In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
The Benefits of Consultation In The Religious And Worldly Affairs
Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: Allāh said: [وشاورهم في الأمر فإذا عزمت فتوكل على الله – And consult them in the affairs. Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him)]. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 159]
Allāh stated about the believers: [وأمرهم شورى بينهم – And who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation]. [Surah Ash-Shooraa. Aayh 38]
This matter, which Allāh commanded His Prophet that he establishes consultation, and stated regarding the believers that they are those who establish consultation, includes all religious and worldly matters relating to them and others. Therefore, this indicates that matters whose means of wellbeing and benefit are very clear has to be pointed out for implementation, and that which its harm is very clear, the servant should not do it. And regarding what is ambiguous, they seek assistance through consultation, careful thought and discussion until what is right regarding it becomes clear and the benefit or harm is manifested. No sane person would harbour doubt that this great fundamental, which Allāh commanded and praised – which is to establish consultation – is the path of rectifying all affairs. And just as it enters into the sciences and duties of the Islamic legislation, likewise it enters into the affairs and subject matters related to the worldly sciences, just as it enters into the affairs of individuals and groups. The benefits of necessary and perfect consultation are innumerable, and it is well known by everyone that many affairs are dependent on it, as well as every matter in which consultation is held by its people and those who have the expertise and ability in the affair. Allāh [The Most High] said:
وإنك لتدعوهم إلى صراط مستقيم
وإن الذين لا يؤمنون بالآخرة عن الصراط لناكبون
And certainly, you (O Muhammad ) call them to a Straight Path (true religion Islamic Monotheism). And verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter are indeed deviating far astray from the Path (true religion Islamic Monotheism). [Al-Muminoon 73-74]
The straight path which the Messenger Muhammad and this Mighty Qur’an calls to is the upright and balanced path that safeguards steadfastness in belief, manners and deeds that bring about well-being in the religious and worldly affairs, and for individuals and the Muslim World. It is a safeguard for the sciences and duties of the Islamic legislation and the worldly disciplines because all of them cannot achieve uprightness except by way of it. The material things on their own will avail nothing, and its harm will be greater than its benefit, and due to this Allāh said: [وإن الذين لا يؤمنون بالآخرة عن الصراط لناكبون – And verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter are indeed deviating far astray from the Path (true religion Islamic Monotheism)]. [Surah Al-Muminoon. Aayah 73] [An Excerpt from Ad-Dalaa’il Al-Qur’aaniyyah Fee Annal Uloom Wal-A’maal An-Naafi’ah Al-Asriyyah Daakhilatun Fid Deen Al-Islaamiy. page 19. Slightly paraphrased]
How to Approach The Contemporary Worldly Sciences
Shaikh Saaleh Aala Ash-Shaikh [may allaah preserve him] said: The Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said: Verily, the creation of each of you is brought together in his mother’s womb for forty days as a drop [of water, semen], then he is a clot for a similar period, then a morsel for a similar period…. [An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadeeth. Hadeeth 4]
It is well known that during that era, the Sahaabah did not know these stages (of development of the human being in the womb) through experimental knowledge, vision [i.e. by way X-rays or ultrasound that enables the human to see something in the womb) or other than that; rather it was simply (a statement of the Prophet) which they (believed and affirmed). They were scholars by way of the revelation sent down to the Prophet and not by way of experimentation (examination). [Sharh Al-Arba’een. Hadeeth 4]
Imaam Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: We do not say, “We do not give consideration to anything stated by the people in the subject matter regarding medicine, astronomy and the celestial bodies”, however, we do not accept everything they say. If what they say opposes the Book and the (authentic) Sunnah, then indeed we do not accept their statements. We take [i.e. believe and affirm without any doubt] that which is conveyed in the Book and the Sunnah], and we say, “An era will come in which the people will bear witness to the falsity of those statements of theirs – at present – that are in opposition to the Book and Sunnah and (bear witness) to the soundness of that which has been conveyed in the Book and the Sunnah. [An excerpt from the ‘Explanation of Bulooghul Maraam’ Vol 1. page 130. Shared by Ustaadh abu Tasneem (Mushaf Al-Banghaalee- may Allaah preserve him)]
Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: Indeed, that which is stated by the astronomers about the celestial bodies, their sizes and the distance between them, and that which is said about the earth [i.e. by the geologists etc] is categorized into three affairs: [a] That which is backed by the sound knowledge-based proofs [i.e. the Sharee’ah], therefore it is accepted. [b] That which the knowledge-based proofs [i.e. the sharee’ah] declares to be false, therefore it is rejected. [c] That which there is no proof to either accept or reject it, therefore it is unproven until a person from the people of knowledge [i.e. upright scholars of Ahlus Sunnah] examines it [i.e. examines what it indicates based on the Book and Sunnah] to show whether it should be accepted or rejected. As for accepting it without [sound] investigation and observation, but merely accepting it by blindly following them [i.e. the astronomers, geologists etc], then this is impermissible because of the numerous mistakes that occur as a result of that, and speaking -without knowledge – about Allaah and that which He has created [i.e. the entire universe and all that is within it]. [An Excerpts from ‘Al-Adillah An-Naqliyyah Wal-Hissiyyah Alaa Imkaanis Su’ood Ilal Kawaakib Wa Alaa Jarayaan Ash-Shams Wal-Qamar Wa Sukoon Al-Ard’ page 74. slightly paraphrased]
Therefore, we return to those honest investigators – those students of sound Aqeedah who are well acquainted with both the statements of the upright scholars and the contemporary worldly sciences, such as the likes of Dr. Shaikh Abu Iyaadh Amjad Rafiq [may Allaah preserve him, increase him in beneficial knowledge and righteous deeds. And likewise preserve all the students and Ahlus Sunnah Aameen].
Read: Understanding the Two Definitions of ‘Science’ in Operation – By Shaikh Dr. Abu Iyaadh: