In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “There’s no good thing except that he [i.e. the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has urged the person towards it and there is no evil except that he warned the Ummah against it”.
Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] commented on the above statement, saying: “This is correct, because indeed good is something one seeks to do, therefore he clarified it specifically and urged a person towards it. And regarding evil, we say, ‘There is no evil except that he warned against it’ and he [Shaikhul Islaam] did not say, ‘There’s no evil except he (i.e. the Messenger) has clarified it [i.e. in detail]’, because there are evil affairs which he clarified (in detail) and warned against, and there are evil affairs which he did not clarify (in detail), rather he warned against it in general. For example, fornication, killing a person (i.e. without a justified reason based on the sharee’ah) and what is similar to these deeds are manifest evils; and Bidah is a manifest evil, but did he mention every Bidah specifically by its description in a text or rather mentioned in general? Answer: They are mentioned in general and warned against. The distinction between (evil) and good is that good is something one seeks to do, therefore it is in need of being clarified specifically – clarify every affair so that we do it, unlike evil because it is something to be abandoned, therefore sometimes it is mentioned in detail and sometimes in general. (1)
The Categories of People And Their Knowledge of Good and Evil
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:
Allaah [The Most High] said:[ وَكَذَٲلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ وَلِتَسۡتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ – And thus do We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, so that the way of the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners) become manifest. [Surah Al-An’aam. Aayah 55]
Those who know Allaah, His Book and His Religion are acquainted with the path of the believers and that of the criminals in detail- the two paths are clearly visible to them, just as a path leading to its destination and the path leading to destruction are made clearly visible. They are the most knowledgeable amongst the creation- the ones who benefit [the people] the most, the ones with the most useful advice and they are an evidence of right guidance. This is why the Sahaabah have excelled all those to come after them until the Day of Judgment, for indeed they were brought up upon the path of misguidance, shirk and paths leading to destruction, and they knew them in detail; then the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] came to them and took them out from darkness [an entered them] into complete light- from shirk into Tawheed; from ignorance into knowledge; from misguidance into guidance; from injustice into justice; from confusion and blindness into guidance and clear-sightedness. They knew the worth of that which they received and were triumphant by way of it. [They knew the worth] of that which was contained in what they [received], since what is in opposition to the [truth and right guidance] reveals the goodness of what it opposes, because [upright] affairs are made clear by way of their opposites. So they increased in desire and love of that which they embraced, disliked and hated that which they had turned away from. And of all the people, they had the most love for Tawheed, Imaan and Islaam, and had the most hatred for that which was in opposition to it. They were the most knowledgeable of the path in detail.
As for those who came after the Sahaabah, amongst them is that one who was brought up in Islaam but knows not what is in opposition to it. Therefore, some of the details of the path of the believers and that of the criminals became confusing to him, for indeed confusion occurs due to the weakness of one’s knowledge regarding both paths or one of them, as Umar Ibnul Khattaab [radiyallaahu-anhu] said: “The bonds of Islaam will be undone one after the other when a people who grew up in Islaam know not what Jaahiliyyah [Pre-Islamic Ignorance] is.’’ This [statement shows an aspect of] Umar’s perfect knowledge [of Islaam].
And there is that one who is neither acquainted with the path of the criminals nor has it been made clear to him, or he has doubts and thus thinks that some of their ways are from the ways of the believers. This has occurred in this Ummah in many affairs of Aqeedah, Knowledge and Action regarding the path of the criminals, the disbelievers and the enemies of the Messengers, [which] was brought into the path of the believers by the one who does not know the [detailed distinction between] the path of believers and the path of the criminals, so he called to [this path], excommunicate the one in opposition and declares lawful that which Allaah and His Messenger made unlawful, just as what has occurred with many of the people of bidah, such as the Jahmiyyah, the Qadariyyah, the Khawaarij, the Rawaafid and their ilk- among those who initiated an innovation, called to it and excommunicated those who opposed it.
The people are four categories in this subject matter [i.e. the obligation of having knowledge of the path of the believers and that of the criminals in detail].
The First Group: They are those who know the path of the believers and that of the criminals in detail-in both knowledge and action. They are the most knowledgeable amongst the creation.
The Second Group: They are those who are blind to both paths- those resembling animals. The path of the criminals comes [to them] and they follow it.
The Third Group: It is that one who concerns himself with (seeking) knowledge of the path of the believers and not its opposite. He only knows (the path of the criminals) by way of its opposition to the (path of the believers) and in a general way, and [holds] that all that is in opposition to the path of the believers is falsehood, even though that is not illustrated to him in detail. Rather, when he hears some of that which contradicts the path of the believers, he turns away and does not preoccupy himself in understanding and knowing its falsity. This person is in a state (similar) to one who is safeguarded from following desires- whose heart is neither put at risk nor is he called to (such desires), as opposed to those who are aware of (such desires) and their souls are inclined towards them, but they strive against it for the Sake of Allaah. A letter was written to Umar Ibnul Khattaab (radiyallaahu-anhu) and he was asked about this affair, as to which of the two men is the better- a man who is not put at risk by way of desires and does not go through its difficulties, or a man who is pushed towards it but abandons it for the Sake of Allaah? Umar (radiyallaahu-anhu) wrote back saying: The one who is desirous of sin but abandons it for the Sake of Allaah is from ‘those whose hearts Allaah has tested for piety. For them there is forgiveness and a great reward.’ [Surah Hujuraat. Ayah: 3]
The Fourth Group: This group knows the path of evil, bidah and kufr in detail and the path of the believers in general. This is the situation of many of those who concern themselves with the beliefs of the previous nations and that of the people of bidah. They are acquainted with (these affairs) in detail, but not with what the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) came with; rather they are acquainted with it in general even though they may know some of its affairs in detail. Whoever examines their books will see that. Likewise, those who know the paths of evil, oppression and corruption in detail and are followers of it; if they repent, abandon these (affairs) and return to the path of the pious believers, then their knowledge of it will only be general. They will not be acquainted with it in that detailed manner known to those who spend their lives (studying) its regulations and ways.
The Objective: Indeed, Allaah (Glorified be He) loves that one should know the path of His enemies in order to avoid and hate it, just as the path of the His awliyaa (close friends) is known and followed. (2)
Some Circumstances In Which Giving Detail And Distinction Becomes Mandatory
The Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said: [فإنه من يعش منكم فسيرى اختلافا، فعليكم بسنتي – Indeed the one who lives long amongst you will see differences; so upon you is to (adhere) to my Sunnah].
Imaam Abu Haatim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: This is clear evidence that the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-sallam) commanded his Ummah to know the Du’afaa amongst them and (distinguish) them from the Thiqaat. That is because the Sunnah cannot be adhered to alongside the lies and falsehood mixed with it, except by way of knowing the Du’afaa and (distinguishing them) from the Thiqaat (reliable narrators or scholars). (3)
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee [may Allaah preserve him] stated, “It is obligated on the people of truth to exercise patience and increase in adhering to this religion of truth. Whenever the desires become abundant, it becomes necessary to increase in acquainting (oneself) with the truth and adhering to it, as the Messenger (alayhis salaatu was-salaam) said: ‘The one who lives long amongst you will see a lot of differences, so upon you is that you follow my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided khulafaa. Bite onto it with your molar teeth (i.e. hold onto it firmly) and beware of newly invented matters (in the religion), for every newly invented matter (in the religion) is a bidah and every bidah is misguidance’”. (4)
Hudhaifah Bin al Yamaan [radiyallaahu anhu] said: ‘’People used to ask the Messenger of Allaah [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] about the good times, but I used to ask him about bad times fearing lest they overtake me. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! We were in a state of pre-Islamic ignorance and evil, and then Allaah brought us this good [time through Islam], is there any evil time after this good one?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I asked, ‘Will there be a good time again after that evil?’ He said, ‘Yes, but therein will be a hidden evil.’ I asked, ‘What will be the evil hidden therein?’ He said, ‘[That time will witness the rise of] the people who will follow ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine. You will know [their] good points as well as [their] bad points.’ I asked, ‘Will there be an evil time after this good one?’ He said, ‘Yes. [A time will come] when there will be people standing and inviting at the gates of Hell. Whosoever responds to their call they will throw them into the fire.’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! Describe them for us.’ He said, ‘They will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language.’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! What do you suggest if I happen to live in that time?’ He said, ‘You should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader.’ I said, ‘If they have no [such thing as the] main body and have no leader?’ He said, ‘Separate yourself from all these factions, though you may have to eat the roots of trees [in a jungle] until death comes to you and you are in this state.’’’ [Bukhari and Muslim…. The wording of the above is that of Imaam Muslim]
Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] stated: They used to ask him [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] about the good related to righteous actions, affairs of the correct Islamic creed and dealings, but Hudhaifah used to ask him [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] about the evil times fearing lest they overcome him. Therefore, in this is evidence that it is not enough to only learn about the good; rather one must know about the evil in order to avoid it. If you do not know about the evil, you will come close to falling into it, as the poet said: ”I acquaint myself with the evil not for the sake of evil, but to be safeguarded from it. The one who does not know [the distinction between] evil and good will fall into evil.
A person must learn about the truth-its proofs and evidences. He must learn and know what falsehood is and the doubts associated with it, in order that he can be saved from falsehood and warn people against it. How can he avoid and warn people against it if he is unaware of it? And with regards to this, the Qur’aan has clarified truth and falsehood; it has clarified Eemaan and Kufr, Tawheed and Shirk, and Halaal and Haraam. It has not only clarified Tawheed, Halaal and truth; rather it clarified that which is in opposition to them, so that the Muslim can avoid them.
Likewise, the Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam]- in his Sunnah- clarified good and evil, truth and falsehood in all affairs of the religion. The scholars [may Allaah have mercy upon them] clarified – in their written works- what Tawheed, Shirk, disbelief and hypocrisy are. They have clarified the belief of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa-ah and the beliefs of the deviated sects, such as the Jahmiyyah, the Mutazilah, the Ashaa-irah…..and other than that.
They have clarified the correct and forbidden [deeds related] to mutual dealings. They have clarified the correct [Islamic] marriage, the false and corrupt marriage and the women forbidden [for one to marry]. They have clarified the [good manners legislated in the sharee’ah] and the evil manners that are in opposition to it. All of this gives the Muslim an insight into his affairs, so that he knows the truth by its evidences, knows what falsehood is and the doubts associated with it, in order that he can avoid falsehood and tell the people avoid it.
This is why you find in the books of belief: clarification of the belief in Tawheed and the belief of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa-ah, clarification of the beliefs [that are tantamount] to misguidance, the doubts associated with it and refutation against it, in order that the Muslim is not misled by beliefs [that are tantamount to] deviation, false beliefs and deviated schools of thought; and in order that the Muslims can be upon a correct understanding with regards to the affairs of their religion and that which is in opposition to it.
Some of the people at present- the majority of them ignorant ones and amongst them misguided ones- say, “Do not learn about the false beliefs; suffice yourselves with learning the correct belief only and do not involve yourself in seeking to know the beliefs of the people of misguidance and the refutations against their doubts. Leave this and teach the children of the Muslims the correct belief only. Do not inform them about the statements that are in opposition [to the truth], the doubts and refutation against them.” This one [i.e. the one who makes these statements] is either one of the ignorant people who knows nothing about knowledge or he is one of those motivated by personal desires-those who want to spread the false schools of thought and their doubts; rather it may be that they say, ‘’It is sufficient for a person to say, ‘I am a Muslim; I am a believer….. a general Islaam suffices, do not say, ‘Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa-ah, [do not say], ‘the people of misguidance, splitting and differing; do not say this, because it will cause division between the Muslims.’’’
These [statements are tantamount to] misguidance because Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] has clarified the truth in opposition to falsehood, guidance in opposition to misguidance and Tawheed in opposition to shirk. Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] has clarified all the affairs of the Religion- a detailed clarification of the affairs related to worship, mutual dealings and manners. Therefore, this must be clarified in order that it is made clear to the people, [and in order] that they can be upon clarity, and so that the true Muslim is distinguished from the so-called Muslim and no deviation and forgery enters into Islaam. We must make a distinction between this and that one, in order that truth is not confounded with falsehood, and [in order] to distinguish between truth and falsehood, and [between] good and wickedness. We do not suffice ourselves with a general Islaam because this is misleading, and it is deception. We warn against this propaganda. The truth must be clarified and distinguished from falsehood, and guidance must be distinguished from misguidance. Hudhaifah [radiyallaahu-anhu] used to ask the Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] about the evil and did not suffice himself by only asking the Prophet about the good. The Prophet affirmed that for him and did not say to him: ”Suffice yourself with knowing what good is’’ rather he [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] affirmed and clarified- for him- the evil that was to occur, in order that he may beware and warn others. This is the Sunnah; this is the path of the Qur’aan and that of the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam]. (5)
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: “It is obligated on you to give detail and make a distinction, because unrestricted and general [statements] without clarification has indeed corrupted this existence [i.e. the world], and misguided the intellects and views [of the people] in every era”.
Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] said: There has to be detail explanation. The one who is not proficient in giving detail should keep quiet, because benefit is not acquired from his speech. And every time error occurs, its cause is due to an absence of detail explanation regarding truth and falsehood. There has to be detail explanation and distinction and not to mix up [affairs]. Indeed, it may be that there is something of truth and falsehood in an opponent’s statement, so all of it is neither deemed to be false nor truth; rather there has to be a distinction between its truth and falsehood. All of it is neither rejected nor accepted; rather a distinction is made regarding the truth and what is correct and the falsehood and error in it. And if you are not proficient in giving detail, then you should not enter into this field. (6)
What Is As-Salafiyyah?
Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] stated:
Salafiyyah is to follow the Madhab of the Salafus Saaleh [pious predecessors] – the Sahaabah, the Taa’bi’een and the virtuous generations. Allaah [The Most High] said:
[وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلۡأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِـإِحۡسَـٰنٍ۬ رَّضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ – And the first to embrace Islaam of the Muhaajiroon (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansaar (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhaajiroon) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allaah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him].
And Allaah [The Most High] said about the Sahaabah:
[إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَهَاجَرُواْ وَجَـٰهَدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِہِمۡ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَاوَواْ وَّنَصَرُوٓاْ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ بَعۡضُہُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءُ بَعۡضٍ۬ۚ – ‘Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the Cause of Allaah as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, – these are (all) allies to one another [8:72] – up to His statement- [وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنۢ بَعۡدُ وَهَاجَرُواْ وَجَـٰهَدُواْ مَعَكُمۡ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ مِنكُمۡۚ – And those who believed afterwards, and emigrated and strove hard along with you, (in the Cause of Allaah) they are of you].
Allaah [Glorified be He and free is He from all Imperfections] said in Surah Al -Hashar:
لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ ٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُخۡرِجُواْ مِن دِيَـٰرِهِمۡ وَأَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ يَبۡتَغُونَ فَضۡلاً۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرِضۡوَٲنً۬ا وَيَنصُرُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥۤۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلصَّـٰدِقُونَ
وَٱلَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُو ٱلدَّارَ وَٱلۡإِيمَـٰنَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ يُحِبُّونَ مَنۡ هَاجَرَ إِلَيۡہِمۡ
(And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants, who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking Bounties from Allaah and to please Him. And helping Allaah (i.e. helping His religion) and His Messenger (Muhammad). Such are indeed the truthful (to what they say); And those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith, love those who emigrate to them.” [59:8-9]- up until His [The Most High] statement: [وَٱلَّذِينَ جَآءُو مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٲنِنَا ٱلَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِٱلۡإِيمَـٰنِ – And those who came after them say: “Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith].
The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said: ”This ummah will split into seventy three sects; all of them will enter the fire except one. (F.1) They said, ‘which is that (saved sects) O Messenger of Allaah? He replied: ‘those who are upon that which I and my companions are upon today.” The Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said: ”Adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafaa after me”.
Therefore, Salafiyyah is the Methodology that has been obligated on us to follow and we are to abandon all other methodologies that are in opposition to it. The [people of Salafiyyah] are the saved sect, Ahlus Sunnah Wal-Jamaa-ah, and they are the aided group till the Day of Judgement (F 2). May Allaah include us amongst them.
However, ascription to this methodology [of the Salaf] requires [an acquisition of] knowledge of its fundamentals in order that the Muslim may adhere to it. [One is] required to have knowledge of the other methodologies that are in opposition to Salafiyyah in order to avoid them. Therefore, Salafiyyah upon the path of the pious predecessors has to be [followed] upon knowledge and clear sightedness. It is not enough for the person to ascribe himself to [salafiyyah] whilst being ignorant of it or being in opposition to it. For that reason Allaah [The Most High] said:[ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِـإِحۡسَـٰنٍ۬ – And also those who followed them exactly (in Faith)].
They follow [them] with knowledge- they neither fall into extremism nor negligence. They neither exaggerate nor fail to give the affair its right- like those who ascribe themselves to the madhabs of the four imams [Abu Haneefah, Maalik, Shaa-fi’ee and Ahmad] whilst being in opposition to them in Aqeedah and Ibaadaat. And like the one who ascribes himself to the methodology of the Salaf, yet he either declares the Muslims to be disbelievers or rebels against the Muslim rulers, or he follows other directions towards extremism. This person is not a Salafi, rather he is named a khaariji or a Mutazili. Or like the one who ascribes himself to the methodology of the salaf, but speaks with the statement of the Mur’ji’a in the affair of Eemaan and Kufr. This is not Salafiyyah.
Therefore, it is obligatory to pay attention to this affair and not to mix the Salafi methodology with the other methodologies that are in opposition to it, and then say: ”all these methodologies [including the Salafi methodology] are not from Islaam.” This is recklessness in speech, an oppressive judgement and deception against the people. (7)
Ascribing (oneself) to the Muslim Ummah is a fundamental principle affirmed (or established) in the (Islamic) legislation. The Muslims are a just and balanced nation [i.e. those amongst them (upon a balanced path- neither being lackadaisical nor exceeding the limits ordained by Allaah and His Messenger)].
وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِّتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّن يَنقَلِبُ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ ۚ وَإِن كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Thus We have made you [true Muslims – real believers of Islamic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways)], a Wasat (just) (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger (Muhammad) be a witness over you. And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad) from those who would turn on their heels (i.e. disobey the Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy) except for those whom Allah guided. And Allah would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem). Truly, Allah is full of kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Verse 143]
They are the best of all nations. [Allaah (The Most High) said]:
كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ
You [true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways, etc.)] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma’ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar(polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden), and you believe in Allah. [Surah Aal Imran. Verse 110]
They are followers of a single religion agreed upon by all the Prophets (F.3). They ascribe themselves to it and unite upon it. [Allaah (The Most High)] said: [إِنَّ هَٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ – Truly! This, your Ummah [Sharia or religion (Islamic Monotheism)] is one religion, and I am your Lord, therefore worship Me (Alone)]. [Surah All-Anbiyaa 92]
Allaah said: [وَإِنَّ هَٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاتَّقُونِ – And verily! This your religion (of Islamic Monotheism) is one religion, and I am your Lord, so keep your duty to Me]. [Surah Al-Mu’minoon. Verse 52]
The believers are brothers in Religion and they give allegiance to one another. [Allaah (The Most High)] said: [إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ – The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy]. [Surah Al-Hujuraat Ayah 10]
Allaah named us Muslims:
وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ ۚ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ ۚ مِّلَّةَ أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۚ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مِن قَبْلُ وَفِي هَٰذَا لِيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْكُمْ وَتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ ۚ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِاللَّهِ هُوَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۖ فَنِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ
And strive hard in Allah’s Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all your efforts that His Name should be superior). He has chosen you (to convey His Message of Islamic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion, Islam), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship, it is the religion of your father Ibrahim (Abraham) (Islamic Monotheism). It is He (Allah) Who has named you Muslims both before and in this (the Qur’an), that the Messenger (Muhammad) may be a witness over you and you be witnesses over mankind! So perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), give Zakat and hold fast to Allah [i.e. have confidence in Allah, and depend upon Him in all your affairs] He is your Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.), what an Excellent Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.) and what an Excellent Helper! [Surah Al-Hajj Ayah 78]
And from the branches (or aspects) of this ascription is ascription to Salafiyyah [i.e. the way of the pious predecessors], for indeed there is no hindrance (or prohibition) from (ascribing oneself to that); rather ascription to Salafiyyah is an ascription to Islaam based on what the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) and his companions were upon. Yes, (or certainly) it is not permissible that ascription to Salafiyyah is made to mean a party [of illegal partisanship] -(establishing) love and hate based on other than what the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) and his companions were upon, for indeed this is blameworthy and it is the meaning of (that) detestable partisanship.
Ascription to Islaam is (done in order to differentiate oneself from the followers of) other religions; ascription to the Sunnah (is done in order to differentiate oneself) from Bidah and the Shiites; ascription to Salafiyyah (is done in order to differentiate oneself from) the Innovated Dawah Methodologies, which are followed by the followers of the different (deviant) groups. So the Muslim needs to say about himself that he is a Muslim, Sunni, Salafi. (8)
Categorizing The People and Attributing Them to Their Creeds
Categorising the people and attributing them to their creeds, religions and characteristics – with respect to [passing] judgement and [establishing] principles – is neither an innovated nor a new [aspect] of knowledge; rather it is knowledge of Jarh Wat Tadeel that will not cease in this Ummah as long as night and day exists. Whoever seeks to extinguish the light of this discipline for sake of his Hizb [party] or out of fearing for his beloved ones – those who have been disparaged justifiably – then indeed he is a misguided person and one who misguides others. Categorising the people based on truth and clear-sightedness is a protection for the religion ordained by Allaah. It is a soldier among the soldiers of Allaah [i.e. in this case it is a safeguard given to this Ummah] by way of which the distortions of those who go beyond bounds, the false claims of the falsifiers [or liars] and the false interpretations of the ignorant ones are repelled, [and likewise] the deviations of the innovators, the plots of the Khawaarij and all the [deviant] sects that emerge from the Ummah. (9) As for those who are followed- those who set up principles of bidah and call the people to their bidah and misguidance, then indeed they are marked with the bidah they innovated and call the people to, and for them there is no honour. (10)
Who Initiates Splitting In The Ummah?
Al-Allaamah Zaid Bin Haadee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: The Mubtadi [innovator in religious affairs] is the cause for the splitting [in the Ummah], because splitting is connected to innovation and unity [upon the sound creed and methodology of the Salaf] is connected to the Sunnah. The obligation of refuting the Mukhaalif [the opposer of the truth] is not lifted from the scholar due to anticipation of harm, unless it is harm he is not able to bear. Then [in this case], Allah does not burden a soul beyond what it can bear. The earth is not devoid of people of knowledge who will carry out refutation against the Mubtadi and the obstinate opposer of the truth. (11)
Allaah [The Most High] said: [ أَفَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ فَرَآهُ حَسَنًا – Is he, then, to whom the evil of his deeds made fair seeming, so that he considers it as good (equal to one who is rightly guided)?] [Surah Faatir; Ayah 8] Sa’eed Bin Jubair [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “This was revealed concerning the people of bidah and desires”. (12)
Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: The Salaf named Ahlul Bidah Wal Furqah [i.e the people of Bidah and Splitting]- those who oppose the Book and the Sunnah- ahlul ahwaa [the people of desires], because of the fact that they accept what they love and reject what they hate based on their desires without guidance from Allaah. (13)
Allaah [The Most High] said: [وَلَا تَرۡكَنُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ فَتَمَسَّكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ -And incline not toward those who do wrong, lest the Fire should touch you]]. [Surah Hud: Ayah 113]
Al-Allaamah Rabee bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee [may Allaah preserve him] said: The word [ظلم –wrong] in [this ayah] can [mean] disbelief; it can mean bidah and it can be [فسوق i.e. sinful, immoral behaviour], because (ظلم) can be applicable to all [i.e. in different contexts]. Therefore, we refrain from inclining towards the evil doers, the people of bidah, the Kuffaar, the Ilmaaniyyoon and other than them. And we protect ourselves, our Aqeedah, the Eemaan and sound religion which Allaah has bestowed on us.
It is enough for us to remember that the Salaf fled from Fitan – not mixing, sitting and debating with the people of Fitan. And even amongst them, such as the likes of Ayyoub As-Sakhtiyaanee and Ibn Seereen did not listen to the speech of those [people of bidah]. And when Ibn Seereen was asked, “Why do you not speak; why do you not listen to them?” He said, “Indeed, my heart is not in my hands! I am not in control of my heart; I fear for myself that I may be misguided”. So the likes of these Imaams feared fitna and deviation for themselves; but you the Miskeen possess that bravery to enable you to challenge ahlul bidah….!!! Many people say, “We sit with ahlul ahwaa [i.e. the people of desires] and we take [from them]; we distinguish between truth and falsehood; we take what is truth and abandon falsehood”, whilst he [i.e. the utterer of this speech] is a Miskeen who can neither distinguish between truth and falsehood nor is he in control of his heart. How many a young person has been put to trial through this satanic view and thus he [becomes] degraded, reverts back on his heels [into misguidance] and depraved, and Allaah’s Aid is sought. He falls prey in the arena of the people of fitan! Therefore, it is obligated on a student of knowledge not to [regard] himself safe from ahlul bidah, for indeed he is not more knowledgeable than Ayyoub and Ibn Seereen, nor can he reach their station [in knowledge, piety etc] and those who followed them. (14)
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadi Al-Madkhalee [may Allaah preserve him] said: By Allaah! Islaam and the [affairs of the] Muslims are not ruined except by these categories of [people] amongst the people of bidah and misguidance-the khawaarij and those similar to them, and those who are worse, such as the rawaafid [i.e. Shiites of Iran and those upon their beliefs]. The rawaafid are worse than the khawaarij, and Ikhwaan al-Muslimoon (i.e. the sect -the Muslim brotherhood in Egypt and elsewhere) ally with them and they say: “They (rawaafid) are our brothers; the differing between us and them is like the differing between (Imaam) Maalik and (Imaam) Shaafi’ee;” meaning: The differing between us (i.e. Ikhwaan Muslimoon) and them (i.e. rawaafid shiites) is based on ijtihaad, and if Imaam (Maalik) and (Imaam) Shafee’ee differ in (some) affairs, they are all rewarded; and if we (ikhwaan al-muslimoon) differ with the rawaafid shiites, then us and them are rewarded.
O deceivers! [i.e. Ikhwaanis] The rawaafid (shiites) revile the Sahaabah and declare them disbelievers; they revile the wives of the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallaam); they say that the Qur’aan is distorted; they (rawaafid) have shir’kiyyaat (beliefs and acts of major polytheism) and they deify the leaders of the Prophet’s family. So does all of this not harm them (i.e. harm their claim to Islaam); is this not irjaa?! (i.e. O Ikhwaanis! Is this alliance of yours with the rawaafid and that the differing between you and them is like the differing between Imaams Maalik and Shaafi’ee not Ir’jaa?!) (15)
Shaikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: Indeed Ahlul Bidah are more evil than the people of sinful desires and [this is confirmed by way of] text and Ijmaa (consensus of the scholars); for indeed the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) commanded that the khawaarij are to be fought [i. e. by the Muslim ruler], but he (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) forbade (us) from fighting the oppressive rulers. And he (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam) said about the man who drank alcohol [i.e. the one who was brought to the Messenger due to drunkenness (F 4): “Do not curse him, for indeed he loves Allah and His Messenger”; but he (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam) said about Dhul Khuwaysirah: A people will appear from this man, who will recite the Qur’aan but it will not go beyond their throats and they will exit the religion as an arrow passes through a target. You will belittle your prayer compared to your prayer, your fasting compared to their fasting and your recitation of the Qur’aan compared to their recitation. Kill them wherever you find them [i.e. whenever they come out to fight, the Muslim ruler should rally his armies against them, because indeed there is a reward on the day of judgement for the one who kills them. (16)
Ibn Abbaas [may Allaah be pleased with him and his father] said: Do not sit with the people of desires [i.e. ahlul bidah], for indeed sitting with them will cause sickness to the hearts. (17)
Imaam Ahmad [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: Beware of writing down [knowledge] from one of the people of desires-be it a little or a lot. (18)
A Final Blast Against The Hizbiyyoon – The Proponents of Illegal Partisanship and False Unity
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Madkhali [may Allaah preserve him] said: After speaking about those who make Takfeer based on falsehood amongst the different factions of the Jahmiyah, the Khawaarij, the Rawaafid and the Qadariyyah, and the reason behind such Takfeer, Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [rahimahullaah] stated: “On the opposite side of these people who make Takfeer based on falsehood, there are a people who do not know the creed of Ahlus Sunnah Wal-Jamaa’ah as it should be; or they know some of it and are ignorant of some. And perhaps what they know of it, they do not clarify for the people, rather they conceal it. And neither do they forbid innovations that is in opposition to the Book and the Sunnah nor censure Ahlul Bidah and punish them; rather perhaps they would censure speech regarding the Sunnah and the fundamental principles of the religion – completely – and would not differentiate – in that – between what Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’ah say and what Ahlul Bidah Wal Furqah [The people of innovation and splitting] say; or they would affirm all their differing Madhabs [creeds etc] in a manner similar to how the scholars would affirm the different opinions related to affairs of Ijtihaad (F.5) in which difference of opinion is justified [or allowed]. This path has overwhelmed many of the Murji’ah, some of the jurists, those pursuing the path of asceticism and the philosophers, just as it has overwhelmed – first and foremost – many amongst the people of desires and rhetoric. Both these paths are perverted, outside the Book [i.e. The Qur’aan] and the Sunnah”. [End of Quote From Shaikhul Islaam (rahimahullaah)]
Firstly, ponder upon the above statement of Shaikhul Islaam [rahimahullaah] and then read Shaikh Rabee’s [hafidhahullaah] commentary as follows! Al-Allaamah Rabee says, “I say, may Allaah have mercy on Ibn Tamiyyah. Indeed, he clarified the situation of the people of his era and those before them; then what if he saw the situation of many amongst the Al-Jamaa’aat Al-Hizbiyyah Wal-Bid’iyyah [The Groups of Illegal Partisanship and Bidah (F.6) who ascribe themselves to Ahlus Sunnah Wal-Jamaa’ah and take cover behind him- in particular – to promote [spread, disseminate] their falsehoods. What if he saw them whilst they have definitely gathered between the Madhabs of the two groups- the khawaarij and those who follow their way in pronouncing Takfeer in the subject matter of Al-Haakimiyyah (F.7) and the way of the Mur’jiah (F.8) in the manner they approach the affair of people who are upon the big and numerous bidah, and equating Bidah to those affairs of the religion in which Ijtihaad is justified -whose people are rewarded alongside a refutation against their mistakes. In the view of these people, the leaders of Misguidance and Bidah are just like the Imaams of Guidance and Sunnah. [Al-Mukhtaaraat Al-Bahiyyah Min Kutub Shaikh Al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah. By Shaikh Rabee Bin Haadee and arranged by Shaikh Khaalid Adh-Dhufayree. Pages 62-63]
Secondly, ponder upon this statement of Shaikh Rabee [hafidhahullaah] as follows: “In the view of these people, the leaders of Misguidance and Bidah are just like the Imaams of Guidance and Sunnah”, and then read this article by Shaikh Abu Iyaadh [hafidhahullaah]: http://www.themadkhalis.com/md/series/the-false-comparison-between-hadith-giants-ibn-hajar-an-nawawi-and-20th-century-ignoramuses.cfm
Finally, Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyah [rahimahullaah] said: Rather what is obligatory is to clarify that which Allaah sent His Messengers with and (revealed) in His Books; propagate that which the Messengers brought from Allaah and fulfil the covenant which Allaah took from the scholars. Therefore, it is obligatory to know that which the Messengers brought, believe in it, propagate it, call to it, striving with it, weigh up all that which the people embark upon – [statements, actions, religious fundamentals and subsidiary issues pertaining to the apparent actions of the Limbs and affairs related to actions of the heart]- under the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger; neither following desires [through] customs, a school of law, a religious order, a leader or a predecessor; nor following conjecture through a weak hadeeth or corrupt analogy, regardless whether it is an analogy that offers some degree of certainty or not; or blindly following someone whom it is not obligated to follow his statement and action; for indeed Allaah -in His Book – has censured those who follow conjecture and that which their souls desire, whilst they abandon following that which came to them from their Lord of Guidance. [Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 12/467-468]
Footnote 1: “This Ummah will split in 73 sects, all in the fire except one”. Read here: https://salaficentre.com/2021/03/06/all-the-sects-in-the-fire-except-one-a-precise-clarification-by-imaam-abdul-azeez-in-baaz/
Footnote 2: https://soundcloud.com/masjidsunnahheathrow/distinguishing-signs-of-the-people-of-sunnah-by-abu-khadeejah-abdul-wahid – By Shaikh Abu Khadeejah [may Allaah preserve him]
Footnote 3: The Religion of all the Prophets and Messengers is one:
Allaah [The Most High] said: [شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِ نُوحًا وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ – ’He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islam) which He ordained for Nuh (Noah), and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad)].
Allaah mentions the first Messenger who was sent after Aadam, that is Nooh [peace be upon him] and the last of them is Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him]. Then Allaah mentions those who came in between them who were the Messengers of firm resolve, namely Ibraaheem, Musa and Isa Bin Maryam – [وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ ۖ أَنْ أَقِيمُوا الدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوا فِيهِ ۚ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ – and that which We ordained for Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and ‘Iesa (Jesus) saying you should establish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically), and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion). Intolerable for the Mushrikun , is that to which you (O Muhammad) call them].
This above verse mentions all five (Prophets and Messengers), just as they are also mentioned in the verse in Surah Al-Ahzaab, where Allaah says:
[وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَمِنكَ وَمِن نُّوحٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ – And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you (O Muhammad), and from Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), and ‘Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)].
The Message which all the Messengers brought was to worship Allaah Alone, with no partner or associate, as Allaah says: [وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ – And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We inspired him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana [none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)], so worship Me (Alone and none else)].
And according to a Hadeeth [the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said]: ‘’We Prophets are brothers and our religion is one’’. [Fat’hul Baari 6:550] In other words, the common bond between them is that Allaah Alone is to be worshipped, with no partner or associate, even though their laws may differ, as Allaah said: [لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا – To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way].
Muhammad Is The Final Messenger and The Qur’aan Abrogates all Others Previous Laws
Allaah (The Most High) said: [[مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا – Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything].
Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) stated in Sharh Mumti that [the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam)] being the seal of the Prophets necessitates that he is the seal of the Messengers and that is due to the fact that ‘Every Messenger is a Prophet whereas not every Prophet is a Messenger’. [For further details see Sharh Mumti 1/250]
The Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) also said: “By the One in Whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, there is not one of this nation, Jew or Christian, who hears about me and dies without believing in what I have been sent, except that he will be one of the dwellers of Hell fire.” [Reported by Muslim’ Number 153]
The Qur’aan Abrogates All Other Previous Laws
Allaah (The Most High) said:
وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ ۖ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۚ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَٰكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۖ فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ ۚ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ
And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) the Book (this Qur’an) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Mohayminan (trustworthy in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures). So judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging away from the truth that has come to you. To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way. If Allah willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you; so strive as in a race in good deeds. The return of you (all) is to Allah; then He will inform you about that in which you used to differ. [Surah Al-Maa’idah Ayah 48]
Reminder By Imaam As-Sadi regarding the above Verse
The Qur’aan gathers all the (good, excellence) in the previous books (i.e. before they were distorted). The Qur’aan contain an increase in all that will lead to the pleasure of Allaah in this life and the next, and the (most beloved and honourable) manners. The Qur’aan gathers every truth found in the other books, and it commands and urges mankind towards it. The Qur’aan is a book that gives news about the earlier and later generations. It contains (perfect) judgements and (perfect) wisdom. Whatever the Qur’aan declares to be truth in the previous Books is to be accepted, and whatever it rejects has to be rejected because it would be something that has been distorted and substituted by those who received it. etc [Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan]
Footnote 4: Ruling on the one who drinks alcohol: Anas (radiyallaahu-anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) flogged the one who drank wine with palm branches stripped of their leaves and with shoes. [Saheeh Muslimm 3281] [i.e. the Muslim ruler is the one who will apply this punishment and none else]
Footnote 5: Ijtihaad: https://www.abukhadeejah.com/tolerated-differing-and-impermissible-differing-in-islaam/ ]
Footnote 6: What is Hizbiyyah – illegal partisanship: https://salaficentre.com/2015/03/a-precise-definition-of-hizbiyyah-by-shaikh-rabee-may-allaah-preserve-him/ ]
Footnote 7: What is Al-Haakimiyyah?
Footnote 8: Who are the Murji’ah?
[Ref 1: An Excerpt from ‘Ad-Duratu Al-Uthaymeeniyyah Bi-Sharhi Fat’hi Rabbil Bariyyati Bi-Talkhees Al-Hamawiyya. Page 34. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 2: An Excerpt from ‘Al-Fawaa’d pages 167-180’. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 3: Source: Muqaddimah Kitaab Al-Majrooheem Minal Muhadditheen of Imaam Ibn Hibbaan (rahimahullaah) Page: 66]
[Ref 4: Majmoo 14/294 (3rd paragraph)]
[Ref 6: An Excerpt from At-Ta-leeqaat Al-Mukhtasar Alaa Al-Qaseedah an-Nooniyyah: Vol: 1 page: 216. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: An Excerpt from Al-Bayaan Li-Akh’taa’I Ba’dil Kuttaab. Vol 2 page:173-174. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 8: Silsilah Ar-Rasaa’il Al-Manhajiyyah Fin Nus’hi Wal Irshaad Wat-taw’iyah. pages 45-46]
[Ref 9: Tasneefun Naas Aw Ar-Radd Alaa Munkiriy At-Tasneef’ page 6. by Shaikh Abdus Salaam Burgess [rahimahullaah]
[Ref 10: Al-Ajwibah Al-Athariyyah’ pages 18-19. By Al-Allaamah Zayd Bin Haadi (rahimahullaah)]
[Ref 11: Al Ajwibah Al Mukhtasar Alaa As-ila Al-Ashrati’ Pages 43-44]
[Ref 12: Tafseer Al-Baghawi 3/689]
[Ref 13: Excerpt from Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 4/189-190]
[Ref 14: An Excerpt from (الذريعة إلى بيان مقاصد كتاب الشريعة ) Vol 1 pages 192-193. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 15: An Excerpt from: لذريعة إلى بيان مقاصد كتاب الشريعة للإمام المحدث أبي بكر محمد بن الحسين الآجري pages: Page: 162-slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 16: Majmoo 20/103-105]
[Ref 17: Al-Ibaanah 2/438]
[Ref 18: Siyar 11/231]