Month: July 2021

Why Eager to Benefit From All True Salafiyyoon [Men and Women]? [Those Below Us in Knowledge, Above or at The Same Level]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Imaam Al-Bukhaari [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:

“A man will not become well facilitated until he takes knowledge from one above him, one similar to him and one below him”. (1)

Imaam Abdullaah Ibnul Mubaarak [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:

“A man will not be from the (students or scholars) of Hadeeth until he writes from someone similar to him, someone above him and someone below him”. (2)

Imaam Sufyaan Ibn Uyaynah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:

“A man will not be from the (students or scholars) of Hadeeth until he takes from someone above him, someone below him and someone similar to him”. (3)

Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee [may Allaah preserve him] said:

“The entire life of a person is spent in seeking knowledge – from the cradle to the grave. He does not feel proud to acquire truth from a young or older person and he never rejects truth, whether it is stated by a Muslim or unbeliever. Moosaa [peace be upon him] was spoken to directly by Allaah and the Tawraat was revealed to him, which contained Hudaa [i.e. that which guides a person to Eemaan, truth and protects one from misguidance] and Noor [i.e. a guiding light in the midst of the darkness of ignorance, confusion, doubts, beliefs and deeds that appear to be truth but are falsehood in reality and evil desires], but when he knew that another person possessed knowledge of that which he did not possess, [Allaah informed us he (Moosaa) said]: [لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّىٰ أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا – I will not give up (travelling) until I reach the junction of the two seas or (until) I spend years and years in travelling. [Surah Al-Kahf. Verse 60] He went on foot – neither had a car nor a riding beast, nor a horse; (rather) he travelled on foot”. (4)


Ref 1: Quoted by Shaikh Abdullah Al-Bukhaari in Sharh Umdatul Ahkaam. Lesson 1

Ref 2: Taareekh Baghdaad by Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee 5/68

Ref 3: Al-Jaami Li-Akhlaaq Ar-Raawee 2/218

Ref 4: Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm. 245-248. Slightly paraphrased

Basis of Truth is Not Attached to The Character or Personality We Love, Choose or Prefer!

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Abu Hurairah [may Allaah be pleased with him] said, “The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Love your beloved one modestly, for it may be that he will become hated to you someday. And hate the one whom you hate modestly, for it may be that he will become your beloved one someday”. [Saheeh Sunan Tirmidhee 1997]

Imaam Ibnul Atheer [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “This means that you should love your beloved one with moderation and do not go beyond bounds (i.e. outside the boundaries of the what Allaah has legislated). Do not go into extremes in your love and hate, for it may be that one day you’ll hate the one you used to love and love the one you used to hate. Therefore, neither exaggerate in your love and become regretful, nor exaggerate in your hatred and thus become shy in the presence of the one you used to hate after you stop hating him”. [An-Nihaayah 5/284]

A man said to Imaam Maymoon Ibn Mehraan [may Allaah have mercy upon him], “The people will not cease to be upon good as long as Allaah keeps you (alive) for them”. He replied, “The people will not cease to be upon good as long as they fear their Lord”. (1)

Imaam Sufyaan Ibn Uyaynah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] used to say, “Indeed, the Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] is the greatest criterion [i.e. amongst mankind and Jinn] and all affairs are presented to him [i.e. for judgement and judged] based on his manners, path and guidance; so whatever is in agreement with this is truth, and whatever is in opposition is falsehood”. (1.1)

Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadi Al-Mad’khali may Allaah preserve him] said, “And (with regards to) the person with the proofs, it is obligatory to take his speech (on the grounds) of following Allaah’s Legislation and Proofs, and not (due to) the personality of that person”. (2)

Al-Allaamah Rabee also said, “The seeker of truth is not diverted from the truth, fairness and justice due to admiration of the big personalities and being amazed by them, for indeed the truth is more worthy to be followed. It is not permissible to drop the proofs for the sake of this or that great man. The principle [rule] of the Muslim – the unbiased one, the seeker of truth – is always: [قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ -Say, bring forth your proofs if you are truthful]. [Surah An-Nahl. Verse 64] (3)

Imaam Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] interrupted a person who was reciting a poem and mentioned him in it! He objected and told him not to attach truth to personalities; rather he should say that as long as the Qur’aan and the Sunnah are present, the truth will remain. [Listen to audio in the link: https://safeshare.tv/x/5MCyl5iX03k

Question to Al-Allaamah Saaleh al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him], “What is the meaning of the principle, ‘The truth is not known by way of men, rather men are known by way of the truth?'”

Answer: Its meaning is that we do not merely blindly follow anyone, for it may be that one is blindly followed based on error; it may be that the Mujtahid is mistaken and the one who makes [a statement or holds an opinion] is mistaken, so we do not take [his statement, opinion etc] and say, “This is the statement of such as such; this is truth, because such and such is good, he is a scholar; such and such is Taqiy [i.e. one who fears Allaah]”. We do not say this because he is not infallible and he can make a mistake; so we know men by way of the truth – those who know; those who take [or adhere to] the proofs and indeed they are known to be scholars. As for those who do not give concern [or importance] to the proofs, they are not scholars; they are not people of [sound] understanding and they are not people of knowledge, so their statement is never taken straight away. It is imperative that the proof is presented, so if the proof is established as witness to [what he says or holds etc], then it is the truth; but if he opposes the proof, then indeed [his statement or opinion] is rejected; however if he is a Mujtahid and he is mistaken, he is rewarded [once] due to his Ijtihaad; but if he deliberately holds on to error, he has sinned. [Paraphrased. Refer to video here: https://video.link/w/9famb ]

NB: The Permissible and Prohibited Forms of Taqleed

https://salaficentre.com/2012/06/the-permissible-and-prohibited-forms-of-taqleed-salafipublications-com-article-id-mnj060005/


[Ref 1: Siyar A’laam An-Nubulaa. 5/75]

[Ref 1.1: Al-Jaami Li-Akhlaaq Ar-Raawi Wa Aadaab As-Saami’  page 8]

[Ref 2: Majmoo 9/40) 3rd paragraph]
[Ref 3: All-Mulakh-khasul Jameel Fee Bayaani Manhaji Ash-Shaikh Rabee Fid-Da’wati Wal-Jarhi Wat-Ta’deel. Page 87]

O Allah! Just as You Made My External Form Beautiful, Make My Character Beautiful as Well

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood [may Allah be pleased with him] reported that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said: [اللهم كما حَسَّنْت خَلْقِي فَحَسِّنْ خُلُقِي – O Allah! Just as You made my external form beautiful, make my character beautiful as well].

PDF Below

Admonitions of The Scholars Regarding Good Manners

Admonitions of The Scholars Regarding Good Manners

 

Wealth, Poverty, Zuhd, Gratitude, Struggle For Worldly Status!

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:

Many of the latter people [i.e. those who came after the Salaf] associated Zuhd with poverty, but Zuhd can be present alongside wealth and poverty. Amongst the Prophets and those who were foremost in embracing Eemaan [i.e. the Sahaabah] there were those who were wealthy and Zaahid (i.e. one who abstained from extra permissible things of the worldly life]. [Majmoo 11/28]

Imaam Ibraaheem Bin Ad’ham [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:

Abstinence from the worldly life is of three types: obligatory abstinence, the abstinence that is of a superior virtue and the abstinence that is safety. As for obligatory abstinence, it is to abstinence from the unlawful; the abstinence that is of superior virtue is to abstain from the what is lawful wordly things that are unnecessary, and the abstinence that is safety is to abstain from the doubtful matters. [Jaami-ul Uloom Wal-Hikam: page: 310]

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [rahimahullaah] said: Indeed, whenever the people increase in opulence and it is made accessible to them, evil gains access to them. When a person fixes his sight on opulence and becomes engrossed in bodily pleasures, he becomes heedless of softening his heart [i.e. with remembrance of Allaah, remembrance of death, performance of good deeds, repentance, remembrance of the Aakhirah etc] and his greatest concern becomes [engaging] this body in opulence, whose final state will be worms and rot.

The Worldly Life Is For Types of People

Narrated Abu Kabshah Al-An’maariy (radiyallaahu-anhu) that Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said: “I swear by Allah regarding three (affairs) which I am going to tell, so remember them. The wealth of a man does not decrease due to (giving) charity; a slave does not exercise patience when oppressed, except that Allah increases his honour; a slave does not open the door of begging, except that Allaah opens for him the door of poverty (or he stated a statement similar to it).” I am going to tell you (something), so remember it: The worldly life is for four types of people. A slave whom Allaah has given wealth and knowledge, so he fears his Lord by way of it. He preserves the ties of kinship and acknowledges Allaah’s Rights regarding it. This (type of person) is on the most virtuous position. A slave whom Allaah has given knowledge but not wealth. He is truthful in his intention and says: `If I had wealth, I would have done the deed of such and such (person).’’ So because of this intention of his, his reward is the same (i.e. the righteous one who has been given wealth and knowledge). A slave whom Allaah has given wealth but not knowledge. He wastes his wealth out of ignorance. He neither fears Allaah nor does he keep the ties of kinship, nor does he acknowledge Allaah’s rights. This (type of person) is at the evilest position. A slave whom Allaah has neither given wealth nor knowledge and he says: `If I had wealth, I would have done the deed of such and such (person).’’ So by way of his intention, they are similar (i.e. similar to the evil person who wastes his wealth). [Reported by Tirmidhee 2325; Ahmad 18031; Al-Baghawiy 4097]

Al-Allaamah Ubaid Bin Abdillaah al-Jaabiri (may Allaah preserve him) stated: The first is a wealthy person who is thankful (to Allaah); so Allaah will raise him to the most virtuous position due to his deed. The second is a poor person who exercises patience. He is truthful in his intention with regards to spending from that which Allaah has bestowed on him. So Allaah makes him reach the most virtuous position due to his truthful intention. The third is a boastful wealthy person. He is covetous and stingy; so his deed takes him to the most evil position. The fourth is a boastful poor person and his intention is evil. So together with his poverty, his intention takes him to the most evil position. So based on this, we know that by way of truthful intentions Allaah raises the person. And an evil intention debases a person until he finds him/herself in the most evil position. [An Excerpt from: البيان المرصع شرح القواعد الأربع- pages 8-9. Slightly paraphrased]

The Worldly Things Are Not a Purpose

Imaam Muhammad Ib Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [rahimahullaah] said:

This is the calamity and it is what harms people these days. You do not find anyone [i.e. many people] except that they say, “What have we missed [i.e. of the worldly things]?” “What is our car?” [i.e. what car do you have?] “And what is our furniture?” [i.e. what furniture do you have?] -to the extent that some of those who seek knowledge [of the religion] only do so for the purpose of reaching a [particular] level or grade in order to attain the enjoyment of the worldly things. It is as if the human being is not created for a great purpose. The enjoyable things of the worldly life are only a means [i.e. a means to fulfilling ones needs and not the purpose of this life]. Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said: “It is befitting that a person utilises wealth in the manner he utilises his donkey for riding, and in the manner he utilises the toilet for defecation”. [i.e. only when he needs it]

Do not make wealth your greatest concern; rather you should be the one in control of wealth. That is because if you are not the one in controlled, it will control you and the worldly life will become your [main] concern. So for this reason, we say: Whenever the worldly things are opened up to the people and they start looking at it [i.e. with much concern], then indeed they lose the afterlife in accordance with their interest in the worldly life. The Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, “By Allaah! It is not poverty that I fear for you; rather what I fear is that the worldly things will be made accessible to you, so that you compete one another for it, just as those before you competed one another for it, and it destroys you, just as it destroyed them”. The Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] spoke the truth because what has destroyed the people at present is competition for the worldly things as if they were created for that purpose, and as if it was created for them for that purpose. [Source: An Excerpt from ‘Sharh Riyaadus Saaliheen Cassette number 17’. slightly paraphrased]

Gratitude

Abu Hurairah [radiyallaahu-anhu] narrated that the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, ‘’Look at those who are below you and do not look at those above you, for it is more suitable lest you look down on Allaah’s blessings [bestowed upon] you.” [Saheeh Muslim’ Hadeeth Number 2963]

Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] stated:

A person should neither be covetous of this worldly life nor anxious due to what afflicts him [or her], rather he (or she) should exercise patience and hope for [Allaah’s reward due to exercising patience] – whether he [or she] is poor, sick or other than that. The worldly life is a place of trial and test, so one should not become anxious due to calamities and trials. And what makes this affair easier for a person is the guidance given by the Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] in this hadeeth [as follows]:” Look at those who are below you and do not look at those above you, for it is more suitable lest you look down on Allaah’s blessings [bestowed upon] you”.

A poor person should look at the one who is poorer and should not look at a wealthier [person], for if Allaah willed He would have placed you in the same situation as that poor person who has nothing. You have something – you have your daily nourishment; but that one poorer than you has nothing – he does not even have his daily nourishment. You are in a better situation, so praise Allaah for this and do not look at the wealthier people because that will lead you to harbour anger against Allaah and being displeased with His divine Will, and then you [will or might] say, ‘’Why can I not be like such and such person; why am not like the wealthy people?’’ This is the meaning of looking down on the blessing you have. However, if you look at the person below you, it will make you thankful because your situation is better than that of many people. Therefore, the one in good health should look at the sick person and then praises Allaah for granting him [or her] good health. The one who is sick should look at the one who is sicker than him (or her) and then praises Allaah for being less sick than the person who is sicker than him [or her]. This (hadeeth embodies) a great principle. Therefore, ‘look to the one below you’ in (relation) to wealth, health and in other affairs.

However, this should not be the case in affairs related to acts of worship – in affairs related to acts of worship, you should not look at the one below you. You should not look at the lazy people and those who neglect their religious duties, rather you should look at the righteous and God-fearing people so that you can join them in performing good deeds and be like them. Therefore, with regards to affairs related to the religion, you should not look at the one below you, rather you should look at the one above you in the religion, for why do not want to be like him (or her); why do you not want to be like the righteous people; why do not want to emulate the God-fearing scholars? [i.e. those scholars whose creed is sound; those free from shirk, religious innovations, superstitions, fictitious beliefs and practices- who practice Islaam based on the Qur’aan, the authentic Sunnah and the understanding of the Sahaabah]. If you are a student of knowledge, you should not be satisfied with the sciences of the religion you have acquired; rather you should seek to increase in knowledge as long as you are alive. [Tasheelul il’haami Bi-Fiqhil Ahaadeethi Min Bulooghil Maraam’ Hadeeth Number 1438’ Vol 6′ pages 168-169. slightly paraphrased]

Ubaidullaah Ibn Mihsan Al-Khatmiy narrated from his father that the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said: ‘’Whoever among you wakes up [in the morning] safe in his property, healthy in his body and has his daily nourishment, it is as if he has been granted the entire world’’.

Al-Allaamah Zayd Bin Haadi Al-Mad’khali [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:

This hadeeth shows that those blessed with safety in the lands, physical health, houses to live in and daily nourishment have indeed been blessed with a complete [worldly] blessing. Therefore, it is obligated [on them] to thank Allaah constantly.

This hadeeth shows that what suffice a person’s needs are a bounty and a blessing for which he must thank Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic]. A person may strive to gather a lot of wealth; however he was created to worship of Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] in the manner [commanded, legislated etc] by Allaah and His Messenger [i.e. based on what is legislated and commanded in the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah]. If a person does this, then indeed he will achieve and attain success; but if not, he will fail and incur loss. Therefore, is there one who will receive admonition?!

This hadeeth shows that to be blessed with safety in one’s religion, honour, wealth and blood is [something very] valuable. These are among those affairs whose establishment- in a society- will bring about a good life and security. But if security is not present, chaos will unravel in the society – the powerful people will overpower the weak and the oppressor will overpower the oppressed, and thus there will be an evil state of affairs and maybe evil consequences. Therefore, any society or land that has been bestowed a ruler amongst the Muslims and granted security in a region under his ruler-ship, then it is obligatory to obey him [i.e. obey the ruler of the land in what is good and not to rebel against him, even if he has shortcomings] and he should be aided by the other lands as much as one is able.

And what is seen as a fact in relation to this [hadeeth] is that whoever is blessed with enough food and drink, a dwelling place, means of transportation, security in his place of residence and good physical health, then it is as if he has been given the entire world. Therefore, he should be thankful to Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] for that until he meets Allaah- [i.e. until death comes to him]. [Source: An Excerpt from ‘Awnul Ahadis Samad Sharh Al-Adabil Mufrad’ Vol 1. page 335]

Narrated Abu Hurairah [radiyallaahu-anhu]: The Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, “let the slave of the Deenaar and Dirham, and Qateefah and khameesah [i.e. money and luxurious clothes] perish, for he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased”. [Bukhaari. Number 2886]

Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] said:

This hadeeth is about the one who only seeks after the Dunyah [worldly possessions] and does not desire the Hereafter; rather his only desire is Dunyah. He does not give concern to his religion, rather his only concern is the Dunyah; so if he is given something from the Dunyah he becomes pleased with Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] and the people; but if he is not given from it, he becomes displeased with Allaah and the people.

[تعس ]- meaning ‘destroyed’. [التعس] means ‘destruction’ and unsuccessful. [Allaah (The Most High) said]: [وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَتَعۡسً۬ا لَّهُمۡ – But those who disbelieve (in the Oneness of Allah), for them is destruction. (47:8)]

Why is he called a slave [of the Deenaar and dirham]? That is because he attaches his heart to it [i.e. wealth], so the worldly life becomes as if it is his lord. He attaches his heart to it and becomes enslaved by it. The poet says:

*I obeyed my desires and thus they enslaved me
*And had I indeed been satisfied [with what I have] I would have been free

Therefore, this man’s concern is [only] the Dunyah- if given from it he becomes pleased, praises and extols; but if not given, indeed he is displeased and angry, just as Allaah [Glorified be He and free is He from all Imperfections] stated about the hypocrites:

وَمِنۡہُم مَّن يَلۡمِزُكَ فِى ٱلصَّدَقَـٰتِ فَإِنۡ أُعۡطُواْ مِنۡہَا رَضُواْ وَإِن لَّمۡ يُعۡطَوۡاْ مِنۡہَآ إِذَا هُمۡ يَسۡخَطُونَ

And of them are some who accuse you (O Muhammad) in the matter of (the distribution of) the alms. If they are given part thereof, they are pleased, but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged! [9:58]

Their pleasure and displeasure is attached to wealth. The one who (becomes) pleased and displeased (solely) for the sake of wealth is a hypocrite, a slave of the Deenaar and the Dirham. Allaah [The Most High] said:

[ وَلَوۡ أَنَّهُمۡ رَضُواْ مَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ۥ وَقَالُواْ حَسۡبُنَا ٱللَّهُ سَيُؤۡتِينَا ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَرَسُولُهُ ۥۤ إِنَّآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ رَٲغِبُونَ – Would that they were contented with what Allah and His Messenger () gave them and had said: “Allah is Sufficient for us. Allah will give us of His Bounty, and (also) His Messenger (from alms, etc.). We implore Allah (to enrich us)]. [9:59]

This (hadeeth) conveys a rebuke against covetousness and that a person should not solely be pleased or displeased due to the Dunyah, rather his anger and pleasure should be for the sake of his religion and for the sake of Allaah. As for the Dunyah, if he is given something of it he takes it; but if not given anything from it, then indeed he should say: “Allaah suffices me and He will give me give from His bounty”.

When the Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] used to distribute wealth, he used to give those whose Eemaan was weak and the hypocrites – gave them more; but he did not give anything to the best of the Sahaabah; rather he entrusted them to their religion, for indeed due to their [strong] Eemaan they would not become angry if not given. As for the people of weak Eemaan, the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] feared that they will be enraged, so he gave them and brought their hearts closer [the religion].

So this [hadeeth also conveys the affair of] piety and that it is obligated on a person not to attach his heart to the Dunyah [i.e. in the blameworthy manner mentioned in this hadeeth] – solely getting angry and pleased due to it; rather he should attach his heart to Allaah. As for the Dunyah, if he is given something lawful from it- which he did not ask for- then indeed he takes it and utilises it as a means of obedience to Allaah; but if he is not given anything, then indeed his religion suffices him and he places his trust and reliance in Allaah. This is the difference between the people of the Dunyah [i.e. those who solely strive for it at the expense of the Aakhirah] and the people of the Deen [i.e. those who seek after lawful provision in the worldly life and make the afterlife their main goal]. [An Excerpt from Tasheelul Il’haam Bi-Fiqhil Ahaadeeth Min Bulooghil Maraam’ Vol 6’ page 217-218]

The Struggle For Worldly Status and Recognition

Imaam Al-Bukhaari [rahimahullaah] said, ‘’Chapter: If somebody does not seek authority of ruling, then Allaah will surely help him [if he is given such authority].’’

Narrated Abdur-Rahmaan Bin Samura: The Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said, ‘’O Abdur-Rahmaan! Do not seek to be a ruler, for if you are given authority on your demand, then you will be held responsible for it, but if you are given it without asking [for it], then you will be helped [by Allaah] in it. If you ever take an oath to do something and later on you find that something else is better, then you should expiate your oath and do what is better.’’ [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari, Number 7146]

Few Reminders From Fat-hul Baari:

The one who seeks authority and receives it will not be helped. It is well known that to be in authority is accompanied by difficulties, so the one who does not receive help from Allaah will be trapped within it and thus loses both his Dunyah and Aakhirah. Therefore, the sensible person does not ask for authority, but if he is suitable and it is given to him without him asking for it, then indeed the truthful and trustworthy one [i.e. The Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wsallam)] has promised him that Allaah will help him. [An Excerpt: Chapter: (باب من لم يسأل الإمارة أعانه الله عليها  )in ‘kitaab al Ahkaam’ Saheeh Al-Bukhaari with Fat-hul Baari]

Imaam Ibn Rajab [rahimahullaah] said: Eagerness for high status is of two types: The first type is seeking high status through leadership, authority and wealth. This is very dangerous and in most cases it prevents [a person] from [acquiring] the good of the afterlife, its nobility, honour and elevated station. Allaah [The Most High] said: [تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۚ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ – That home of the Hereafter [i.e. Paradise], We shall assign to those who rebel not against the truth with pride and oppression in the land nor do mischief by committing crimes. And the good end is for the Muttaqoon]. [Al-Qasas. Ayah 83]

The second type is seeking high status and to be raised in status above the people through the religious affairs, such as knowledge, deeds and Zuhd. This is more abominable than the first type and greater in danger and corruption, because knowledge, deeds and Zuhd are [affairs] by way of which one seeks what Allaah [has prepared for His slaves] of high station and everlasting bliss [in the afterlife]- a means to drawing close to Him [i.e. by way of sincere and righteous deeds] and to receive His favours [in the worldly life and afterlife]. Imaam Sufyaan Ath-thawree [rahimahullaah] said: “Knowledge has more virtue because it is for the [purpose] of attaining fear of Allaah; and if not, it is just like all other things.’’ [Excerpts from the book (Two hungry wolves let loose amongst a flock of sheep) pages: 29, 47 & 53]

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said: Therefore, he [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] clarified that the corruption [caused] through craving for wealth and high status in the religion cannot be lesser than the corruption [caused] by two hungry wolves let loose among a livestock, and that is [something] manifest; for indeed there is [nothing] of this [type] of craving in the sound religion. That is because when the heart tastes the sweetness of servitude to Allaah and love of Him, nothing else becomes more beloved to it than that. And through this, evil and immorality are averted from the people who are sincere to Allaah. [An Excerpt from (Majmoo Al-Fataawaa) 10/215]

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] also said: The seeker of leadership- even through falsehood- becomes pleased with a statement that contains an exaltation of him, even if it is falsehood; and becomes angered by a statement that contains a rebuke against him, even if it is truth.  [As for] the believer [i.e. the one with strong Eemaan and fear of Allaah], he is pleased with a statement of truth whether it is for or against him; and he is angered by a statement of falsehood whether it is for or against him. That is because Allaah [The Most High] loves truth, truthfulness and justice, and He hates lies and oppression. [Majmoo Al-Fataawaa: 10/600]

 

Prophets Ibraaheem, Moosaa and Sulaymaan – [Reflection On Some of Their Qualities]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Allaah [The Exalted] said:

وَلَقَدۡ بَعَثۡنَا فِى ڪُلِّ أُمَّةٍ۬ رَّسُولاً أَنِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱجۡتَنِبُواْ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَ‌ۖ فَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ هَدَى ٱللَّهُ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ حَقَّتۡ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ‌ۚ فَسِيرُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنظُرُواْ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُكَذِّبِينَ

And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taghut (all false deities, etc. i.e. do not worship Taghut besides Allah).” Then of them were some whom Allah guided and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied (the truth). [Surah An-Nahl. Aayah 36]

Ibraaheem [alayhis salaam]- Upright Imaam, Obedient and Haneefah (Worshipped Allaah alone)

Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] said:
إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَانِتًا لِّلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Verily, Ibraaheem was an Ummah [leader], Qaanitan [obedient], Haneefan [one who worshipped Allaah alone], and he was not one of the Mushrikeen [polytheists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and those who associate partners with Allah]. [Surah An-Nahl. Verse 120]

Three Qualities: Imaam – a leader of guidance and an upright guide for the people; Qaanitan – constant in worship and obedient to Allaah; Haneefan – turning away from Shirk [i.e. beliefs, acts, ideas and views that are tantamount to associating partners with Allaah]; [وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ – and he was not one of the Mushrikeen – the polytheists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah, and those who associate partners with Allaah].

Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] stated in another Aayah:
قَدۡ كَانَتۡ لَكُمۡ أُسۡوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ۬ فِىٓ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ وَٱلَّذِينَ مَعَهُ ۥۤ إِذۡ قَالُواْ لِقَوۡمِہِمۡ إِنَّا بُرَءَٲٓؤُاْ مِنكُمۡ وَمِمَّا تَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ

Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibraaheem (Abraham) and those with him, when they said to their people: “Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allaah…” [Surah Al-Mumtahinah. Verse 4]

These qualities of Prophet Ibraaheem [alayhis salaam] are that of a person who actualises Tawheed [pure Islamic monotheism] and an encouragement for others to emulate them, just as Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] stated: [قَدۡ كَانَتۡ لَكُمۡ أُسۡوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ۬ فِىٓ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ – Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibraaheem]. (1)
Gentleness

Look at Ibraaheem’s [alayhis-salaam] gentleness “O My father! Why do worship that which hears not, sees not and cannot avail you in anything, O my father! Verily! There has come to me of knowledge that which came not unto you.” He did not say,‘’O father you’re Jaahil’, but he [kindly] said that he has received knowledge which his father has not received. (2)

Hospitality

Allaah (The Most High) stated:
هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ ضَيْفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْمُكْرَمِينَ
إِذْ دَخَلُوا عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُوا سَلَامًا ۖ قَالَ سَلَامٌ قَوْمٌ مُّنكَرُونَ
فَرَاغَ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ فَجَاءَ بِعِجْلٍ سَمِينٍ
فَقَرَّبَهُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَالَ أَلَا تَأْكُلُونَ
فَأَوْجَسَ مِنْهُمْ خِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا لَا تَخَفْ ۖ وَبَشَّرُوهُ بِغُلَامٍ عَلِيمٍ
فَأَقْبَلَتِ امْرَأَتُهُ فِي صَرَّةٍ فَصَكَّتْ وَجْهَهَا وَقَالَتْ عَجُوزٌ عَقِيمٌ

Has the story reached you, of the honoured guests [three angels; Jibrael (Gabriel) along with another two] of Ibrahim (Abraham)? When they came in to him, and said, “Salam, (peace be upon you)!” He answered; “Salam,(peace be upon you),” and said: “You are a people unknown to me. Then he turned to his household, so brought out a roasted calf [as the property of Ibrahim (Abraham) was mainly cows]. And placed it before them, (saying): “Will you not eat? Then he conceived a fear of them (when they ate not). They said: “Fear not.” And they gave him glad tidings of an intelligent son, having knowledge (about Allah and His religion of True Monotheism). Then his wife came forward with a loud voice, she smote her face, and said: “A barren old woman!” [51:24-29]

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said:

Firstly: Allaah described his guests as being honoured. They were either honourable in the sight of Ibraaheem or honourable in the sight of Allaah. The verse carries both meanings.

Secondly: Allaah [The Most High] said: [ إِذْ دَخَلُوا عَلَيْهِ- When they came in to him.] So there is not a mention about them seeking permission to enter and in this is proof that he was known for being generous to guests. His house was open to guests and frequented by the one who could find it without the need for asking permission. This is a highest level of generosity.

[فَرَاغَ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ -Then he turned to his household]: He went to his family in secret without the knowledge of the guests. This is an act of nobility – the leader of the house goes away secretly [to bring something for the guest] in such a manner that the guest is unaware, lest [the guest] becomes uneasy and shy; so he is made unaware until [the host] comes along with the food, as opposed to the one who says to his guest or those who are present: ‘’Wait, so that I bring you food’’ or a similar statement, which makes the guest feel shy and embarrassed.

[فَجَاءَ بِعِجْلٍ سَمِينٍ – so (he) brought out a fat roasted calf]: This is an indication of his hospitality to his guests. Allaah (The Most High) did not say that Ibraaheem ordered for them, rather Ibraaheem went away and came back with the (roasted calf) himself. He did not send his servant to bring it and this is the highest degree of hospitality to guests.

He came with a full roasted calf and not half of it. This is perfect hospitality. The calf was fat and not skinny, and it is well known that this was among the best of their wealth. The likes of it is given particular attention and nurturing, and Ibraaheem (alayhis-salaam) chose it for his guests.

He himself brought the food close to them and did not command his servant to (do) so. He brought the food close to them and did not make them come close to the food. This is the highest level of generosity- bringing the food close, carrying it to the guest and not placing it at a distance and then asking the guest to come close.

He said to them [أَلَا تَأْكُلُونَ- Will you not eat?]: This is generous and soft speech, and it is better than saying ‘eat’ or ‘extend your hands’ and what is similar to it. He spoke to them with this generous and soft speech when he saw that they were not eating, because his guests are never in need of his permission; rather they eat when he presents food to them. So, when these guests did not eat, he said to them: ‘’Will you not eat?’’ He felt fear of them but did not reveal it. (3)

Moosaa [alayhis saalm]

After Allaah [The Most High] inspired Moosaa [alayhis-salaam], appointed him a Prophet and showed him magnificent signs, he was then sent to Fir’awn – the king of Misr [Egypt]. Allaah [The Most High] said to Moosaa [alayhis-salaam]: [ٱذۡهَبۡ إِلَىٰ فِرۡعَوۡنَ إِنَّهُ ۥ طَغَىٰ- Go to Fir’aun (Pharaoh)! Verily, he has transgressed all bounds] – Meaning: Fir’awn has rebelled and transgressed all the limits in disbelief and corruption. He has become haughty in the earth, overpowered the weak, claimed Ar-Ruboobiyyah [i.e. Lordship] and al-Uloohiyyah [i.e. that he deserves to be worshipped].

This transgression of his was the cause of his destruction, but due to Allaah’s Perfect Mercy, Wisdom and Justice, He does not punish anyone until after establishing the proofs by sending Messengers. Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] knew that he was going to carry a great responsibility because he was going to be sent to an obstinate and arrogant dictator, who had no opponent in Misr [Egypt] -amongst the people- to oppose him.

Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] was by himself after he accidentally killed someone [i.e. when he accidentally killed one of Fir’awn’s people, whilst defending a man from Bani Israaeel, so Fir’awn and his chiefs were determined to kill him]; however after Allaah [The Most High] commanded him to go to Fir’awn, he obeyed Allaah’s [The Most High] command, accepted it wholeheartedly, asked Allaah [The Most High] for assistance and to facilitate him with the ability to [fulfil the task].

Allaah [The Most High] said that Moosaa [alayhis salaam] said: [رَبِّ ٱشۡرَحۡ لِى صَدۡرِى – O my Lord! My expand my heart]- Meaning: Grant me self-confidence and courage so that I can bear both verbal and physical harm, and so that I neither grieve nor become fed up due such harm; for indeed a person with an aggrieved heart is not fit to guide and invite the people to [Allaah’s guidance].

[وَيَسِّرۡ لِىٓ أَمۡرِى – And ease my task for me]- Meaning: Grant me ease in every affair I pursue and every path I intend to follow, whilst calling to your guidance; and lighten the difficulties in front of me.

The caller is granted ease when he approaches all affairs in the appropriate manner; addresses every person based on what they should be addressed with, and calls them through a path that is easier for them to understand, which will enable them to accept his speech.

[وَٱحۡلُلۡ عُقۡدَةً۬ مِّن لِّسَانِى – And make loose the knot (the defect) from my tongue, (i.e. remove the incorrectness from my speech) [That occurred as a result of a brand of fire which Musa (Moses) put in his mouth when he was an infant]; [يَفۡقَهُواْ قَوۡلِى – That they understand my speech].

Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] used to suffer from a speech impediment and it was difficult to understand his speech as the Mufassiroon have stated, just as Allaah [The Most High] said in another Aayah that Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] said: [وَأَخِى هَـٰرُونُ هُوَ أَفۡصَحُ مِنِّى لِسَانً۬ا– And my brother Haaroon (Aaron) he is more eloquent in speech than me]. Therefore, Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] asked Allaah [The Most High] to remove the speech impediment in order that what he says can be understood and the people he speaks to can clearly grasp what is intended by his speech.
[وَٱجۡعَل لِّى وَزِيرً۬ا مِّنۡ أَهۡلِى – And appoint for me a helper from my family];[ هَـٰرُونَ أَخِى- Haaroon (Aaron), my brother]; [ٱشۡدُدۡ بِهِۦۤ أَزۡرِى Increase my strength with him]-Meaning: To be my helper and my assistant in delivering the message to those whom you have sent me to deliver your message, just as Allaah [The Most High] said in another Aayah: [سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَكَ بِأَخِيكَ وَنَجۡعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلۡطَـٰنً۬ا – We will strengthen your arm through your brother, and give you both power]. [وَأَشۡرِكۡهُ فِىٓ أَمۡرِى – And let him share my task]- Meaning: Grant him prophet-hood and make him a Messenger, just as you have made me a Prophet and a Messenger.

Then Allaah [The Most High] informed us of the benefit Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] was seeking by asking for such favours, which is: [كَىۡ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيرً۬ا – That we may glorify You much]; [وَنَذۡكُرَكَ كَثِيرًا – And remember You much].

Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] knew that acts of worship and the religion revolves around remembrance of Allaah, so he asked Allaah to make his brother a partner in that – aiding and helping one another in righteousness and piety; remembering Allaah [The Most High] profusely by way of Tasbeeh [i.e. Subhaanallaah], Tahleel [i.e. laa ilaaha illal laah] and other type types of worship.

[إِنَّكَ كُنتَ بِنَا بَصِيرً۬ا- Verily! You are of us Ever a Well-Seer] – Meaning: You know our situation and weaknesses; what we can and cannot do, and our complete need of You in every affair. You see our affair more than us [i.e. you see everything and nothing escapes your sight] and you are more Merciful to us than we have for ourselves; therefore bestow upon us what we have asked You and respond to our supplication.

After Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] made these supplications and requests, Allaah [The Most High] said to him: [قَدۡ أُوتِيتَ سُؤۡلَكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ -You are granted your request, O Musa (Moses)]- Meaning: I will grant you everything you’ve asked. I will grant you courage, make your task easy and remove the speech impediment from your tongue, so that your speech is understood; and I will make your brother -Haaroon- your helper. Allaah [The Most High] said in another Aayah:

[وَنَجۡعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلۡطَـٰنً۬ا فَلَا يَصِلُونَ إِلَيۡكُمَا‌ۚ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ أَنتُمَا وَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَكُمَا ٱلۡغَـٰلِبُونَ- And give you both power, so they shall not be able to harm you, with Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), you two as well as those who follow you will be the victors].

These requests made by Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] shows his perfect knowledge and awareness of Allaah [The Most High], his perfect discernment, perfect knowledge about affairs and perfect sincerity. That is because the caller to the path of Allaah- the one who guides the people, especially if the one being invited to the path of Allaah is from the obstinate and haughty ones, and transgressors- is need of a courageous heart and complete forbearance, in order to bear the harm he might come across. He is in need of clear speech, in order to be able to express himself to the one he intends and wishes to address. Rather, a person in such a situation [i.e. the caller] is need of clear eloquent speech in order to present the truth in a proficient manner, beautify it as much as he is able and make it appealing to the people. On the other hand, he shows the ugliness of falsehood, so as to repel people from it.

Besides this, the caller is in need of being granted ease in his task by approaching affairs in the proper manner – calling to the path of Allaah with wisdom, fine admonition and arguing in the best way. He should deal with every person whilst taking into consideration the situation of each person he addresses.

This affair becomes more accomplished when the caller has helpers and assistants, who will help him to reach this goal- because when many people speak, it will have an effect and that is why Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] made those requests. And if you examine the situation of the prophets – those sent to the people- you will discover this affair, especially the seal and most virtuous amongst them, Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam]; for indeed he [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] was at the highest peak in every perfect and good human characteristic. He had a courageous heart and was facilitated with the means of calling to Allaah. His speech was eloquent – with fine expression and explanation- and he had companions who aided him to convey the truth, and [besides the Prophets and Messengers] none can ever excel those companions of Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] after their departure from this world. (4)

Praiseworthy Shyness

Moosaa [alayhis salaam] was a very shy man and used to cover his body completely. No part of his skin was seen due to shyness. So, he was hurt by those amongst the children of Israel who said, “He covers his body in this way only because of some defect in his skin- either leprosy or scrotal hernia, or he has some other defect”. Allaah wished to free Moosaa [alayhis salaam] from that which they said about him; so one day whilst he was in seclusion, he took off his clothes and put them on a stone and started taking a bath. When he finished the bath, he moved towards his clothes to take them, but the stone fled with his clothes. Moosaa [alayhis salaam] picked up his stick and ran after the stone saying, ‘O stone! My clothes’ until he reached a group of the children of Israel who saw him without [clothes], and found him the best of that which Allaah had created, and Allaah freed him from what they had accused him of. They said, “By Allaah! Nothing is wrong with Moosaa”. The stone stopped there, so Moosaa [alayhi salaam] took his and put on them, and thereafter started hitting the stone with his stick. By Allaah, the stone still has some traces of the hitting- three, four or five marks. This was what Allah referred to in His statement:

[ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَكُونُواْ كَٱلَّذِينَ ءَاذَوۡاْ مُوسَىٰ فَبَرَّأَهُ ٱللَّهُ مِمَّا قَالُواْۚ وَكَانَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَجِيہً۬ا- O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Musa (Moses), but Allah cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honourable in the sight of Allaah].[Surah Al-Ahzaab. Verse 69]

Al-Allaamah Zayd Bin Haadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: This hadeeth [contains] one of the most amazing stories – a story through which Allaah raised the status of Moosaa [alayhis salaam]. In this hadeeth, there is a clarification regarding the fact that the Messengers and the Prophets were put to trial at the hands of the evil ones in their nations; so they exercised patience whilst facing harm, received abundant reward from Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] and carried on propagating Allaah’s message. Indeed, the Messenger [Sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] informed us that Moosaa [alayhis salaam] was harmed by Bani Israa’eel but he exercised patience. In this hadeeth, there is proof to show that the miracles of the Messengers and Prophets are affirmed. And with regards to this particular miracle, the stone- an inanimate object – moved and fled with the thobe; then Moosaa [alayhis salaam] was finally able to catch up with it. He hit it several times and left a mark on it. This is the great miracle that has been mentioned in this hadeeth. (5)

Sulaymaan [alayhis salaam]

Allaah [The Most High] said:
وَحُشِرَ لِسُلَيْمَانَ جُنُودُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ
وَالْإِنْسِ وَالطَّيْرِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ
حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَتَوْا عَلَىٰ وَادِ النَّمْلِ قَالَتْ
نَمْلَةٌ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّمْلُ ادْخُلُوا
مَسَاكِنَكُمْ لَا يَحْطِمَنَّكُمْ
سُلَيْمَانُ وَجُنُودُهُ وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ
فَتَبَسَّمَ ضَاحِكًا مِنْ قَوْلِهَا وَقَالَ رَبِّ
أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي
أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ
صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي
عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ

And there were gathered before Sulaiman (Solomon) his hosts of jinns and men, and birds, and they all were set in battle order (marching forwards). Till, when they came to the valley of the ants, one of the ants said: “O ants! Enter your dwellings, lest Sulaiman (Solomon) and his hosts crush you, while they perceive not.” So he [Sulaiman (Solomon)] smiled, amused at her speech and said: “My Lord! Inspire and bestow upon me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favours which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, and admit me by Your Mercy among Your righteous slaves.”

Few Reminders From The Above Verses

The ant sought an excuse for the army if they would have harmed its colony due to being unaware of their presence and it blamed its colony if they failed to take precaution by not entering their dwelling place. And due to this, Sulaymaan [alayhis salaam] smiled because indeed it is something that should bring about amazement and make someone smile. (6)

The ant knew Sulaymaan’s [alayhis salaam] affair and that of his army, exalted Sulaymaan’s [alayhis salaam] authority and excused them if they crushed its colony because that would have occurred unintentionally.

Sulaymaan [alayhis-salaam] heard the ant’s speech and understood it, so he smiled due to being amazed by the ant’s eloquence, [good] advice and fine expression. This is how the Prophets were – perfect manners and expressing their amazement in the right circumstances. They do not laugh; rather they smile just as the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] mostly used to smile, for indeed a loud burst of laughter is an indication of feeble mindedness and bad manners; but the one who does not become amazed by what should amaze a person, then this is an indication of ill-humour and haughtiness, and the Messengers of Allaah are free from that. (7)

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [rahimahullaah] said:

The Messengers are the most judicious amongst the creation without exception, and after them their followers are the most judicious group. The people of the scriptures and the great legislated laws are the most judicious amongst the followers of the Messengers and the Muslims are the most judicious amongst them [i.e. amongst all those who received divine scriptures and great legislated laws].

The companions of Muhammad [peace and blessings be upon him] are the most judicious amongst the Muslims and then those who followed them exactly in faith. The people who adhere steadfastly to the authentic tradition of the Prophet and the authentic narrations transmitted from him are the most judicious amongst the Muslim nation without exception after companions and those who adhered to their path.

The clear evidence showing that the Messengers are the most judicious amongst the entire creation is that the beneficial knowledge they have brought- the righteous actions and the beneficial affairs related to true wellbeing in this worldly life and the afterlife- has not emerged from others or something even close it. There is nothing- from any perspective- that emerged from other judicious people that can be compared to what the Messengers brought with regards to beneficial knowledge, righteous action and the beneficial affairs of true wellbeing in this worldly life and the afterlife.

Whoever ponders upon their personal life stories – in specific and in general, their patience and perseverance, their abstinence from those unnecessary lawful pleasures of the worldly life, their fervent desire for Allaah’s pleasure  and the reward Allaah has kept in the afterlife, their purified manners, the fact that they are the most truthful amongst the creation, (possessors) of the most righteous hearts and the most purified souls, trustees of the greatest trust (i.e. revelation and Messenger ship), the noblest of those whom a person can accompany, the purest in their innermost conscience, the purest with regards to their private affairs- will not doubt the fact that they are the most judicious amongst Allaah’s creation without exception. There is no doubt that whoever is closer to them [i.e. follows them properly], then his (or her) share of judiciousness will be more than (that of others). (8)

Comprehensive Guidance of The Messenger Muhammad [sallal laahu alayhi sallam]

[Seal of The Prophets]

Muhammad’s [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] Ummah is not in need of anyone after him; rather the only need they have is someone to convey what he came with. Muhammad’s [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] message is comprehensive, universal and preserved. This universality, comprehensiveness and preservation is not limited to [any time and place], rather it is comprehensive for those to whom Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] was sent [i.e. the whole world] and likewise with regards to everything that is needed in the fundamental and subsidiary issues of the religion.

Muhammad’s [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] message is sufficient, all embracing and universal- nothing else is needed besides it. It has not isolated any affair of truth needed by his Ummah in their sciences and deeds. The Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] did not leave this world until he acquainted his Ummah with everything. He even taught them the etiquettes of using the toilet; the etiquettes of sexual relations; the etiquettes of sleep and after waking up; the etiquettes of eating, drinking and travel.

He acquainted them with the etiquettes of speech and silence; the etiquettes of keeping company with the people and seclusion. He acquainted them with the affairs of illness, good health, poverty and wealth. He acquainted them with all the affairs of life and death. He described Allaah’s throne, the angels, the jinn, the hell fire and the day of judgement in such a manner as if one has seen them with the naked eye. He [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] informed them about their Lord and His Perfect Names and Attributes, and that Allaah alone is their true object of worship.

He acquainted them with the Prophets of old and their nations – the events that took place between them and their nations – in such a manner as if one was present at that time. He acquainted them with all the means to good and the paths of evil- in general and in detail- which no other prophet informed his nation. He acquainted them with death and what will take place in the grave – either bliss or punishment. He acquainted them with the evidences and proofs of Tawheed [i.e. the oneness of Allaah in His Lordship, Names and Attributes, and that Allaah alone has the right to be worshipped].

He acquainted them with Prophet hood and the affairs of the Afterlife, and he refuted all the sects of disbelief and misguidance. He acquainted them with war strategies- how to confront the enemy, the way to achieve victory and conquests. If only they knew and understood these affairs in the correct manner [i.e. the manner it should be understood], they would not be overcome by their enemy. He acquainted them with the plots of Iblees and the ways through which he approaches them, and the ways to repel those plots and plans. He acquainted them with the soul- its characteristics and faults- in such a manner that they are not in need of anyone else to tell them about it. He taught them how to live their daily lives and had they acknowledged and acted upon this, then their worldly affairs would be firmly established. He brought them all the means of success in this life and the next, and they do not need anyone besides him. So how can it be said that the path of Muhammad [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] is in need of something else outside of it. The reason for such a claim is due to the weak and little understanding of a person. Allaah [The Most High] said:

أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ أَنَّا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَرَحْمَةً وَذِكْرَىٰ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Is it not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) which is recited to them? Verily, herein is mercy and a reminder (or an admonition) for a people who believe. [29:51]

Allaah [The Most High] said:

وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ

And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims). [16:89]

Allaah [The Most High] said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُم مَّوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَشِفَاءٌ لِّمَا فِي الصُّدُورِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord [i.e. the Qur’an, ordering all that is good and forbidding all that is evil], and a healing for that [disease of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences, etc.] in your breasts, – a guidance and a mercy [explaining lawful and unlawful things, etc.] for the believers. [10:57] (9)


[Ref 1: An Excerpt from ‘Sharh Kitaab At-Tawheed- Lesson 2. By Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq al-Badr (hafidhahullaah)]
[Ref 2: Qisas Al-Anbiyaa by Imam Sadi p45
[Ref 3: An Excerpt from بدائع التفسير الجامع لما فسره الإمام ابن القيم -(Vol 3. Pages 45- 46). slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 4: An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer kalaam al-Mannaan’. explanation of Aayaat 24-36 Surah Taahaa). Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 5: At-taleeqaat Al-Maleehah Alaa Silsilah Al-Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah. Vol 1. page 135. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 6: An Excerpt from ‘Badaa’i At-Tafseer Al-Jaami Limaa Fassarahu Al-Imaam Ibnul Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah’ Vol 2′ pages 279-282). Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam al-Mannaan’. Slightly paraphrased]

[Ref 8: An Excerpt from As-Sawaa’iq Al-Mursalah 4/1514. slightly paraphrased]

[Ref 9: An Excerpt from I’laam Al-Muwaqqi’een 4/375-377- slightly paraphrased]

[Part 2]: Adults Must Get Vaccinated to Allow Children and Adolescents to Resume Their Lives! [Brief Reply to Heba Yosry’s – at Alarabiya News- Opinion]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Heba Yosry stated, “Adults must get vaccinated to allow children and adolescents to resume their lives after it was halted for a year and half due to the COVID-19 pandemic”. https://english.alarabiya.net/views/2021/06/08/Let-children-take-back-control-Parents-get-thevaccine

Response: Indeed, I would like to remind Heba Yosry that the decision to get vaccinated should not be merely based on the desire to assist children to resume their lives; rather this decision should be based on sound principles as stated in the first article. Visit here:  https://salaficentre.com/2021/07/25/adults-must-get-vaccinated-to-allow-children-and-adolescents-to-resume-their-lives-brief-reply-to-heba-yosrys-at-alarabiya-news-opinion/

Secondly, visit the link to acquaint yourself with vaccines in the UK. Vaccines_In_The_UK

Finally: Covid pass: covid_pass

My Voice is Not Awrah and I Am Not Awrah: [Brief Rebuttal Against Mrs Ambiguous -(Heba Yosry)- at Alarabiya News]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Heba Yosry stated, “When society convinces young girls that it is forbidden for them to speak, they will grow to become muzzled women. Dar Al Ifta’s statement, as intuitive and as commonsensical as it is, is crucial. It took me some time to be able to say it. My voice is not ‘awra, and I am not ‘awra”.  https://english.alarabiya.net/views/2021/07/18/Women-s-voices-are-being-heard-across-the-Islamic-world

Firstly, this above statement can be utilized for both truth and falsehood. Allaah [The Exalted] said:

[وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ – And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth)]. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Verse 42]

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “Allaah forbade us from mixing truth with falsehood, and thus leading to concealment of the truth. Mixing truth with false is by mixing the two until one of them is confused for the other. This is forgery and deceit by way of which what is made apparent is the opposite of what it is in reality. Likewise, when truth is confounded with falsehood, the culprit manifests falsehood in the image of truth and speaks with a statement that carries two meanings- a correct meaning and false meaning, so the listener is under the illusion that the speaker intends the correct meaning, whilst he (i.e. the speaker) intends the corrupt meaning”. (1)

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “Falsehood does not spread except with a mixture of some truth, just as Ahlul Kitaab (i.e. those Jews and Christians who strayed after the departure of their Prophets) mixed truth with falsehood. And by way of the little truth they had, they misguided many from the truth and called them to a lot of the falsehood”. (2)

Indeed, the truth in Heba’s statement is that the voice of a woman is not Awrah, as Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated, “A woman’s voice is not awrah at all, her voice is not awrah; so she has the right to ask, and the one who is asked must respond. During the Prophet’s [ﷺ ] era, they [i.e. the women] used to ask the Prophet [i.e. questions] and he used to respond to them. Indeed, Allaah [The Exalted] said:

[قَدۡ سَمِعَ ٱللَّهُ قَوۡلَ ٱلَّتِى تُجَـٰدِلُكَ فِى زَوۡجِهَا وَتَشۡتَكِىٓ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ – Indeed Allah has heard the statement of her (Khaulah bint Tha’labah) that disputes with you (O Muhammad ) concerning her husband (Aus bin As-Samit), and complains to Allah]. [Surah Al-Mujaadilah. Verse 1]

They used to ask the male Companions and those who came after the Companions, and this is a well-known matter. But the Awrah with regards to this affair is that it (i.e. the voice) should not be coquetry or softened. This is what is forbidden. Allaah [The Almighty] said:

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا

O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy, or evil desire for adultery, etc.) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner. [Surah Al-Ahzaab. Verse 32]

Therefore, Allaah forbade them from softening their voices lest the corrupters- those with lusts and diseased hearts- would desire them. [وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا – but speak in an honourable manner]. Allaah commanded them to speak with an honorable and moderate voice that does not involve softening- neither a means to obscenity nor harshness; but rather it should be moderate. Neither speak in a harsh manner and with evil speech nor with a sweet voice in which there is softness and coquetry; rather it should be ordinary speech in the middle between the two – neither obscene speech nor evil speech; neither speech in which there is harshness and forcefulness; nor soft adorned speech. Neither this nor that. This is the truth that has been stated by the scholars”. (3)

Therefore, if Heba [may Allaah guide her] means that a woman’s voice is not Awrah in the manner clarified by Saudi Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him], then indeed this is truth; but anything besides that is tantamount to falsehood, evil and sin.

Secondly, regarding Heba’s statement, “I am not awrah”. This is an ambiguous statement! There is no doubt that Heba is not Awrah when dealing with those men that are related to her and she is allowed to free mix with them. See here: https://www.abukhadeejah.com/mind-map-illustration-showing-the-mahrams-male-chaperones-of-a-woman-for-travel-and-sittings/ A woman is not required to cover her hair, neck, forearms and ankles up to just the beginning of her shin in the presence of her father, brother, nephew etc. As for that which is other than this, the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] prohibited both men and women from showing their Awrah, except to their spouses. [See Sunan Abu Dawud. Hadeeth Number 4017]

Therefore, if this is what Heba Yosry means that she is not Awrah to her Mahaarim with regards those parts of a woman’s body that can be seen by the Mahaarim and the specific parts of the body that can only be seen by a spouse, then indeed her statement is correct; but anything other than that is tantamount corruption, falsehood and evil. Indeed, it was incumbent upon her to detail and explain her ambiguous statement as Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The basis of Banee Aadam’s misguidance is as a result of ‘General Terms’ and ‘Ambiguous Meanings’ [i.e. terms and statements that can either be utilised for truth or falsehood when not explained in detail and distinguished], especially if they come in contact with a confused mind, then how about when [evil] desires and misguided enthusiasm is added to that? Therefore, ask the One Who keeps the hearts steadfast [i.e. Allaah] to keep your heart firm upon His Religion and not allow you to fall into this darkness”. (4)

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] also said, “It is obligated on you to give detail and make a distinction, because unrestricted and general [statements] without clarification has indeed corrupted this existence [i.e. the world], and misguided the intellects and views [of the people] in every era”.

Al-Allaamah Saaleh al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] commented on the above statement as follows: “There has to be detail explanation. The one who is not proficient in giving detail should keep quiet, because benefit is not acquired from his speech. And every time error occurs, its cause is due to an absence of detail explanation regarding truth and falsehood. There has to be detail explanation and distinction and not to mix up [affairs]. Indeed, it may be that there is something of truth and falsehood in an opponent’s statement, so all of it is neither deemed to be false nor truth; rather there has to be a distinction between its truth and falsehood. All of it is neither rejected nor accepted; rather a distinction is made regarding the truth and what is correct and the falsehood and error in it. And if you are not proficient in giving detail, then you should not enter into this field”. (5)

Finally, we say to Heba, “Strive to be like the women mentioned in the following links:

The Role of Women in the Field of Knowledge and Education Throughout the History of Islaam

Women in Islam by Abu Khadeejah

The Muslim Woman In A Modern World – By Abu Khadeejah ‘Abdul-Wāhid


[Ref 1: Badaa’i At-Tafseer Al-Jaami Limaa Fassarahu Al-Imaam Ibnul Qayyim’ Vol 1, page 124. slightly paraphrased]

[Ref 2: Majmoo 35/190]

[Ref3:https://binbaz.org.sa/fatwas/4140/%D9%87%D9%84-%D8%B5%D9%88%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A9-%D8%B9%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%A9. paraphrased]

[Ref 4: An Excerpt from ‘As-Sawaa’iq Al-Mursalah Alal Jahmiyyah Wal Mu’attilah’ – Vol 3. page 927. slightly paraphrased]

[Ref 5: An Excerpt from At-Ta-leeqaat Al-Mukhtasar Alaa Al-Qaseedah an-Nooniyyah: Vol: 1 page: 216. Slightly paraphrased]

A Great Supplication of The Night Prayer – (After Takbeer and Before Recitation) And The Tawheed Derived From It

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] used to say in a supplication of the night prayer – after Takbeer and before recitation:

اللّهُـمَّ رَبَّ جِـبْرائيل ، وَميكـائيل ، وَإِسْـرافيل، فاطِـرَ السَّمواتِ وَالأَرْض ، عالـِمَ الغَيْـبِ وَالشَّهـادَةِ أَنْـتَ تَحْـكمُ بَيْـنَ عِبـادِكَ فيـما كانوا فيهِ يَخْتَلِفـون. اهدِنـي لِمـا اخْتُـلِفَ فيـهِ مِنَ الْحَـقِّ بِإِذْنِك ، إِنَّـكَ تَهْـدي مَنْ تَشـاءُ إِلى صِراطٍ مُسْتَقـيم

O Allaah! Lord of Jibraa’eel, Meekaa’eel and Israafeel, Creator of the heavens and the Earth, The Knower of the seen and the unseen. You judge between Your slaves regarding in that which they differ. Guide me to the truth regarding that in which there is differing, by Your Will. Verily, You guide whomever you will to the straight path. (1)

The scholars say that these creations [i.e. Jibraa’eel, Meekaa’eel, Israafeel, the heavens and the earth] have been specifically mentioned, even though Allaah is the Creator of all the creation, just as has been established in the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah with regards to the specific mention of every created thing that has a great and mighty status as one of Allaah’s creation, such as the statement, “Lord of the Heavens and the Earth”, “Lord of the Supreme Throne”, “Lord of the Angels and Jibreel”, “The Lord of the two Easts (places of sunrise during early summer and early winter) and the Lord of the two Wests (places of sunset during early summer and early winter)”, “The Lord of Humankind”, “The King of Humankind”, “The Only True God of Humankind”, “The Lord of all Created Things”, “The Lord of the Prophets”, ” The Creator of the Heavens and the Earth”, “The Originator of the Heavens and the Earth” etc. All these things and what is similar to them shows Allaah’s greatness, All-encompassing Power and absolute Sovereignty. (2)

In this supplication, one employs the means of seeking Allaah’s [love, aid, pleasure, assistance etc] by way of belief and affirmation that He is the Lord – in general and specific – of these three Angels, who have been given a means of giving life. Jibra’eel is given the responsibility to convey the revelation (to the Prophets) by way of which the hearts and souls are given that type of life that necessitates the presence of sound belief in the heart that leads to all righteous deeds. Meekaa’eel is given the responsibility to bring the rain by way of which the earth, the vegetation and animals are given life, and Israafeel is given the responsibility to blow the trumpet by way of which the creation are resurrected after their death. Also employing the means of seeking Allaah’s [love, aid, assistance, pleasure etc] by way of belief and affirmation that Allaah alone is the Originator of the heavens and earth, meaning, He is their Creator and the one who brought them into existence prior to their non-existence, and that He is the knower of the unseen and the seen- meaning, the hidden and apparent, and due to the fact that He alone is the One Who judges between the servants in that which they differ, so that He guides you to the truth in that which they differ.

As for guidance, it is knowledge of the truth together with having the intent to follow the truth, and preferring it over other things. The guided person is that one who acts upon the truth and desires it, and it is the Greatest blessing of Allaah bestowed on the servants. We ask Allaah to guide us all to the straight path and grant us every good. (3)


[Ref 1: Saheeh Muslim 770. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 2: Sharh Saheeh Muslim 5/50]
[Ref 3: An Excerpt from Fiqh Al-Ad’iyah Wal Ad’kaar 3/139-140. Slightly paraphrased]

Worldly Enjoyment and Misery Compared to Enjoyment and Punishment In The Afterlife- By Al-Allaamah Al-Mu’allimee

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Allaah tested Prophet Ayyoub [peace be upon him] and Prophet Ya’qoob [peace be upon him] when he lost his two sons [i.e. Yusuf and Binyameen- peace be upon them] as well as the effects of the severe grief in his heart. Allaah said: [ وَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنۡہُمۡ وَقَالَ يَـٰٓأَسَفَىٰ عَلَىٰ يُوسُفَ وَٱبۡيَضَّتۡ عَيۡنَاهُ مِنَ ٱلۡحُزۡنِ فَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ۬ – And he turned away from them and said: “Alas, my grief for Yusuf (Joseph)!” And he lost his sight because of the sorrow that he was suppressing]. [Surah Yusuf.Verse 84]

Allaah tested Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] during the early years of his (Prophethood) and obligated on him to call his people to abandon the Shirk and the misguidance they were nurtured upon by their forefathers. He made that clear to them in private and public- day and night. He approached them in their hangouts, gatherings and towns, and carried on doing so for nearly 13 years whilst they inflicted severe harm on him, even though prior to this he lived for 40 years or more without being harmed. He was from a noble, honoured and respected tribe – a noble, honoured and respected household. He grew up with noble manners due to which he was honoured and respected by the people, but despite this he was very modest.

The one with these qualities received severe harm and faced extreme hardship. This harm intensified with mockery- this one spat in his face and that one attempted to place his feet on his neck whilst he prostrated to his Lord (in prayer), and another person placed the intestines of a camel on his back whilst he prostrated, and such and such person grabbed the collar of his garment to strangle him. His uncle (Abu Lahab) followed him wherever he went and warned against him, saying, “He (i.e. Muhammad) is a liar”. “He is insane”. The foolish were incited against him and they pelted him with stones until blood flowed from his two feet. Others boycotted him and his close relatives – for a long time – in order that they die out of hunger. Some people tortured his followers with various types of torture, and amongst them were those who were forced to lie down on the sand during the hottest time of the day and were denied water, and one of them was burnt with fire until the only thing that extinguished the fire was the fat on his back. A woman amongst them was tortured, but when they realised that she would not renounce Islaam, they stabbed her in her private area and murdered her.

All this torture was not due to anything else other than the fact that the Messenger was calling them in order to remove them from the darkness of Shirk and enter them into the light of Islaam- to remove them from corruption and enter them into upright conduct; distance them from the anger of Allaah and guide them to the means of attaining Allaah’s Pleasure; remove them from the path of eternal punishment and guide them towards the path of permanent bliss; however they did not pay attention to this despite the fact that its proofs were very clear; rather the only thing that concerned them was that he was calling them to other than what they desired.

Also, Allaah tested the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] through the death of his parents when he was very young, then the death of his grandfather, the death of his uncle who used to protect him and the death of his wife who used to console him. The calamities did not cease, even though he is the leader of the children of Aadam and the most beloved person to Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic].

Therefore, ponder on all of this in order to know based on true knowledge that the mutual rivalry – in which we engage and greedily exert ourselves to acquire the enjoyment of the worldly life – is nothing compared to attaining Allaah’s Pleasure and eternal bliss in paradise. As for the misery and hardships of the worldly life which we flee from, they are nothing compared to Allaah’s displeasure, His anger and eternal punishment in the hell fire. Anas Bin Maalik [may Allaah be pleased with him] reported that Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “A person amongst the inhabitants of Hell – who lived the most enjoyable life amongst the people of the world – would be dipped in fire only once on the Day of Resurrection and then it would be said to him, ‘O son of Adam! Did you find any comfort, did you happen to get any material blessing?’ He would say, ‘By Allah! No, my Lord’. Then a person amongst the people of the world would be brought – who lived the most miserable life (in the world) – from amongst the inhabitants Paradise and he would be dipped once in Paradise, and it would be said to him, ‘O son of Adam! Did you face any hardship? Or had any distress fallen to your lot?’ He would say, ‘By Allah! No, O my Lord, never did I face any hardship or experience any distress'”. [Saheeh Muslim. 2807]


[Source: An Excerpt from ‘Aathaar Ash-Shaikh Al-Allaamah Abdur Rahmaan Bin Yahyah Al-Mu’allimee. Vol 11. pages 311-313. slightly paraphrased]

 

Legitimacy, Consent, and the Search for a Successor- [Brief Rebuttal Against Some Views of Frederic C. Hof – (Former US Special Envoy to Syria) – Regarding Rulership In Islam]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

How is a leader chosen In Islaam?

Quote from article: Shaikh Abdul Waahid Abu Khadeejah [may Allaah preserve him] said, “After the Prophet [peace and blessings be upon him] died, there were differences of opinion about how the Muslims should be led and who should be given the leadership and authority. The Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) agreed that only the Qur’aan and Sunnah had the authority to tell the people what to do. They decided after looking into the Sunnah that Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) should be their leader – and that he would rule over them in accordance to the Qur’aan and Sunnah. So he was the first Caliph. The second Caliph, Umar Ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) was appointed by Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). The third Caliph, ‘Uthmaan Ibn ‘Affaan (may Allah be pleased with him) was chosen by a committee of the major disciples of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) who were appointed by ‘Umar before he passed away. The fourth Caliph, ‘Ali Ibn Abee Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him) was appointed by the major Companions after the assassination of ‘Uthmaan. ‘Ali gave his pledge of allegiance to the previous three Caliphs and supported them fully. He even named his children after them. https://www.abukhadeejah.com/sunni-and-shiah-islam-islam-1-13/

Full PDF article below:

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