In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
What is Al-Jahlul Murakkab?
Imaam Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [rahimahullaah ] said, ”Which one is more repugnant- Al Jahlul Baseet [i.e. the type of ignorance which indicates that the person knows nothing about a particular affair] or Al Jahlul Murakkab [i.e. the type of ignorance which indicates that a person understands something in a manner contrary to what it is in reality – neither knows nor knows that he does not know]?
Answer: Yes, certainly. There is no doubt that Al-Murakkab is indeed more repugnant. It has been mentioned that there was a man called Tawm, who used to think that he was a wise person, but he gave verdicts without knowledge. And from those verdicts of his was that he said, “Give your daughters as charity to those who have not been married”, and he thought that this [statement or verdict] of his is good. And regarding it, a poet said: “The one who acquires (or pursues) knowledge without a Shaikh will deviate from the straight path. The sciences (of the religion) will become mixed up for him, until he becomes more misguided than Tawm – the (so called) wise man, who said that the (people) give their daughters to men as charity and (seek) the gardens of bliss (i.e. paradise) by way of that. [Ref 1]
Mr Hof stated: ”Legitimacy, Consent, and the Search for a Successor – A century after the end of the Ottoman Empire, no successor to Istanbul’s sultan-caliph has emerged”.
A brief reply to above statement will -InShaaAllaah- unveil Mr Hof’s weak and haphazard understanding in this subject matter.
First, How is a leader chosen In Islaam?
Shaikh Abdul Waahid Abu Khadeejah [may Allaah preserve him] said: After the Prophet [peace and blessings be upon him] died, there were differences of opinion about how the Muslims should be led and who should be given the leadership and authority. The Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) agreed that only the Qur’aan and Sunnah had the authority to tell the people what to do. They decided after looking into the Sunnah that Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) should be their leader – and that he would rule over them in accordance to the Qur’aan and Sunnah. So he was the first Caliph. The second Caliph, Umar Ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) was appointed by Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). The third Caliph, ‘Uthmaan Ibn ‘Affaan (may Allah be pleased with him) was chosen by a committee of the major disciples of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) who were appointed by ‘Umar before he passed away. The fourth Caliph, ‘Ali Ibn Abee Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him) was appointed by the major Companions after the assassination of ‘Uthmaan. ‘Ali gave his pledge of allegiance to the previous three Caliphs and supported them fully. He even named his children after them. [Ref 2]
Relationship of a Muslim With Rulers
The noble Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, ”Allaah is pleased with three things for you: that you worship Him alone and not to associate anything with him in worship, that you all hold onto the rope of Allaah and do not be divided, and that you advise the one placed in charge of authority over you”. [Saheeh Muslim 1715]
Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] said:
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمۡتُم بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحۡكُمُواْ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦۤۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرً۬ا
يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡۖ فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً
Verily! Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer. O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayaat 58-59]
The scholars say that the first Aayah was revealed regarding the rulers – that it is obligated on them to render back the trusts to those whom they are due and that when they judge between the people they do so with justice. And the second Aayah was revealed regarding those under the ruler’s authority, the armies and other than them- that it is obligated on them to obey the rulers who establish justice in their distributions, rulings, military expeditions and other affairs, except when they command one to commit an act of disobedience to Allaah, because there cannot be obedience to the creation in disobedience to Allaah. And if they differ in any matter, they should return to the book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. If the rulers do not do this, then they are only obeyed in that which is in agreement with obedience to Allaah and His Messenger, their rights are fulfilled just as Allaah and His Messenger commanded and they are aided in righteousness and piety, but not in sin and transgression. [Ref 3]
Seeking After Leadership is Not Allowed
Imaam Al-Bukhaari [rahimahullaah] said, ‘’Chapter: If somebody does not seek authority of ruling, then Allaah will surely help him [if he is given such authority].’’ Narrated Abdur-Rahmaan Bin Samura: The Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, ‘’O Abdur-Rahmaan! Do not seek to be a ruler, for if you are given authority on your demand, then you will be held responsible for it, but if you are given it without asking [for it], then you will be helped [by Allaah] in it. If you ever take an oath to do something and later on you find that something else is better, then you should expiate your oath and do what is better.’’ [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari, Number 7146]
Few Reminders From Fat-hul Baari: The one who seeks authority and receives it will not be helped. It is well known that to be in authority is accompanied by difficulties, so the one who does not receive help from Allaah will be trapped within it and thus loses both his Dunyah and Aakhirah. Therefore, the sensible person does not ask for authority, but if he is suitable and it is given to him without him asking for it, then indeed the truthful and trustworthy one [i.e. The Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wsallam)] has promised him that Allaah will help him. [Ref 4]
Indeed, when a Muslim examines the above – the manner in which the Prophet’s companions selected rulers, the responsibility of rulers and subjects, the prohibition against desiring rulership and rebellion, then indeed he or she understands that chaos and strife occurs when Muslims abandon the guidance found in the Qur’aan, the authentic Sunnah and the understanding of the Prophet’s companions. Frederic Hof and his ilk either deliberately turn away from this reality or they are ignorant of it when offering their so called analysis of the political situation in Muslim countries and thus the reader is not able to differentiate between the actions of misguided Muslims and what Islaam commands in this subject matter. Therefore, rather than merely looking at what any Muslim does in a particular situation, one should look at what Islaam commands and prohibits. If writers, researchers and analysts fail to do so, then there is no doubt that either they are unable to do justice to the subject matter or have understood the affair in a manner contrary to its true reality or deliberately seeking to tarnish the image of Islam through so-called political analysis.
The western plotters against Islaam are well known and one of their main figureheads was King Louis the Ninth, who in 1250 was captured whilst on a crusade against the Muslims of Egypt, imprisoned and later released after paying a large ransom. But whilst in prison, he utilised his time to think about ways in which to plot against Islaam and the Muslims, and thus shaytaan inspired him with the following plots: First: The war in the battlefield between the Christians of the West and the Muslims should be replaced with a war based on ideas and cultural supremacy. Secondly: Prepare the West to corrupt the creed of the Muslims and distort the image of Islaam in the world. [Ref 5]
This satanic desire of King Louis was utilized by the colonialists because besides looting, plundering and committing murder, they also made strenuous efforts to enslave the minds and hearts. And indeed many Muslims stood firm and opposed this evil state of affairs, but some adopted other than the infallible Prophetic methodology whilst seeking to bring about a change and this continues to this day. It was the evil effects of colonialism and being ignorant of the true Prophetic methodology that led many Muslims to adopt the paths of nationalism, populism, pseudo-socialism, secularism, personal charisma and personality cults whilst seeking for political legitimacy. As for the people of Sunnah and Salafiyyah, they stood firm and returned the people to the infallible Prophetic methodology, whilst facing both the enmity of the colonialists and the innovated groups amongst the Muslims. Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee [may Allaah preserve him] stated about those who seek to topple the upright scholars- that this chronic illness appeared after the appearance of nationalism, western colonization [i.e. when the west began colonizing many Muslim lands], the destructive views of the Naasiriyyah [i.e. Pan Arab Socialists] and Ba’thiyyah [i.e. the Ba’ath party – socialists] etc. The figureheads of these filthy dogmas [i.e. socialism, nationalism] made strenuous efforts to eliminate Islaam and remove it from their path, which they could not accomplish except by toppling the (upright) scholars. Then, this disease spread amongst the (deviated) groups that attribute themselves to islaam. [Ref:6]
Many ideologues know that as long as Muslims are ignorant of the precise details in various subject matters related to their religion and thus they begin to differ and take different paths – in opposition to the path of the Sahaabah- whilst seeking to pursue what they think is beneficial for their religious and worldly affairs, then indeed this provides them with the opportunity to solidify such differing, especially in the subject matter of rulership and politics. The struggle for legitimacy – which Mr Hof transmitted from John Ruedy and considers to be prophetic – is nothing else but a deadly political weapon by way of which the ideologues entice ignorant and misguided Muslims to destabilise their countries through sinful desire for leadership.
Therefore, after it has been established that the infallible Messenger – the one who never speaks out of his own desires, rather whatever he says is revelation from Allaah – prohibited us from seeking leadership, commanded the rulers to establish justice based on the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah, commanded the citizens to obey the ruler in that which is not tantamount to disobedience to Allaah, but also prohibited them from rebellion against Muslim rulers, then indeed one must take all these affairs into consideration when seeking to analyse the political atmosphere in the Muslim Ummah – whether before or after colonialism- otherwise such an analysis would be deficient. Islaam can never be at fault; rather we Muslims are at fault when we deliberately turn away from the guidance of the Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] and begin to look for solutions elsewhere.
Guidance of The Pious Predecessors When Someone Takes Over Authority By Force
The Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] said: “I command you to have fear of Allaah, and to listen and obey even if a slave is placed in charge of authority over you…”
Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan [hafidhahullaah] said regarding the statement of the Prophet [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam], “Even if a slave is placed in charge of authority over you”: this is from an angle of giving an example – meaning the ruler is not belittled regardless who he is, even if he is a slave. As long as he is a leader of the Muslims, his personality is not belittled; rather his position and rulership is given consideration. As long as he has authority and the oath of allegiance has been given to him, then indeed it is obligatory to obey him [in good], even if he has mistakes…. [Ref 7]
Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [rahimahullaah] said, “It is obligatory to obey the leader even if he is not king. It is well known that the Muslim Ummah – since the early era – have had a Khaleefah and king, and there are leaders of countries. Therefore, if it is obligatory to obey a leader, then more so a king is to be obeyed. [Ref 8]
Imaam Ibn Rajab [rahimahullaah] said: The rulers and the leaders of the believers are to be obeyed and listened to [I.e. in good], whether he is a pious person or a wicked sinner, as well as whoever takes over the khilaafah and the people unite behind him and are pleased with him, and the one who overcome the people with the sword until he became the Khaleefah and is named leader of the Believers. [Ref 9]
The Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) stated: “Hear and obey the ruler in that which is difficult for you and in that which is easy for you, in times of invigoration and in times of dislike and weariness and when others are given preferential treatment over you – even if they take and consume your wealth and they beat your back – except that you do not obey them if it involves disobedience to Allāh.” [Ref 10] Also listen to lecture here by Shaikh Abu Iyaadh [may Allaah preserve him]: https://soundcloud.com/salafi-publications/principles-from-the-sunnah-regarding-dealing-with-the-muslim-rulers
Therefore, this is how the situation is deal with – obedience to the rulers and refraining from rebellion. We strive to obey our Lord in all circumstances whether the Muslims are ruled by one person or have different rulers in different lands. The infallible Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] said: “The Khilaafah will last for 30 Years Then There Will Kingship Which Allaah Gives To Whomever He Pleases”. Read full article by Shaikh Abu Iyaadh [hafidhahullaah] http://www.aqidah.com/creed/articles/kyvik-the-khilaafah-lasted-for-30-years-then-there-was-kingship.cfm
Islam is a perfect way of life that unites humankind upon virtue and piety, unlike what is well-known and estsblished regarding the path of the colonialists. Not only did the colonialists enslave, conquer and murder, rather they also created enmity between the people in order to divide and rule. This was the satanic strategy employed by the disbeliever Fir’awn, just as Allaah [The Exalted] said:
إِنَّ فِرۡعَوۡنَ عَلَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَجَعَلَ أَهۡلَهَا شِيَعً۬ا يَسۡتَضۡعِفُ طَآٮِٕفَةً۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ يُذَبِّحُ أَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ وَيَسۡتَحۡىِۦ نِسَآءَهُمۡۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ
Verily, Fir’aun (Pharaoh) exalted himself in the land and made its people sects, weakening (oppressing) a group (i.e. Children of Israel) among them, killing their sons, and letting their females live. Verily, he was of the Mufsidoon]. [Surah Al-Qasas. Aayah 4]
[وَجَعَلَ أَهۡلَهَا شِيَعً۬ا – and made its people sects]- Meaning: Different group that were organised and distinguished, and he utilised each group in that which he desired in his kingdom. [Ref 9] He made them into sects and different groups to serve him and they went along with what he wanted and obeyed him. [Ref 11]
He made them into different distinct groups, dealt with them based on his evil desires and subjugated them as he wanted by means of his power and authority. [Ref 12]
He divided them into different sects and they went along with him in everything he desired of evil and corruption, or he used some as a means to get others to obey him; or he made them into different distinct groups under his service and used every group in some type of work, such as construction, tillage, earthwork [drilling etc] and other burdensome work, and whoever did not work was beaten, so they served him by doing so; or he made them into sects and incited hatred and enmity between them, so that they do not come to an agreement [or become united in their stance against him]. [Ref 13]
Imaam As-Sadi [rahimahullaah] stated: What type of progress is this?! A progress whose people behaved like vicious wild animals and whose abiding practice is oppression, annihilation, colonization of weak nations and depriving them of their rights? [Ref 14]
They developed these affairs [i.e. worldly sciences] through a development that is disconnected and severed from submission to Allāh and the religion ordained by Allāh… it has caused harm and led its proponents to savagery and barbarism whose outcomes has been destruction, ruin and evils that has no comparison. [Ref 15]
Indeed, it is impossible to rectify the souls and acquire virtue solely through the worldly sciences. Experience and clearly witnessed circumstances are the greatest proofs regarding this affair, because despite its advancement and vastness it has been unable to nurture and rectify the souls. What the Religion of Islaam propagates is that which is entrusted with this rectification – it is what will guide the thoughts towards the truthful and authentic sources of knowledge, and guide the actions of the people towards good and prevent them from evil. Islam is The Rectifier of the Creeds and Manners- the thing that cultivates the thoughts [upon righteousness], urges towards virtuousness and prevents from depravity. The essence of that which the religion calls to regarding belief in the Unseen, which includes belief in Allaah and that which He possesses of Names, Attributes and Actions of perfection; belief in Angels, belief in recompense for one’s good and bad deeds in this life and the next, which cannot be known except through the Messengers, is what acquaints a person with the fact that rectification – in reality – is not possible through other than sound belief and the religion of Islaam. Therefore, even if the worldly sciences rectify [some] affairs based upon that which people know in detail, it will still not be equal [in perfection, excellence etc] to the knowledge of the Messengers [in the least]. It will neither reach that which is reached through the knowledge of the Messengers nor can it influence the souls in the manner in which the knowledge of the Messengers has done; for indeed the souls do not voluntarily submit except through belief in Allaah, belief in His Angels, belief in His Books, belief in His Messengers and belief in the hereafter. And without this, voluntary submission is impossible, as is well known regarding human nature. [Ref 16]
As for the manner in which the west dealt with people during the slave trade, then listen to this brief clarification by Shaikh Abdul Waahid Abu Khadeejah [hafidhahullaah]: https://video.link/w/ttJmb
To be continued….InShaaAllaah
[Ref 1: Excerpt from Sharh Al-Waraqaat- page 44-45. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 2: https://www.abukhadeejah.com/sunni-and-shiah-islam-islam-1-13/ ]
[Ref 3: An Excerpt from ‘As-Siyaasah Ash-Shar’iyyah 16-18. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 4: An Excerpt: Chapter: (باب من لم يسأل الإمارة أعانه الله عليها )in ‘kitaab al Ahkaam’ Saheeh Al-Bukhaari with Fat-hul Baari]
[Ref 5: خطة لويس التاسع – page 6]
[Ref 6: An Excerpt from Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm’ pages 58-60. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: An Excerpt from Al-Mirhatur Rabbaaniyyah page 224]
[Ref 8: Sharh Arba’een…shaikh uthaymeen..page 279]
[Ref 9: Usool As-Sunnah. Riwaayatu Abdoos. Page 64]
[Ref 10: https://www.abukhadeejah.com/the-tyranny-of-the-rulers-a-reason-for-rebellion/ ]
[Ref 11: An Excerpt from ‘Fat-hul Qadeer 4/209’ slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 12: An Excerpt from ‘Tafseer Sadi’. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 13: An Excerpt from ‘Roohul Ma’aanee’ 11/64-65. Slightly paraphrased]
[Refs 14 and 115: Source: Ad-Dalaa’il Al-Qur’aaniyyah Fee Annal Uloom Wal-A’maal An-Naafi’ah Al-Asriyyah Daakhilatun Fid-deen Al-Islaamiy 44]
[Ref 16: Al-Adillatul Qawaati Wal-Baraaheem Fee Ibtaalil Usoolil Mulhideen. Page 48]