In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَإِذۡ قَالَ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمُ رَبِّ ٱجۡعَلۡ هَـٰذَا بَلَدًا ءَامِنً۬ا وَٱرۡزُقۡ أَهۡلَهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱلثَّمَرَٲتِ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ مِنۡہُم بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِۖ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ ۥ قَلِيلاً۬ ثُمَّ أَضۡطَرُّهُ ۥۤ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلنَّارِۖ وَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said, “My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.” He (Allah) answered: “As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!” [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 126]
Meaning, when Ibraaheem supplicated for this house (i.e. the Ka’bah) and its surrounding areas that Allah make it a city of security and provide its inhabitants with various types of fruits; he then restricted his supplication to the believers out of showing good manners in the presence of Allaah, because the first part of his supplication was unrestricted (when he ask for all his children) and thus the response came as a restriction. So, he restricted his supplication for provision to the believers, even though Allaah’s Provision reaches both believers and disbelievers, the disobedient person and the obedient person. Allaah said: [وَمَن كَفَرَ – As for him who disbelieves]- Meaning, I will bestow on all of them- both Muslims and disbelievers. The Muslim utilises this provision to worship Allaah and then proceed towards the bliss of paradise, but as for the disbeliever, he enjoys himself for a short period (in the life of this world), [ثُمَّ أَضۡطَرُّهُ ۥۤ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلنَّارِۖ وَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ – then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!] (1)
Read: On Imaan (Faith) and Kufr (disbelief):
[Ref 1: Excerpt from Tafseer As-Sadi. Slightly paraphrased]