In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Adi Bin Hatim [may Allaah be pleased with him] said: “I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) while he was sitting in the Masjid, the people said, ‘This is Adi Bin Hatim’. And I came without having a treaty nor a writ. When I was brought to him, he took my hand. Prior to that he had said, ‘I hope that Allah will place his hand in my hand’. He stood with me, and a woman and a boy met him and said, ‘We have a need from you’. He stood with them, until he was finished dealing with what they wanted.
Then he took me by the hand until he brought me to his house. A slave girl brought him a cushion to sit on, and I sat in front of him. He expressed thanks and praise for Allah, and then said, ‘What has caused you to flee from saying ‘None has the right to be worshipped? Do you know of another god other than Him?’ I said, ‘No.’ Then he spoke for some time, and then said, ‘You refuse to say Allahu Akbar because you know that there is something greater than Allah?’ I said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Indeed the Jews are those who have earned the anger of Allaah, and the Christians have strayed’. I said, ‘Indeed I am a Muslim, Hanif. I saw his face smiling with happiness.
Then he ordered that I stop with him at the home of a man from the Ansar, whom he would frequently visit in the mornings and the evenings. When I was with him at night, a people in woolen garments of these Nimar (a cloth with certain patters, and the word appeared before) came. Then he performed prayer and stood to encourage them (the people) to give (charity) to them. Then he said, ‘Even with a Sa’ or half a Sa’, or a handful or part of a handful, to save the face of one of you from the heat of Hell, or the Fire. And even if it be by a date or a part of a date – for indeed one of you shall meet Allah and it shall be said to him what I say to you, ‘Have I not given hearing and sight to you?’ He shall say, ‘Of course’ It will be said, ‘Have I not given you wealth and children?’ He shall say, ‘Of course’. It will be said, ‘So where is what you have sent forth for yourself?’ He will look before him and behind him, on his right and on his left, but he shall not find anything to protect his face from the heat of Hell. Let one of you protect his face from the Fire, even if with part of a date, and if he does not find that, then with a good statement. For indeed I do not fear poverty for you – Allah will aid you and grant you, such that a woman can travel on her camel howda from Yathrib to Al-Hirah, or further, without fear of being robbed.’ I began thinking to myself: “Where would the thieves of Taiy’ be then?”‘ [Authenticated by Imaam Albaanee In Saheeh Wa Da’eef Sunan Tirmidhee. Number 2953]
Allaah’s Book has shown the meaning of this hadeeth. Allaah [Glorified be He and free is He from all imperfections] stated: [ قُلۡ هَلۡ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ۬ مِّن ذَٲلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِۚ مَن لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيۡهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡہُمُ ٱلۡقِرَدَةَ وَٱلۡخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَۚ – Say (O Muhammad)to the people of the Scripture: “Shall I inform you of something worse than that, regarding the recompense from Allah: those (Jews) who incurred the Curse of Allah and His Wrath, those of whom (some) He transformed into monkeys and swines, those who worshipped Taghut (false deities)”]. [Surah Al-Maa’idah. Aayah 60] [See footnote a]
Allaah [The Exalted] said: [أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوۡاْ قَوۡمًا غَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡہِم مَّا هُم مِّنكُمۡ وَلَا مِنۡہُمۡ – Have you (O Muhammad) not seen those (hypocrites) who take for friends a people upon whom is the Wrath of Allah?] [Surah Al-Mujaadilah. Aayah 14] Based on the consensus of the scholars of Tafseer, this refers to the hypocrites who allied with those Jews (that fought the Prophet).
And Allaah stated about the Christians:
لَّقَدۡ ڪَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلَـٰثَةٍ۬ۘ وَمَا مِنۡ إِلَـٰهٍ إِلَّآ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ۚ وَإِن لَّمۡ يَنتَهُواْ عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَيَمَسَّنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
أَفَلَا يَتُوبُونَ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَيَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَهُ ۥۚ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬
مَّا ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ۬ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِهِ ٱلرُّسُلُ وَأُمُّهُ ۥ صِدِّيقَةٌ۬ۖ ڪَانَا يَأۡڪُلَانِ ٱلطَّعَامَۗ ٱنظُرۡ ڪَيۡفَ نُبَيِّنُ لَهُمُ ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱنظُرۡ أَنَّىٰ يُؤۡفَكُونَ
قُلۡ أَتَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمۡلِكُ لَڪُمۡ ضَرًّ۬ا وَلَا نَفۡعً۬اۚ وَٱللَّهُ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُواْ فِى دِينِڪُمۡ غَيۡرَ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوٓاْ أَهۡوَآءَ قَوۡمٍ۬ قَدۡ ضَلُّواْ مِن قَبۡلُ وَأَضَلُّواْ ڪَثِيرً۬ا وَضَلُّواْ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ
Surely, disbelievers are those who said: “Allah is the third of the three (in a Trinity).” But there is no ilah (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Ilah (God -Allah). And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall the disbelievers among them. Will they not repent to Allah and ask His Forgiveness? For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. The Messiah [‘Iesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary), was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother [Maryam (Mary)] was a Siddiqah [i.e. she believed in the words of Allah and His Books (see Verse 66:12)]. They both used to eat food (as any other human being, while Allah does not eat). Look how We make the Signs clear to them, yet look how they are deluded away (from the truth). ay (O Muhammad to mankind): “How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or to benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower.” Say (O Muhammad): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Exceed not the limits in your religion (by believing in something) other than the truth, and do not follow the vain desires of people who went astray in times gone by, and who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the Right Path.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah. Aayaat 73-77]
This refers to the Christians, and they were forbidden from exceeding the limits as Allaah also stated:
يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُواْ فِى دِينِڪُمۡ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلۡحَقَّۚ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ وَڪَلِمَتُهُ ۥۤ أَلۡقَٮٰهَآ إِلَىٰ مَرۡيَمَ وَرُوحٌ۬ مِّنۡهُۖ فَـَٔامِنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦۖ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ ثَلَـٰثَةٌۚ ٱنتَهُواْ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّڪُمۡۚ إِنَّمَا ٱللَّهُ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ۖ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥۤ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ۘ لَّهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَڪِيلاً۬
O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allah aught but the truth. The Messiah ‘Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, (“Be!” – and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Ruh) created by Him; so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not: “Three (trinity)!” Cease! (it is) better for you. For Allah is (the only) One Ilah (God), Glory be to Him (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs. [Surah An-Nisaa. 171]
The Jews fell short in adhering to the truth and the Christians exceeded the limits. The basis of the disbelief of the Jews is due to lack of acting upon their knowledge, because they know the truth but do not act upon it, or they neither utter the truth nor act upon it. The disbelief of the Christians is due to acting without knowledge, so they strive to perform various acts of worship without a sound law revealed by Allaah and they speak about Allaah that which they do not know. And because of this, the pious predecessors – Sufyaan Ibn Uyaynah and others – used to say, “Indeed, the corrupt ones amongst our scholars have something of resemblance to the Jews and the corrupt ones amongst those devoted to worship have something of resemblance to the Christians”. We have been warned against following their path. (1)
Allaah rebuked them (The Jews and Christians who deviated after the departure of their Prophets and refused to believe in Muhammad), and it is from that which Allaah has warned this Ummah and made it an admonition for those who have insight. Indeed, the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] informed us that the deeds [Jews and Christians] will occur amongst some of the Muslims, even though he also stated, “There will not cease to be a group amongst my Ummah who will be established upon the truth, neither will they be harmed by those who oppose them nor by those who forsake them until the hour is established”, and that his Ummah will not agree upon misguidance, and that they will not be completely overcome by other nations; rather this group will not cease to be manifest, aided and adhering to the path of their Prophet; but there will definitely be those in the Ummah who will follow the ways of the Jews, the Christians, the Romans and fire worshippers, as it is reported in Bukhaari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah [may Allaah be pleased with him] that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “You will follow the ways of those nations who were before you, span by span and cubit by cubit (i.e., inch by inch) so much so that even if they entered the hole of a mastigure, you would follow them”. They [i.e. the people] said, “O Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! (Do you mean) the Jews and Christians?” He said, “Who else?” The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “What happened to the nations will happen to my Ummah, span by span and cubit by cubit (i.e., inch by inch)”; so they [i.e. the people] said, “O Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! (Do you mean) the Persians and the Romans?” He said, “Who else other than those ones?”
And there are hypocrites in the midst of the Islamic Ummah and the hypocrites will be in lowest depths of the fire- below the Jews and Chrsitians. This is why one will find in the hypocrites that which earned the Jews and Christians rebuke – those who manifest belief in everything brought by the Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] whilst hiding the opposite of it in their hearts, such as the heretics and the Baatiniyyah, and even more so those amongst them who openly manifest their hearsay. And one will find this [i.e. the ways of the Jews and Christians] amongst some of the people of religious innovations- those who affirm in the Messengership of the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] inwardly and outwardly, but they are confused by some of that which confused the Jews and Christians, so they follow the doubtful (ambiguous) matters and abandon that which is very clear, such as the Khawaarij and other than them amongst the proponents of religious innovations. Many of these people [i.e. the innovators in religious affairs] share the misguidance of the Christians in the subject matter regarding Allaah’s Attributes, such as the misguidance in declaring that Allaah is one with the creation; rather there are those heretics who are greater in misguidance than the Christians. (2)
Finally, bear in mind that rebutting false beliefs, ideas and views does not necessitate bad behaviour towards Jews, Christians and others, but rather Muslims are commanded to behave well towards their neighbours and fellow citizens. Must read:
Footnote a: Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَلَقَدۡ عَلِمۡتُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱعۡتَدَوۡاْ مِنكُمۡ فِى ٱلسَّبۡتِ فَقُلۡنَا لَهُمۡ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَـٰسِـِٔينَ
فَجَعَلۡنَـٰهَا نَكَـٰلاً۬ لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡہَا وَمَا خَلۡفَهَا وَمَوۡعِظَةً۬ لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ
And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected.” So We made this punishment an example to their own and to succeeding generations and a lesson to those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious). [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayaat 65-66]
To be continued InShaaAllaah
[Ref 1: An Excerpt from Iqtidaa As-Siraat Al-Mustaqeem. Vol 1 pages 76-79. Publisher: Al-Maktabah Al-Arabiyyah As-Su’oodiyyah. 7th Edition 1999 (1419AH)]
[Ref 2: An Excerpt from Al-Jawaabus Saheeh Liman Baddala Deenul Maseeh. Vol 1. Pages20- 23. Slightly paraphrased]