious predecessors] constantly gave importance to this supplication due to that which Sa’eed Bin Mansoor and Abd Bin Humaid [rahimahumallaah] reported that Ibn Mas’ood [radiyallaahu anhu] used to supplicate, saying:
اللهم زِدْنِي إيمَانًا وَفِقْهًا وَيَقِينًا وَعِلْمًا
O Allaah! Increase me in Eemaan, understanding, certainty and knowledge.
And it has been reported from Imaam Maalik Bin Ana’s [rahimahullaah] that he said, “The situation of the son of Aadam is that he does not know everything; the situation of the son of Aadam is that he knows and then forgets; the situation of the son of Aadam is that he should ask Allaah for knowledge to add to the knowledge he already has”.
[An Excerpt from ‘Fiqh Al-Adiyah Wal Adkaar Vol 4. Page 426-427]