In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَٱذۡكُرُواْ ٱللَّهَ فِىٓ أَيَّامٍ۬ مَّعۡدُودَٲتٍ۬ۚ فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِى يَوۡمَيۡنِ فَلَآ إِثۡمَ عَلَيۡهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلَآ إِثۡمَ عَلَيۡهِۚ لِمَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰۗ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّڪُمۡ إِلَيۡهِ تُحۡشَرُونَ
And remember Allah during the appointed Days [i.e. the three days of at-tashreeq that come after Eedul Adhaa]; but whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allah (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 203]
Imaam As-Sadi [rahimahullaah] stated:
When Allaah commanded [i.e. in the above Aayah] one to remember Him a lot, especially during those specific times that have special virtue, which is good- a means to wellbeing and righteousness, He related the situation of a person who speaks but his speech contradicts his deeds, because speech either raises or degrades a person. Allaah said:
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُعۡجِبُكَ قَوۡلُهُ ۥ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَيُشۡهِدُ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِى قَلۡبِهِۦ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ ٱلۡخِصَامِ
وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ لِيُفۡسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡحَرۡثَ وَٱلنَّسۡلَۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡفَسَادَ
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ ٱتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ أَخَذَتۡهُ ٱلۡعِزَّةُ بِٱلۡإِثۡمِۚ فَحَسۡبُهُ ۥ جَهَنَّمُۚ وَلَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمِهَادُ
And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad), in this worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents. And when he turns away, his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allah likes not mischief. And when it is said to him, “Fear Allah”, he is led by arrogance to (more) crime. So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest! [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayaat 204-206]
[وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُعۡجِبُكَ قَوۡلُهُ ۥ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا – And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you in this worldly life]: Meaning, the one who hears his speech is pleased when he speaks and he thinks that he has uttered beneficial speech.
He emphasises what he says [وَيُشۡهِدُ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِى قَلۡبِهِ – and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart]: Meaning, he states that Allaah knows that what is in his heart agrees with what he says, even though he is lying regarding what he says because his speech contradicts his deeds. His speech would have agreed with his deeds had he being truthful, because this the case regarding the believers- those who are not hypocrites. And due to this Allaah said: [وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ ٱلۡخِصَامِ – yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents]: Meaning, when you disagree with him, you’ll find him to be the most quarrelsome, bigoted and difficult person to deal with, as well as the ugly characteristics that results from this behaviour, which are the opposite of the manners of the believers- those who make ease their way, submit to the truth and pardon people.
[وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ لِيُفۡسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡحَرۡثَ وَٱلنَّسۡلَۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡفَسَادَ – And when he turns away, his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allah likes not mischief]- Meaning, when this person – the one whose speech amazes you – is not in your presence, he strives to commit sins which is tantamount to corruption in the earth, so cattle and crops are destroyed as a result of that corruption. The blessings in the vegetations, fruits and livestock decrease and become little due to evil deeds.
[وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡفَسَادَ – and Allah likes not mischief]: Meaning, when it is the case that Allaah does not like corruption, then He has an intense hatred for the person who sows corruption in the earth, even if such a person utters a good speech merely on the tongue (i.e. says one thing and does something else).
This Aayah contains proof regarding the fact that the statements uttered by individuals is not a proof regarding their truthfulness or whether they are upon falsehood, neither that they are righteous nor wicked until deeds ascertain them. And it is obligatory to examine the condition of those who bear witness, the one who is in the right and the falsifier amongst the people based on the righteousness of their deeds – examine the clear indications and their behaviour, and not to be deceived by how they portray themselves and the praise they give themselves.
Then Allaah mentioned that when this person – the one who causes corruption in the earth through acts of disobedience to Allaah – is commanded to fear Allaah, he becomes arrogant and haughty, [ أَخَذَتۡهُ ٱلۡعِزَّةُ بِٱلۡإِثۡمِۚ -he is led by arrogance to (more) crime].
So, he combines between disobedience to Allaah and being arrogant towards the sincere advisers. [Ref 1]
Imaam Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [rahimahullaah] said:
This is the state of many a person when it is said to him, “Fear Allaah”, he is led by arrogance and then says, “Am I a disobedient person?” “Am I a criminal?! You fear Allaah”. But there is one who when it is said to him, “Fear Allaah”, he is shaken and what he holds in his hand drops out of fear of Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]. This person is from the people of piety and those who are truly acquainted with reality of affairs, but as for the second person, he is one led by arrogance and Allaah’s refuge is sought. He is led by arrogance to more sin and then would say, “I have not done anything!” “What have I done to the extent that you tell me to fear Allaah?!” We say to this person (i.e. the arrogant one), “You are not more fearful of Allaah than the Messenger of Allaah [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam]. Iindeed Allaah said to him in the beginning of (Surah Al-Ahzaab): “[يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ ٱتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ – O Prophet! Fear Allaah] and in the final section of the Surah, Allaah said, “[يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَقُولُواْ قَوۡلاً۬ سَدِيدً۬ا – O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth]”. This includes everyone, even the Prophet [alayhis salaatu wassalaam]. [Ref 2]
[فَحَسۡبُهُ ۥ جَهَنَّمُۚ – So enough for him is Hell], which is the dwelling place of the disobedient and arrogant ones; [وَلَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمِهَادُ – and worst indeed is that place to rest]: Meaning, a dwelling and settling place- a place of permanent punishment, grief and a continuous despair. Neither is the punishment lightened for them nor would they ever hope for reward. [Ref 3]
[Ref 1: Excerpt from Tafseer as-Sadi. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 2: An Excerpt from At-taleeq Alaa As-Siyaasah Ash-Shar’iyyah. Page 264. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 3: An Excerpt from Tafseer As-Sadi. Slightly paraphrased]
insensitive to falsehoods?