In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: All praise is due to Allaah, the Islamic Sharee’ah came to rectify the affairs of the rich and the poor as much as possible. When Allaah – The Exalted – decreed that individuals amongst humankind and Jinn will have different social statuses – among them the rich, the poor, the one of high social status and the one of lower social status- based on a Great judgment and underlying reasons that are too precise to describe, He then established a relationship of close ties between them, some given authority over others, established the practice of mutual exchange between them and some in need of others. The All-Wise Law Giver – [The One completely Wise in everything He decrees, and completely Wise in His Sayings, and in His Actions, and there is no deficiency in anything He decrees, says or does] – firstly ordained that they should be brothers, and that they should not take advantage of each other personally; but rather He instructed each of them to fulfil his obligation towards the other by way of which social harmony and the necessities of life are accomplished.
Commentary: The author stated that when Allaah grants a person wealth, this is not proof that such a person is honoured; and when Allaah limits the means of livelihood of a person, this is not proof that Allaah has dishonored such a person. Allaah said:
أَمَّا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِذَا مَا ٱبۡتَلَٮٰهُ رَبُّهُ ۥ فَأَكۡرَمَهُ ۥ وَنَعَّمَهُ ۥ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّىٓ أَكۡرَمَنِ
وَأَمَّآ إِذَا مَا ٱبۡتَلَٮٰهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيۡهِ رِزۡقَهُ ۥ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّىٓ أَهَـٰنَنِ
As for the human being, when his Lord tries him by giving him honour and gifts, then he says (puffed up): “My Lord has honoured me.” But when He tries him, by straitening his means of life, he says: “My Lord has humiliated me!” [كَلَّ – certainly not] – Meaning, it is not the case that a person is honored in the sight of Allaah due to been granted wealth because it may be that this wealth is a trial and cause of harm for him. Also the fact that a person’s share of wealth is little does not mean that he is dishonoured; but rather it has been reported – in an authentic hadeeth – that Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “The poor Muslims will enter Paradise before the rich by half of a day, the length of which is five hundred years”. [Sunan al-Tirmidhī 2354]
Therefore, just because a person is poor does not mean that he is dishonoured, and just because a person has wealth does not mean that he is honoured; but rather wealth and poverty are a trial. Some people are put to trial through wealth and some are put to trial through poverty. The rich person is put to trial so that is it made known whether he will be grateful or ungrateful, and the poor person is put to trial so that it is made known whether he will be patience or will lose hope. There is a well known difference of opinion amongst the scholars regarding whether the rich grateful person is more virtuous or the poor person who is patient. Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said that he asked Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] about this affair, so he said, “The most virtuous of two is the one who has more fear of Allaah. And if they are equal in fear of Allaah, then they are equal in virtue”. Therefore, the nobility of a person in this affair is not based on wealth or poverty, but rather the scale by way of which this is judged is the person’s fear of Allaah. Then Shaikhul Islaam said that “This affair is examined from three angles: first, the guidance that applies to both the rich and the poor; second, the guidance that specifically applies to the rich people, and third, the guidance that specifically applies to the poor”.
Then the author stated: “The Wise Law Giver (i.e. Allaah) firstly ordained that they should be brothers” – meaning, the rich and the poor should be brothers in Islamic faith. Allaah said: [ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ إِخۡوَةٌ۬ – Indeed, the believers are brothers in faith. (Surah Al-Hujuraat. Aayah 10)]
The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said: “Be servants of Allah as brothers in faith”. And that they should not take advantage of each other personally. The Prophet said: “Do not envy each other, do not outbid each other, do not hate each other, do not turn away from each other, and do not outsell each other”. (see footnote a) All these affairs are in opposition to brotherhood in Islamic faith. Then the author said, “But rather He instructed each of them to fulfil his obligation towards the other by way of which social harmony and the necessities of life are accomplished”.
Also, one of those general affairs of guidance that applies to everyone is that Allaah has commanded everyone to collectively embark upon the fulfilment of those affairs of general public welfare that benefits all – both the poor and the rich, such as physical acts of worship, charitable projects, the performance of Jihad against the enemies, confronting the enemies and repelling their aggression by all means (see footnote b), each of them according to his ability and strength- this one with his bodily strength and wealth, that one with his bodily strength, this other person with his wealth, and that other person with his high social status and the guidance he offers, and this other person with his knowledge and teaching. All of them doing something that will bring about wellbeing for the Global Muslim Community. That is because the goal is one, everyone shares a collective responsibility in pursuit of the general welfare, and both the goal and the means to it are noble. (1)
Footnote a: Abu Hurairah [may Allaah be pleased with him] said that Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Do not envy each other, do not outbid each other, do not hate each other, do not turn away from each other, and do not outsell each other. Rather, be servants of Allah as brothers. The Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. He does not wrong him, nor humiliate him, nor look down upon him. Righteousness is here,” and he pointed to his chest three times. The Prophet said, “It is enough evil for a man to look down upon his Muslim brother. The entirety of the Muslim is sacred to another Muslim: his life, his wealth, and his honour”. [Ṣaḥeeh Muslim 2564]
Also, a Muslim is commanded to deal justly with non-Muslims. Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated regarding the relationship between between a Muslim and a Non-Muslim: “He (i.e. the Muslim) must not oppress him – neither physically nor with regards to his wealth and honour. If a non-Muslim is citizen in the Islamic state, either the non-Muslim who is granted safety to enter the Muslim land or a non-Muslim who has a contract of peace between him and the Muslim rulers (or between his government and Muslim rulers), then his rights must be given. He must not be oppressed with regards to his wealth, such a theft, treachery nor deception”. (2)
Read article by Shaikh Abu Khadeejah [may Allaah protect him] on this link: Living With non-Muslim with Fine Conduct: https://abukhadeejah.com/living-with-non-muslims-in-the-west-with-fine-conduct/
Are Treaties With The Jews, the State of ‘Israel’ and other Non-Muslims Permitted? Is it Allegiance? Is it Apostasy?
The Prophet of Islam would not kill diplomats, ambassadors, emissaries or foreign delegations even if they were sent by the worst of his enemies.
Footnote b: Salafi Shaikh Fawzaan on Jihad in our times and the guidelines of Jihad according to Islam: https://abukhadeejah.com/salafi-shaikh-fawzaan-on-jihaad-in-our-times-and-the-guidelines-of-jihaad-according-to-islam/
[Ref 1: From 44mins 19secs to 52mins 15secs. https://www.al-badr.net/detail/3KwCnaB5tN. paraphrased]