What is The Source of Aqeedah In Islam? [A Precise Evidence From The Hadeeth Regarding The Delegation of Abdul Qays]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

The Delegation of Abdul Qays

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، وَأَلْفَاظُهُمْ، مُتَقَارِبَةٌ – قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا غُنْدَرٌ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ، وَقَالَ الآخَرَانِ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، – عَنْ أَبِي جَمْرَةَ، قَالَ كُنْتُ أُتَرْجِمُ بَيْنَ يَدَىِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَبَيْنَ النَّاسِ فَأَتَتْهُ امْرَأَةٌ تَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ نَبِيذِ الْجَرِّ، فَقَالَ إِنَّ وَفْدَ عَبْدِ الْقَيْسِ أَتَوْا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ مَنِ الْوَفْدُ أَوْ مَنِ الْقَوْمُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا رَبِيعَةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ مَرْحَبًا بِالْقَوْمِ أَوْ بِالْوَفْدِ غَيْرَ خَزَايَا وَلاَ النَّدَامَى ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا نَأْتِيكَ مِنْ شُقَّةٍ بَعِيدَةٍ وَإِنَّ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكَ هَذَا الْحَىَّ مِنْ كُفَّارِ مُضَرَ وَإِنَّا لاَ نَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ نَأْتِيَكَ إِلاَّ فِي شَهْرِ الْحَرَامِ فَمُرْنَا بِأَمْرٍ فَصْلٍ نُخْبِرْ بِهِ مَنْ وَرَاءَنَا نَدْخُلُ بِهِ الْجَنَّةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَمَرَهُمْ بِأَرْبَعٍ وَنَهَاهُمْ عَنْ أَرْبَعٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَمَرَهُمْ بِالإِيمَانِ بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ‏”‏ هَلْ تَدْرُونَ مَا الإِيمَانُ بِاللَّهِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ شَهَادَةُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَإِقَامُ الصَّلاَةِ وَإِيتَاءُ الزَّكَاةِ وَصَوْمُ رَمَضَانَ وَأَنْ تُؤَدُّوا خُمُسًا مِنَ الْمَغْنَمِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ وَنَهَاهُمْ عَنِ الدُّبَّاءِ وَالْحَنْتَمِ وَالْمُزَفَّتِ ‏.‏ قَالَ شُعْبَةُ وَرُبَّمَا قَالَ النَّقِيرِ ‏.‏ قَالَ شُعْبَةُ وَرُبَّمَا قَالَ الْمُقَيَّرِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ‏”‏ احْفَظُوهُ وَأَخْبِرُوا بِهِ مِنْ وَرَائِكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ ‏”‏ مَنْ وَرَاءَكُمْ ‏”‏ وَلَيْسَ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ الْمُقَيَّرِ

Abu Jamra reported: I was an interpreter between Ibn Abbas and the people, that a woman happened to come there and asked about nabidh or the pitcher of wine. He replied: A delegation of the people of ‘Abdul-Qais came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He (the Holy Prophet) asked the delegation or the people (of the delegation about their identity). They replied that they belonged to the tribe of Rabi’a. He (the Holy Prophet) welcomed the people or the delegation which were neither humiliated nor put to shame. They (the members of the delegation) said: Messenger of Allah, we come to you from a far-off distance and there lives between you and us a tribe of the unbelievers of Mudar and, therefore, it is not possible for us to come to you except in the sacred months. Thus direct us to a clear command, about which we should inform people beside us and by which we may enter heaven. He (the Holy Prophet) replied: I command you to do four deeds and forbid you to do four (acts), and added: I direct you to affirm belief in Allah alone, and then asked them:

[‏ هَلْ تَدْرُونَ مَا الإِيمَانُ بِاللَّهِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ – Do you know what belief in Allah really implies? They said: Allah and His Messenger know best]. The Prophet said: It is to testify that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, establishment of prayer, payment of Zakat, fast of Ramadan, that you pay one-fifth of the booty (fallen to your lot) and I forbid you to use gourd, wine jar, or a receptacle for wine. Shu’ba sometimes narrated the word naqir (wooden pot) and sometimes narrated it as muqayyar. The Prophet also said: Keep it in your mind and inform those who have been left behind. [Saheeh Muslim. Hadeeth 24]

Take note regarding the Messenger’s question and their response:

[‏ هَلْ تَدْرُونَ مَا الإِيمَانُ بِاللَّهِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ – Do you know what belief in Allah really implies? They said: Allah and His Messenger know best].

Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq Al-Badr [hafidhahullaah] stated regarding the above conversation, “These people were Arabs and people of eloquence in their language, however when the Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] asked them about Eemaan, they replied, “Allaah and His Messenger know best”. This shows that the affairs of the creed and Eemaan are only established by way of the revelation. As for the proponents of religious innovation, some of them derive their creed by way of the intellect, opinions, dreams, fables and beliefs they desire. (1)

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: The principle of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’ah in the subject matter of Aqeedah and other affairs is to completely adhere to the Book of Allaah (i.e. the Qur’aan), the (authentic) Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] and that which the rightly guided Calips (AbuBakr, Umar, Uthmaan and Ali) were upon.

Allaah [The Exalted]: [قُلۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُحِبُّونَ ٱللَّهَ فَٱتَّبِعُونِى يُحۡبِبۡكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَيَغۡفِرۡ لَكُمۡ ذُنُوبَكُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬ – Say (O Muhammad to mankind): “If you (really) love Allaah then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur’an and the Sunnah), Allaah will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful]. [Surah Aal Imraan. Verse 31]

And also the statement of Allaah [The Exalted]:

[مَّن يُطِعِ ٱلرَّسُولَ فَقَدۡ أَطَاعَ ٱللَّهَ‌ۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَـٰكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَفِيظً۬ا- He who obeys the Messenger (Muhammad), has indeed obeyed Allaah, but he who turns away, then we have not sent you (O Muhammad) as a watcher over them. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayah 80]

And also the statement of Allaah [The Exalted]:

[وَمَآ ءَاتَٮٰكُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَہَٮٰكُمۡ عَنۡهُ فَٱنتَهُواْ‌ۚ – And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). [Surah Al-Hashar. Verse 7]

And even though this was revealed in relation to distribution of the war booty, however it applies to all affairs of the Sharee’ah first and foremost, because indeed the Prophet used to address the people on the day of Jumu’ah saying, “To proceed: indeed the best of speech is the Book of Allaah and the best of guidance is Muhammad’s guidance; and the worst of all affairs are the newly invented matters [in the religion] and every newly invented matter [in the religion] is a bidah [religious innovation], every bidah is misguidance and every (act of) misguidance (leads) to the hell fire”. [Reported by Muslim 2/592]

And also due to the statement of the Prophet “It is obligated on you to adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided khulafaa after me- adhere to it and cling to with your molar teeth; and beware of newly invented matters [in the religion], for indeed every newly invented matter [in the religion] is a bidah and every bidah is misguidance”. [Reported by Abu Daawud 4/201]

The texts regarding this affair are numerous; therefore the path of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’ah and their methodology is to adhere completely to the Book of Allaah, the [authentic] Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] and the Sunnah of the rightly guided khulafaa after him. And based on this, they establish the religion and they do not split because they fulfil the command of Allaah [in the Aayah]:

شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِۦ نُوحً۬ا وَٱلَّذِىٓ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ وَمَا وَصَّيۡنَا بِهِۦۤ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰٓ‌ۖ أَنۡ أَقِيمُواْ ٱلدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُواْ فِيهِ‌ۚ

He (Allaah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islam) which He ordained for Nuh (Noah), and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and ‘Iesa (Jesus) saying you should establish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically), and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion). [Surah Ash-Shooraa. Verse 13]

And even if differing occurs between them regarding affairs in which Ijtihaad is permissible (a), this differing does not lead to differing in their hearts; rather you find them united and loving one another, even when differing occurs between them through the path of permissible Ijtihaad. (2)

Imaam As-Sa’di [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said that Imaam Ahmad [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: ”The Fundamental Principles of Islaam revolve around three Ahaadeeth: a: ”The lawful is clear and the unlawful is clear…” b: ”Indeed, deeds are judged by intentions…” c: ”Whoever performs an action that is not from our affair [i.e. the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah] will have it rejected…”

Deeds either fall under commandments or prohibitions. The first hadeeth “The lawful is clear and the unlawful is clear” addresses the unlawful deeds. The second hadeeth “Indeed, deeds are judged by intention”, addresses the fact that commands are either related to one’s intention and the aspiration of the heart, or the apparent physical actions; and thirdly these deeds [i.e. acts of worship] are legislated in conformity with the Sunnah (i.e. mentioned in the third hadeeth). (3)

Islamic Idea or Islamic Thought

Islaam is not a set of ideas [or thoughts], rather it is a divine revelation sent down – by the Lord of universe – in the Magnificent Qur’aan and the [authentic] Sunnah of the noble Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] – the Messenger who never speaks based on his desires, rather [إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحۡىٌ۬ يُوحَىٰ – It [i.e. the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah conveyed by the Messenger (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam) is nothing else but a revelation that is inspired]. As for an idea [or thought], it can be [rejected, disapproved etc] and debated [or presented for discussion], and it may be correct or incorrect. Therefore, it is not permissible to associate Islam with the term ‘Idea [or thought] because it [idea or thought] is something specifically attributed to the creation [i.e. humankind and Jinn], because an idea [or a thought] can either be correct or wrong. As for the Sharee’ah [i.e. the sound divine law, creed, acts of worship conveyed by the final Messenger (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam) from the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah], it is infallible. Likewise, it is not to be said, “Islamic idea [or thought], because the scholar who has reached the level of Ijtihaad is restricted by the pure Sharee’ah, so he is not allowed to contemplate [outside the confines of the sound divine revelation] and then legislate; rather he searches and follows the legislated Islamic path of [sound] Ijtihaad in order to derive rulings. (4)

Amr Bin Al-Aas [may Allaah be pleased with him] narrated that he heard Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him]saying, “If a Mujtahid gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is correct, he will receive a double reward, and if he gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is wrong, even then he will get a reward”. [Bukhari Number 7352]

Few Points From This Hadeeth

[a] A Mujtahid is not deprived of reward. [b] The judgement of a non-Mujtahid is different from that of a Mujtahid. Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] said that the one who speaks about the religion without knowledge and out of ignorance [is guilty of] lying and sinning. The one who intentionally speaks to oppose the truth is threatened with entry into the fire of hell, as opposed to the affair of the one who speaks based on permissible Ijtihaad, for indeed he strives, fears Allaah as much as he is able, desires to seek knowledge as much as he was able, speaks for the sake of Allaah, knows the stronger proof and speaks based on that. This person is given two rewards if he is correct; but if he is mistaken, he receives one reward. [c] A Mujtahid can be correct or mistaken. (5)

Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee [may Allaah preserve him] said:

We do not say that there are people of ijtihaad amongst ahlul bidah because they are followers of desires, and Allaah and His Messenger have testified to this. The misguided innovator stirs up discord and errs, and then says to you, ‘This is ijtihaad’. When Hikmatiyaar and the misguided parties [in Afghanistan] murdered Shaikh Jameel Ur-Rahmaan, they said: ‘This is ijtihaad.’ They [ahlul bidah] do not fall into an affair of misguidance or a calamity except that they say, “This is ijtihaad.” This is [tantamount] to diluting Islaam, falsehood, misguidance, bidah and confounding truth with falsehood, when the mistakes of the [true and qualified scholars of ijtihaad]- for which they are rewarded- are placed at the same level with innovation, about which the Messenger declared to be destined for the hell fire. (6)

Footnote: a: https://www.abukhadeejah.com/tolerated-differing-and-impermissible-differing-in-islaam/

[Ref 1: Source: Madkhal Li-Diraasati Aqeedah Al-Islaamiyyah: lesson:2′ by Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq Al-Badr (may Allaah preserve him)]

[Ref 2: An Excerpt from Fataawaa Fadheelah Ash-Shaykh Al-Allaamah Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen Fil Aqeedah. Vol 1-2. pages 45-47. Slightly paraphrased]

[Ref 3: Source: Tareequl Wusool Ilal Ilmul Mamool Bi-Marifatil Qawaa’id Wad-Dawaabit Wal-Usool. Page 23]

[Ref 4: An Excerpt from ‘Mu’jam Al-Manaahiy Lil-Laf’dhiyyah’. pages 430-431]

[Ref 5: Al-Arba’oona Hadeethaa Fee Usoolil Fiqh. pages 32-33. slightly paraphrased];

[Ref 6: An Excerpt from ‘Ajwibatul Allaamatush Shaikh Rabee Bin Haadee Al Madkhalee Alaa As-ilah Abee Rawaaha Al-Manhajiyyah page: 20]

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