In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Read: Understanding the Battle Between the Philosophers (Aristotle, Ibn Sina, al-Farabi) and the Mutakallimoon (Jahmiyyah, Mu’tazilah, Kullaabiyyah, Ash’ariyyah, Maturidiyyah) Initiated By Jahm bin Safwaan
Debeuf stated: How Godless Arabs Changed Europe. “In the world of Islam, some philosophers went against religion. The secularist ideas that European scholars found in these thinkers’ writings shook both Muslim and Christian theologians”. [End of quote]
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَقُلۡ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلُۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقً۬ا
And say: ”Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Surely! Falsehood is ever bound to vanish”. [Surah Al-Israa. Aayah 81]
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَلَا يَأۡتُونَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلَّا جِئۡنَـٰكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَأَحۡسَنَ تَفۡسِيرًا
And no example or similitude do they bring (to oppose or to find fault in you or in this Qur’an), but We reveal to you the truth (against that similitude or example), and the better explanation thereof. [Surah Al-Furqan. Aayah 33]
Imaam Ahmad Bin Hanbal [rahimahullaah] said:
”All praise and thanks be to Allaah – Who, in every era and interval between the Prophets- raises a group from the people of Knowledge, who call the misguided to guidance, patiently bearing ill treatment and harm. With the Book of Allaah, they give life to the dead [i.e. hearts killed by misguidance etc] and through Allaah’s Light [i.e. guidance] they give sight [i.e. guidance] to the blind. How many a person killed by Iblees [i.e. misguided] have they revived! How many deviated people and wandering have they guided! How beautiful their effect has been on the people and how vile people have been towards them! They expel from the Book of Allaah the alterations of those going beyond bounds, the false claims of the liars and the false interpretations of the ignorant ones – those who uphold the banner of religious innovation and unleash trials and discord, differing about the Book [i.e. The Qur’aan], opposing the Book and agree upon opposing the Book. They speak about Allaah and His Book without knowledge, argue about what is ambiguous in the Book and deceive the ignorant masses with such ambiguities. We seek refuge in Allaah from the trials of the misguided ones”. [Ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah. page 2]
Indeed, Debeuf’s above statement is nothing but an exaggeration and an exaltation of the enemies of the Prophets. The heretical philosophers did not shake the pious predecessors of the Ummah of Islaam, rather they were refuted and thus their evil was manifested to all those who desired guidance. All praise and thanks be to Allaah, there will always be scholars of Islaam who will refute every false creed, thought, idea or methodology – whether initiated by Muslims, non-Muslims or opostates.
Shaikh Shamsuddeen Al-Afghaanee may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated:
Allaah [The Most High] guided mankind though Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] and though what he brought of clear manifest evidences and guidance-a guidance that could not be described by those who were proficient in giving descriptions and surpassed the knowledge of those with great perception. So, though this guidance that was given to the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi- wasallam], Allaah [The Most High] opened the eyes of the blind ones, the ears of the deaf ones and the hearts of the heedless ones. Allaah [The Most High] united them upon one religion-[the religion of Islamic monotheism; Ibraaheem’s [alayhis-salaam] religion of pure monotheism]-after they had been in complete disunity, enmity towards one another, upon destructive and corrupt creeds. Allaah united their hearts and they became true brothers in Islaam by way of this great blessing. And thereafter everything that was worshiped besides Allaah-such as graves, trees, stones, graven images, idols etc- ceased to exist and all worship was carried out for Allaah (alone).
The people followed the true Religion of Islamic monotheism; they worshipped Allaah alone and established worship sincerely for Allaah, except those whom Allaah willed that they were to remain as people of polytheism, hypocrisy and followers of the altered and distorted previous scriptures. The darkness of shirk was dispelled and the banner of Tawheed was raised in the lands-amongst the Arabs and non-Arabs.
Allaah [The Most High] took away the soul of His Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallaam], whilst Islaam was established and in authority-superseding all other ways of life and creeds. Then the rightly guided khulafaa of the Messenger continued upon this path until the two powerful and great nations at the time-Rome and Persia-ended up in humiliation, degradation and in a state of fear after they had been in a state of security, and thus Caesar was restricted and besieged, and khosrau was subdued and destroyed.
So when the enemies of Islaam saw that they were unable to do away with this religion, they implanted their disbelieving agents within Islam, who pretended to be Muslims in order to foment confusion, trials and tribulations; and in order to spread shirk by exaggerating the status of the pious people and exalting their graves with [beliefs and practices] that were not ordained by Allaah.
So, this Ummah was put to trial through the plots of the [atheist, heretic and hypocrite] Abdullaah Bin Saba, who claimed Uloohiyyah [i.e. the right to be worship] for Ali Ibn Abee Taalib [radiyallaahu- anhu]. Abdullaah Bin As-Sabah’s followers were known as the Saaba-iyyah, and later on they were known as the rawaafid (shiites), the ismaaliyyah (shittes), the nusayriyah (shiites) and other than them amongst the Baatiniyyah. They used to worship the graves and the dead, and they used to build places of worship and domed [shaped] shrines upon these graves. So, by way of this they revived the practices of the Yahood, the Nasaaraa and the idol worshippers, and thus the practices of the worshippers of graves in this Muslim Ummah manifested itself in actions that were carried out by the rawaafid (shiites).
Second, the books of Greek philosophy that contained the ideas of grave and idol worship were translated into Arabic, so many of those who attributed themselves to Islam busied themselves with these books, such as the likes of Al- Faraabee, Ibn Sinaa Al-Hanafi, Naseer At- Toosee the advocator of disbelief and shirk and other than them amongst those who played tricks with Islaam, just as Paul played tricks with Christianity.
They were influenced by the ideas of the Greek Philosophers, such as the creed of grave worship, so they became callers to grave worship through Greek Philosophy. The practices of these people was rife within the ranks of the people of rhetoric amongst the Hanafi Maatooreediyyah (d) and the Ash-ariyyah Kullaabiyyah due to busying themselves with the Books of the Philosophers; so they were influenced by the creed of grave worship. They became callers to grave worship and callers to the creed of the Jahmiyyah at the same time, such as the likes of Taftaazaanee Al-Hanafi [The Philosopher of the Maatooreediyyah and Grave worshipers] and Jurjaanee Al-Hanafi [a caller to superstition]
Al-Faraabee: Al-Faraabee said that Philosophy is more perfect than Prophet hood. Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said about him: ‘’Misguided; a disbeliever’’ Ibn Sinaa adopted his books and ideas of disbelief. [For further details concerning Al- Faraabee, See Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 2/67—86] [Dar At-Ta’aarud 1/10] [Ighaathatul Luhfaan 2/372-373].
Ibn Sinaa: Imaam Ibnu Salaah (rahimahullaah) said about him: ‘’He was a devil amongst the human devils.’’ [See Fataawaa Ibn Salaah 1/209] [Also see: ‘Ar-Radd Alal Mantaqiyyeen’ of Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah 278-279] [‘Ighaathatul Luhfaan’ of Imaam Ibnul Qayyim 2/373-380] [Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah’ of Imaam Ibn Katheer 12/43]
Naasir At-Toosee: He was a magician and a minister of the Tartars. He rejected the ‘resurrection’. For further details, see: As-Sawaa-iq Al-Mursalah of Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) 2/790; 3/1077-1078
Followers of the Jahmi Abu Mansoor Al- Maatooreedi Al-Hanafi [For further details, see the Book of Shaikh Shamsud-deen al-Afghaanee titled: ‘Al-Maatooreediyyah’ 1/205—376] [d] Juhoodu Ulamaa Al-Hanafiyyah Fee Ibtaal Aqaa- id Al-Qubooriyyah Vol 1 pages 23-24
Third, a people appeared among the Muslims manifesting asceticism. These people were more dangerous to the masses and more severe in misguidance. They were a people who appeared in the garb of the righteous, with tearful eyes smeared with kohl, long flowing beards, elevated turbans, carrying rosary beads and pretending to be calling to the sunnah of the leader of Humankind [Muhammad], whilst secretly practicing the disgraceful acts inherited from the false and vanished religions. And from their plots was that they used to mix manifest lies with the authentic explanations of the Qur’aan and the authentic narrations in order to corrupt the clear proofs of the qur’aan and the sunnah. These deviant heretics were known as the holooliyyah, ittihaadiyyah Grave worshippers, such as the likes of al-hallaaj (309ah), ibnul faarid (632ah), ibn arabi (638ah), ibn sina (669ah) etc [Excerpt from Juhoodu Ulamaa Al-Hanafiyyah Fee Ibtaal Aqaa’id Al-Qubooriyyeen. Vol 1. Page 19-25]
Hulooliyyah and ittihaadiyyah]:
Hulool- Lit. “Entering” – Divine indwelling. The belief that Allaah dwells within a particular human. i.e. That Allaah dwells in a particular Soofi shaykh, a pious person, a Prophet – This belief is shared by Christians, certain Soofies, certain Shiites, Sikhs and others.
Wahdaatul Wujood – Lit – Unity of Existence. The belief that all existence is a single existence and everything we see are only aspects of the Essence of Allaah. This belief is also held by certain Soofies, Hindus and others.
Those who believe in hulool say that Allaah dwells and is incarnate in human beings, High is Allaah above and far removed from that. This was openly called to by some of the extreme Sufis, such as al-Husayn ibn Mansoor al-Hallaaj who was declared to be an unbeliever by the scholars. They ordered that he be executed and he was crucified in the year 309H. The following saying is attributed to him: “Glory to Him who manifested His human nature, Hiding the piercing brightness of His divinity: Till His creation saw Him openly, In the form of one eating and drinking” Attributed by al-Wakeel to the book at Tawaaseen of al Hallaaj (p. 130).
And his saying: “I am the one who loves and the One who is loved is me, We are two spirits who dwell in a single body. So when you see me you see Him, and when you see Him you see us both.”So al-Hallaaj was a believer in hulool and believed in the duality of the divine nature and that the Deity had both a divine and a human nature. Thus the divine becomes incarnate within the human so that the human spirit is the divine nature of the Deity and the body is its human form. Despite the fact that he was killed for his evil apostasy and although some of the Sufis declare themselves free of him, yet others count him as a Sufi, hold that his beliefs were correct, and write down his words. From them is Abdul-‘Abbaas ibn ‘Ataa al-Baghdaadee, Muhammad ibn Khaleef ash? Sheeraazee and Ibraheem an-Nasraabaadhee, as is reported by al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee.
Wahdatul-Wujood, i.e. that all in existence is a single reality, and that everything we see is only aspects of the Essence of Allaah. The chief claimant of this belief was Ibn ‘Arabee al-Haatimee at-Taa’ee, who was buried in Damascus having died in the year 638H. He himself says about this belief in his book al-Fatoohaat-ul-Makkiyyah: “The slave is the Lord and the Lord is a slave, I wish that I knew which was the one required to carry out the required duties. If I were to say the servant then that is true, or if I were to say the Lord, then how can that be required for Him.” Al-Fatoohaat-ul-Makkiyyah as it is attributed by Dr. Taqiyyuddeen al-Hilaalee in his book al-Hadiyyatul-Haadiyah (p.43).
He also says in al-Fatoohaat: “Those who worshipped the calf worshipped nothing except Allaah.” Quoted as Ibn ‘Arabee’s saying by Ibn Tayrniyyah in al-Fataawaa (vol.11), who attributes it to the book al-Fatoohaat. Ibn ‘Arabee is called ‘al-‘Aarif billaah’ (The one having great knowledge of Allaah) by the Sufis, and also ‘al-Qutubul Akbar’ (The great pivot), ‘al-Miskul-Adhfar’ (the sweetest smelling musk), “al-Kibreetul-Ahmar’ (the reddest brimstone), despite his belief in wahdatul-wujood and other calamitous sayings. Indeed he praised Fir’awn (Pharaoh) and declared that he died upon eemaan! Furthermore he speaks against Haroon for his criticism of his peoples worship of the calf, thus directly opposing the text of the Qur’aan. He also held that the Christians were Unbelievers only because they made divinity particular to ‘Eesaa, whereas if they had made it general to all then they would not have been unbelievers. [Despite all the gross deviation of Ibn ‘Arabee and the fact that the scholars declared him to be an Unbeliever, yet he is revered by the Sufis and others who do not distinguish between the truth and falsehood, and those who turn away from accepting the truth even when it is as clear as the sun. But his books, which are filled with clear apostasy, such as al-Fatoohaatul-Makkiyyah and Fusoosul-Hikam are still circulated. He even has a tafseer, which he called at-Tafseerul-Baatin since he holds that there is an apparent and a hidden meaning for every Aayah, so the outer meaning is for the people of Ta’weel. From this group came Ibn Basheesh who said: “O Allaah rescue me from the mire of Tawheed, and drown me in the centre of the sea of unity, and mix me into the state of unity and oneness until I do not see, nor hear, nor sense except through it.” http://www.salafitalk.net/st/viewmessages.cfm?Forum=8&Topic=3528
Ibn Rushd Was a Follower of Aristotle – The Misguided One
Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said: He [i.e. Ibn Rushd] responded to al-Ghazaali, but a response in which he made many mistakes and what is correct was with al-Ghazaali. He attributed some of his arguments to Ibn Sina and not to his predecessor (Aristotle), and the mistake in it he attributed to Ibn Sina. And in some of his arguments he spoke ill against al-Ghazaali and accused him of having little fairness because he [Ibn Rushd] based his views on corrupt rhetoric. [Minhaaj as-Sunnah 1/255]
Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said, “He [i.e. Ibn Rushd] was one who followed the statements of Aristotle the most”. [Bayaan Talbees Al-Jahmiyyah 1/120] Read here about the deviant Aristotle: http://www.asharis.com/creed/articles/lxtuo-ibn-taymiyyah-compared-with-the-philosophers-exposing-abu-adam-al-naruijis-acade.cfm
Al-Allaamah Muhammad Amaan Al-Jaami [rahimahullaah] said: That which no two people would differ about is that Ibn Rushd is a big and dangerous philosopher. [Al-Aql Wan-Naql Inda Ibn Rushd. Page 16]. So, read on this link to see one of Ibn Rushd’s blunders as a result of his philosophy – a quote by Shaikh Abu Iyaadh [hafidhahullaah] from Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah’s [rahimahullaah]: http://www.aboutatheism.net/articles/upniedg-the-universe-was-not-created-from-nothing-but-from-previously-existing-matter.cfm
The Ruler Saved The Muslims From Ibn Rushd’s Misguidnce
Shaikh Ash-Shuyookh Ibn Hamawiyyah [rahimahullaah] said: When I entered the city, I enquired about Ibn Rushd and it was said that the Khaleefah Ya’qoob did not allow him to leave his house nor was anyone allowed to go to him, because of the many bizarre statements that were transmitted from him and the rejected sciences that were attributed to him. He died in Maraakesh whilst confined in his house. [Siyah A‘laam An-Nubala 21/310]
Verdicts and Statements of The Pious Predecessors Against The Theological Rhetoric and Its Proponents
A man asked Qaasim Bin As-Sallaam [may Allaah have mercy upon him] about Theological Rhetoric, so he said to him, “Indeed, your Lord has guided to the path of uprightness and to the path of truth. Allaah [The Exalted] said:
فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً
(And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayah 59]
Do you not have what suffices in what your Lord guided you to regarding His speech and the Sunnah of His Prophet, so that you do not return to your opinion and thus become destroyed! Indeed, your Lord has forbidden you from speaking about His Essence and Attributes, except that which He has made know to you. (1)
Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, Theological Rhetoric is ignorance”. Imaam Abu Yusuf [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “Theological Rhetoric is ignorance and to be ignorant of Theological Rhetoric is knowledge”. (2)
Imaam Ahmad [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “I am neither a person of Theological Rhetoric nor do I recognize Theological Rhetoric in anything. (I only recognize) that which is found in the Book of Allaah or in the Sunnah of His Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him]”. (3)
Imaam Ahmad [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “Do not sit with the proponents of ilmul kalaam even if they defend the Sunnah”. (4)
Yoonus Ibn Abdil A’laa [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “I heard Ash-Shaafi’ee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] saying, ‘It is better for a man to be put to trial with everything that Allaah has forbidden except Shirk than looking into (or engaging himself in) Theological Rhetoric, for indeed I have come across affairs from the proponents of Theological Rhetoric that which I never thought I would come across’”. (5)
Question to Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee [may Allaah preserve him]: May Allaah reward you with good. This is also a question from the brothers who are present, saying: Assalaamu Alaykum Warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuhu. Virtuous Shaikh, is it permissible for me to learn (or study) the knowledge of Theological Rhetoric? Benefit me (i.e. with a response) and may Allaah [The Exalted] reward you with good.
Answer: The knowledge of Theological Rhetoric is a corrupt knowledge and the pious predecessors – by way of consensus- declared that it is Haraam [forbidden] to study it due to the misguidance and disgustingly evil consequences within it. Shaikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “Neither does a dull-witted person benefit from it nor is an intelligent person in need of it”. An intelligent person is not in need of it because he is sensible in his self, natural disposition and intellect; and a dull-witted person does not benefit from it. Even if he studied all the books of philosophical logic, he will not benefit from it. Shaikh Albaani [rahimahullaah] used to debate against the scholars of philosophical logic and they used to be like children in his presence, yet he never studied philosophical logic; rather Allaah granted him [sound] speech and [Sharee’ah] knowledge, and there is no proof stronger than the proofs of the Kitaab [i.e. the Qur’aan] and the [authentic] Sunnah. The proponents of Theological Rhetoric are always defeated [or overwhelmed]. By Allaah, regardless how much they (utilise) philosophical speech and how strong they are in philosophical logic, they are defeated (or overwhelmed) in the presence of the methodology of the pious predecessors (which is) founded on the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) and the (authentic) Sunnah. (6)
Two Main Evil Outcomes of Theological Rhetoric And Soofiyyah- By Shaikh Rabee Bin Haadee
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee [may Allaah preserve him] also said: The final affair of Ahlul Kalaam [the proponents of theological rhetoric] are a state of doubt and confusion, and the final affair of Ahlut Tasawwuf [the people of the Sofee paths] are a state of wild irrational behaviour and false claims. Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said, “And because of this, the innovators of Ahlul Kalaam [proponents of theological rhetoric] have something of resemblance to the Yahood and the innovators in acts of worship have something of resemblance to the Nasaaraa. The final affair of ahlul kalam are a state of doubt and confusion and the final affair of the innovators in acts of worship are a state of wild irrational behaviour and false claims. That is because these ones [i.e. ahlul kalaam] deny the truth and thus it leads them to doubt and those ones [i.e. innovators in acts of worship] believe in falsehood and it leads them to a state of wild irrational behaviour. These ones [i.e. ahlul kalam] are like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with a great wave topped by a great wave, topped by dark clouds, darkness, one above another; and those ones [i.e. innovators in acts of worship] are like a mirage in a desert, the thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it and finds it to be nothing”. (7)
Must Read Articles On The Following Links
Revelation, Philosophy and Kalam: The Creed of the Salaf Versus the Creed of the Asharis and Maturidis
Understanding the Battle Between the Philosophers (Aristotle, Ibn Sina, al-Farabi) and the Mutakallimoon (Jahmiyyah, Mu’tazilah, Kullaabiyyah, Ash’ariyyah, Maturidiyyah) Initiated By Jahm bin Safwaan
Ibn Taymiyyah, the Philosophers, the Mutakallimun and the Eternity of the Universe
The Claim of the Philosophers and Mutakallimeen That the Qur’an Is Mere Akhbaar (Reports) Devoid of Independent Rational Proof
Why Ibn Sina, You Exceedingly Shrewd Kafir! Thank You For Supporting Our Aristotelian Metaphysical Creed and Backing Us (Ash’aris) In Our Saying That ‘Allaah Is Not Within the Creation Nor Outside Of It’
Ibn Taymiyyah Compared With the Philosophers:
The History and Origins of the Kalam Theology of the Asharis and Maturidis
Doubts Around the Dawah 18 Muhammad Hijab And Philosophy – By Shaikh Abu Hakeem [hafidhahullaah]
Ahlul-Kalām (and the Ash’aris) are Ahlul-Bid’ah; and a response to the innovator who uses philosophy and argumentation to establish his religion
[Ref 1: Reported by Al-Ajlee in Dhammul Kalaam 1/85]
[Ref 2: Aqeedah Ash-Shaafi’ee. Page 87. http://al-badr.net/sub/228 ]
[Ref 3: Source: Quoted in ”An-Nahjul Aqwaa. Introduction by Shaikh Saaleh Al-Fawzaan and Shaikh Abdul Azeez Aala Shaikh. page: 126]
[Ref 4: An-Nahjul Aqwaa’ with the introduction of Shaikh Fawzaan and Shaikh Abdul Azeez Aala Shaikh. Page: 127
[Ref 5: Aqeedah Ash-Shaafi’ee. Page: 86]
[Ref 6: An Excerpt from Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm page 347. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: Al-Mukhtaaraat Al-Bahiyyah Min Kutub Shaikhil Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah. Page 281. Slightly paraphrased]