In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Qur’anic Proofs Which Show that the Religion of Islam Embodies the Beneficial Contemporary Sciences and Professions – A Refutation Against Those Who Negate This Affair Due to Arrogance and Those Who Negate Due to Ignorance
Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: All the praises and thanks be to Allāh; we praise Him, seek His help, seek His forgiveness and repent to Him. We seek refuge in Allāh against the evils of ourselves and the evils of our deeds. Whoever Allāh guides, none can misguide, and whoever Allaah leaves to go astray (due to a perversion in his or her heart), then none can guide such a person. I bear witness that no deity is worthy of worship besides Allāh alone, without partner. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.
This is a treatise consisting of definitive proofs showing that the Islamic religion and its disciplines, its activities (functions) and directives gathers all good, compassion, guidance, righteousness and rectification- deals with every situation; and that the sound beneficial contemporary worldly sciences and professions are embodied within the domain of the religion. Neither does its activities (functions) negate the sound beneficial contemporary worldly sciences and professions as the ignorant people and materialists claim, nor as the ignorant (or those who pretend to be ignorant) think that the beneficial contemporary professions have not brought anything new; rather what is beneficial of them for the religion and the worldly affairs, and for groups and individuals, enters into the domain of the religion. The religion has certainly indicated and guided the people to it, and to every useful affair until the Day of Judgement. And a clarification that if the contemporary professions are not pursued based on the goals of the religion and bounded to them, then its harm will be more than its benefit and its evil will be more than its good. However, this principle requires two affairs:
The first principle is to know that which the Qur’aan and the Sunnah indicates in general and in detail, and second is to know the affairs that are existent and the sound realities that are known and recognized by fair-minded people. So, when a person is acquainted with these two affairs, then he will know that the Islamic disciplines, its functions and specific subject matters – in origin – do not isolate anything that contain good and righteousness. Therefore, the one who is well-acquainted with this utilizes these two affairs as basis of proof for the other and knows that deficiency occurs as a result of being deprived of both or one of them. When he knows the ‘General Fundamental Principles’ that deal with the Subject Matter, he will refer the ‘Issues that link to the Main Subject Matter’ to those General Fundamental Principles; but if a speaker addresses something on those ‘Issues’ before being acquainted with the General Fundamental Principles, then gross error will occur and thus arises those doubts that are not confusing except to the ignorant ones or the willful stubborn opponents. [Ad-Dalaa’il Al-Qur’aaniyyah Fee Annal Uloom Wal-A’maal An-Naafi’ah Al-Asriyyah Daakhilatun Fid Deen Al-Islaamiy. page 1. slightly paraphrased]
How to Approach The Contemporary Worldly Sciences
Shaikh Saaleh Aala Ash-Shaikh [may allaah preserve him] said: The Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said: Verily, the creation of each of you is brought together in his mother’s womb for forty days as a drop [of water, semen], then he is a clot for a similar period, then a morsel for a similar period…. [An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadeeth. Hadeeth 4]
It is well known that during that era, the Sahaabah did not know these stages (of development of the human being in the womb) through experimental knowledge, vision [i.e. by way X-rays or ultrasound that enables the human to see something in the womb) or other than that; rather it was simply (a statement of the Prophet) which they (believed and affirmed). They were scholars by way of the revelation sent down to the Prophet and not by way of experimentation (examination). [Sharh Al-Arba’een. Hadeeth 4]
Imaam Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: We do not say, “We do not give consideration to anything stated by the people in the subject matter regarding medicine, astronomy and the celestial bodies”, however, we do not accept everything they say. If what they say opposes the Book and the (authentic) Sunnah, then indeed we do not accept their statements. We take [i.e. believe and affirm without any doubt] that which is conveyed in the Book and the Sunnah], and we say, “An era will come in which the people will bear witness to the falsity of those statements of theirs – at present – that are in opposition to the Book and Sunnah and (bear witness) to the soundness of that which has been conveyed in the Book and the Sunnah. [An excerpt from the ‘Explanation of Bulooghul Maraam’ Vol 1. page 130. Shared by Ustaadh abu Tasneem (Mushaf Al-Banghaalee- may Allaah preserve him)]
Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: Indeed, that which is stated by the astronomers about the celestial bodies, their sizes and the distance between them, and that which is said about the earth [i.e. by the geologists etc] is categorized into three affairs: [a] That which is backed by the sound knowledge-based proofs [i.e. the Sharee’ah], therefore it is accepted. [b] That which the knowledge-based proofs [i.e. the sharee’ah] declares to be false, therefore it is rejected. [c] That which there is no proof to either accept or reject it, therefore it is unproven until a person from the people of knowledge [i.e. upright scholars of Ahlus Sunnah] examines it [i.e. examines what it indicates based on the Book and Sunnah] to show whether it should be accepted or rejected. As for accepting it without [sound] investigation and observation, but merely accepting it by blindly following them [i.e. the astronomers, geologists etc], then this is impermissible because of the numerous mistakes that occur as a result of that, and speaking -without knowledge – about Allaah and that which He has created [i.e. the entire universe and all that is within it]. [An Excerpts from ‘Al-Adillah An-Naqliyyah Wal-Hissiyyah Alaa Imkaanis Su’ood Ilal Kawaakib Wa Alaa Jarayaan Ash-Shams Wal-Qamar Wa Sukoon Al-Ard’ page 74. slightly paraphrased]
Therefore, we return to those honest investigators – those students of sound Aqeedah who are well acquainted with both the statements of the upright scholars and the contemporary worldly sciences, such as the likes of Dr. Shaikh Abu Iyaadh Amjad Rafiq [may Allaah preserve him, increase him in beneficial knowledge and righteous deeds. And likewise preserve all the students and Ahlus Sunnah Aameen]. Read: Understanding the Two Definitions of ‘Science’ in Operation – By Shaikh Dr. Abu Iyaadh: http://www.aboutatheism.net/articles/juvtbpd-understanding-the-two-definitions-of-science-and-scientific-enquiry.cfm