In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Rawan Radwan (Arab News) Welcomed Participation In Valentine’s Day and Now Welcomes Participation In Major Polytheism and Disbelief (Christmas Celebration) In The Name of Moderation and Tolerance
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَٲتِ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِۚ وَمَن يَتَّبِعۡ خُطُوَٲتِ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ فَإِنَّهُ ۥ يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِۚ وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُ ۥ مَا زَكَىٰ مِنكُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ أَبَدً۬ا وَلَـٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ۬
O you who have believed, do not follow the footsteps of Satan. And whoever follows the footsteps of Satan – indeed, he enjoins immorality and wrongdoing. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, not one of you would have been pure, ever, but Allah purifies whom He wills, and Allah is Hearing and Knowing. [Surah An-Noor. Aayah 21]
This open caller to falsehood welcomed participation in Valentine’s day and now he welcomes participation in Christmas in the name of moderation and tolerance. Firstly, with regards to tolerance and moderation, these words cannot be utilised to condone or justify participation in that which Allaah and His Messenger have prohibited; rather moderation (or the balanced path) and tolerance must be confined within the commands and prohibitions of the infallible final divine revelation.
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The basis of Banee Adam’s misguidance is as a result of General Terms and Ambiguous Meanings [i.e. terms and meanings which can either be utilised for truth or falsehood when not explained in detail and distinguished], especially if they come in contact with a confused mind, then how about when desires and misguided enthusiasm is added to that? Therefore, ask the One Who keeps the hearts steadfast [i.e. Allaah] to keep your heart firm upon His Religion and not allow you to fall into this darkness”. (1)
The basis of a person’s Islam is to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] is the Messenger of Allaah, to believe in Allaah, declare that Allaah is One without partner, obey Allaah’s commands, keep away from what Allaah has forbidden and single out Allaah in worship. And safeguarding this path (necessitates) the prohibition of every expression (term or word) that contains Shirk Billaah [i.e. ascribing partners to Allaah] or Kufr [disbelief], or will lead to one of the two. (2) In the Qur’aan, there are many words that are utilised to rebut the words (or terms) that are in opposition to the call of the Messengers, the revelation that was revealed to them and the truth they brought. (3)
One of the general fundamental principles (in Islam) is to know that words [terms and expressions] are two types: the words that are mentioned in the Qur’aan and (authentic) Sunnah, therefore, it is obligated on every believer to affirm them – affirm what Allaah and His Messenger have affirmed, and negate what Allaah and His Messenger have negated. The words affirmed by Allaah is truth and the ones Allaah negated are (negated) in truth, because indeed Allaah speaks the truth and guides to the straight path. The words of the Sharee’ah are sanctified, and it is from perfection in knowledge that one seeks after the (sound meanings) which the Messenger intended by them, in order to affirm what he affirmed and negate the meanings he negated, because indeed it is obligated on us to believe and bear witness to everything he has stated and follow him in everything he has commanded. As for the words that are neither found in the Qur’am and (authentic) Sunnah, nor did the pious predecessors hold a consensus regarding whether they are negated or affirmed, it is not incumbent on anyone to agree with the one who negates or affirms them until its intended meaning is explained. So, if its intended meaning agrees with the (revelation, commands, prohibitions etc) conveyed by the Messenger, it is affirmed; but if its intended meaning is in opposition to the (revelation, commands, prohibitions etc) conveyed by the Messenger, it is rejected. (4)
What is The Middle Path
It is widely known amongst some of the people that ٱلۡوُسۡطَ is only that which occupies the middle position between two things, and they do not take note of the other meaning of this term, as mentioned in the Magnificent Qur’aan and the [authentic] Prophetic Sunnah. [ٱلۡوُسۡطَ ] in the Islamic legislation is that which is ‘Superior.’ [Allaah (The Most High)] said: [حَـٰفِظُواْ عَلَى ٱلصَّلَوَٲتِ وَٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱلۡوُسۡطَىٰ – Guard strictly (five obligatory) As-Salawaat (the prayers) especially the Salatul Wustaa (the Asr prayer)]’’. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 238] [ٱلۡوُسۡطَىٰ]- Meaning: The best, more excellent etc. And Allaah (The Most High) said: [مِنۡ أَوۡسَطِ مَا تُطۡعِمُونَ أَهۡلِيكُمۡ (On the scale) of the average of that which you feed your own families].’’ [Surah Al-Maa’idah. Aayah 89] [مِنۡ أَوۡسَطِ ] – Meaning: The best and most just. And Allaah (The Most High) said: [وَكَذَٲلِكَ جَعَلۡنَـٰكُمۡ أُمَّةً۬ وَسَطً۬ا – Thus We have made you أُمَّةً۬ وَسَطً۬ا]- Meaning: The best and most upright Ummah. The intent behind all this is to understand that [الوسطية] in the context of the Religion is that which is ‘best’ and the ‘Justice of the Religion’, [and that is] to follow that which Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] has commanded and keep away from that which He has forbidden. As for the explanation of [الوسطية] in the religious context with a meaning other than this meaning, then it is [something founded upon a foundation] ready to crumble – a mirage which the thirsty one considers water [i.e. an illusion]. (5)
Reflect upon the statement: “The intent behind all this is to understand that [الوسطية] in the context of the Religion is that which is ‘best’ and the ‘Justice of the Religion’, [and that is] to follow that which Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] has commanded and keep away from that which He has forbidden. As for the explanation of [الوسطية] in the religious context with a meaning other than this meaning, then it is [something founded upon a foundation] ready to crumble – a mirage which the thirsty one considers water [i.e. an illusion]”.
Therefore, tolerance and moderation in Islam does not mean participation in that which Allaah and His Messenger forbade, let alone participation in the festivals that are tantamount to major Kufr and Shirk. Read the article by Shaikh Abu Khadeejah [may Allaah preserve him]: Valentine’s Day, Mothers Day, Halloween, April Fools, Easter, Christmas, Thanksgiving and Holi: Ibn Taymiyyah on the Prohibition of Participating in the Festivals and Annual Celebrations of the Unbelievers: https://abukhadeejah.com/ibn-taymiyyah-on-participating-in-the-annual-celebrations-of-the-unbelievers/
Secondly, Rawan Radwan, the open caller to falsehood stated as follows:
Quote: Just a few short years ago, Christmas was a low-key affair in Saudi Arabia, celebrated by expatriates behind closed doors. Nowadays, thanks to an environment and culture of religious tolerance, the festive period is marked openly and enjoyed by expatriates and citizens alike.
Quote: Retired Aramco executive Ali M. Baluchi told Arab News in an interview in 2020 how he used to help his foreign colleagues prepare for their Christmas celebrations.
“Those days were nice and beautiful, and it reminds me of the good days we all shared and enjoyed together immensely,” he said.
Quote: Over the past six years, Vision 2030 has created a culture of tolerance and openness. The Kingdom’s religious institutions are being restructured and its system of government, based on the teachings of the Qur’an, is being carefully re-examined.
The crown prince is charting a new and more modern course for the country, vowing to return to a “moderate Islam.” Saudi Arabia is “a tolerant country with Islam as its constitution and moderation as its method,” he said in an interview last year.
“We are simply reverting to what we followed — a moderate Islam open to the world and all religions.”
Response to the above
Indeed, citizens participating in any festival – including Ali – is not the basis by way of which a Muslim distinguishes between Shirk and Tawheed, Sunnah and Bidah, truth and falsehood, vice and virtue, tolerance and intolerance, extremism and moderation, rather this participation of theirs is either due to ignorance or simply because they have sumbitted to evil desires in this affair. So called moderate Islam – as the caller to falsehood wants to call it – does not exist because moderation in Islam neither allows participation in un-Islamic festivals nor congratulating and helping participants. Therefore, this caller to falsehood is reminded of the fact that moderation and tolerance are not defined by anyone – rulers or subjects; rather the believer is commanded to adhere to the path of the Messenger. Allaah [The Most High] said: [ وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِۚ – We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah’s Leave] [Surah An-Nisaa’ Ayah 64]
Allaah [The Most High] commanded and urged us to obey the Messenger and willingly submit to his path. He [The Most High] informed us that the purpose behind sending the Messengers is so that they are obeyed [and followed] in everything they command and keep away from everything they prohibited. This shows us that the Messengers are infallible in that which they convey from Allaah, command and prohibit, because Allaah commanded us to follow them unconditionally. Had it not been that they were infallible in that which they convey from Allaah’s and the fact that they never legislate anything [by themselves], then Allaah would not have commanded us to obey them unconditionally. Also, Allaah [The Most High] said in Surah An-Nisaa Ayah 65:
[ فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُواْ فِىٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ حَرَجً۬ا مِّمَّا قَضَيۡتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسۡلِيمً۬ا – But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad ) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission].
The people can never be true believers until they accept the judgements of Allaah’s Messenger in their disputes – in every affair about which they differ- except the issues of Ijmaa; because Ijmaa does not take place except based on evidence in the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah. And it is not enough that people merely [and only] accept the judgements of the Messenger in that which they differ amongst themselves, rather there cannot be any resistance and reservation in their hearts after that judgement. It is not enough to merely demonstrate one’s acceptance; rather one has to submit wholeheartedly and willingly with a heart filled with ease about that judgement – in private and public. Therefore, judging by what Islam has commanded without harbouring any reservations is a proof of one’s Eemaan- a proof of one’s obedience in fulfilling perfectly what he has been commanded and keeping away from what He has been forbidden. And whoever perfects these affairs, then indeed he has perfected all affairs related to his practice of the religion. And whoever abandons the Messenger’s judgement by not believing that it is the judgement that should be to be established, then he is an unbeliever. (see footnote a) As for the one who abandons it, but firmly believes that it is truth, then the judgement passed on him is similar to the one passed against the sinners who have not left the fold of Islaam. (6)
The Salafus Saaleh [Pious Predecessors] Are The Perfect Example For a Muslim and Not Anyone Else
The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “The best of the people are those living in my generation, then those who will follow the latter and then those who come after them. Then there will come after them people who will be treacherous and will not be trustworthy, they will bear witness without being asked to do so, and they will vow, but will never fulfil their vows, and fatness will appear among them”’.
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadi Al-Mad’khali [may Allaah preserve him] stated: “They give false testimony, act treacherously and deceitfully. They behave in a very sinful manner and follow evil desires, except those whom Allaah safeguards amongst the Taa’ifatul Mansoorah [i.e. the aided group of Muslims upon the straight path] – those whom Allaah’s Messenger praised. Therefore, it is obligated on us to acquire knowledge for the sake of Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] and act upon it. Ignorance is a deadly disease and knowledge is a weapon that will destroy you if you do not act upon it, and Allaah’s refuge is sought”. (7)
Imaam An-Nawawi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated regarding the statement, ‘’They will bear witness without being asked to do so’’- This can mean that they bear witness before being asked, or they bear witness based on falsehood, or they give witness without being from those who are worthy of it. (8)
More quotes from the caller to falsehood:
Quote: Christmas is not the only holiday being openly embraced. The symbols and paraphernalia of Valentine’s Day and New Year’s Eve are also now widely available, again in a significant break with the past. Read here: https://salaficentre.com/2022/02/13/valentines-day-brief-rebuttal-of-shameless-callers-to-falsehood-and-beautifiers-of-haraam-rawan-radwan-and-his-ilk-at-arab-news/
Quote: Nevertheless, although Christmas is not an Islamic tradition, many Muslims believe it is a time to share the joy of those who love to gather with friends, family, and neighbors.
Quote: “As Muslims, we understand that the holidays are not part of our religion, but because we are a nation with many nationalities, we celebrate our holidays with everyone and we celebrate theirs,” one Saudi woman told Arab News.
Response to the above
Muslims who believe that Christmas is a time to share joy have missed the fact that it is a celebration that is tantamount to major disbelief and polytheism, because it is a festival that necessitates ascribing a son to Allaah. Allaah [The Exalted] stated:
لَقَدۡ ڪَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَۖ وَقَالَ ٱلۡمَسِيحُ يَـٰبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبَّڪُمۡۖ إِنَّهُ ۥ مَن يُشۡرِكۡ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَمَأۡوَٮٰهُ ٱلنَّارُۖ وَمَا لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مِنۡ أَنصَارٍ۬
لَّقَدۡ ڪَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلَـٰثَةٍ۬ۘ وَمَا مِنۡ إِلَـٰهٍ إِلَّآ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ۚ وَإِن لَّمۡ يَنتَهُواْ عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَيَمَسَّنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
أَفَلَا يَتُوبُونَ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَيَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَهُ ۥۚ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬
مَّا ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ۬ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِهِ ٱلرُّسُلُ وَأُمُّهُ ۥ صِدِّيقَةٌ۬ۖ ڪَانَا يَأۡڪُلَانِ ٱلطَّعَامَۗ ٱنظُرۡ ڪَيۡفَ نُبَيِّنُ لَهُمُ ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱنظُرۡ أَنَّىٰ يُؤۡفَكُونَ
They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary” while the Messiah has said, “O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.” Indeed, he who associates others with Allah – Allah has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers. They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is the third of three.” And there is no god except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment. ill they not repent to Allah and ask His Forgiveness? For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. The Messiah [‘Iesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary), was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother [Maryam (Mary)] was a Siddiqah [i.e. she believed in the words of Allah and His Books (see Verse 66:12)]. They both used to eat food (as any other human being, while Allah does not eat). Look how We make the Signs clear to them, yet look how they are deluded away (from the truth). [Surah Al-Maa’idah. Aayaat 72-75]
More quotes from the caller to falsehood:
Quote: Another Saudi said: “It’s all about the gift of giving. It’s a common message, and doesn’t the Bible say ‘love thy neighbor?’ It’s the same in Islam. It’s a point of connection between faiths as Islam stresses to respect our neighbors and love them like family”.
Quote: “It’s a common religious value shared by people of all religions. And Christmas is colorful. It’s fun, and celebrating it here (in Saudi Arabia) with Muslims and Christians alike is a sign of both piety and religious tolerance.” https://www.arabnews.com/node/2221331/saudi-arabia
Response to The Above
Neither is Christmas merely a common message nor about loving neighbours; neither fun nor a sign of both piety and religious tolerance; rather its basis is a Creed that is tantamount to major disbelief and polytheism that was innovated by those who substituted and distorted the path of Isa the son of Maryam [may Allaah be pleased with both of them]. You consider it to be fun and piety, whereas Allaah stated that it is atrocious thing. Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَقَالُواْ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وَلَدً۬ا
لَّقَدۡ جِئۡتُمۡ شَيۡـًٔا إِدًّ۬ا
تَڪَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ وَتَنشَقُّ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَتَخِرُّ ٱلۡجِبَالُ هَدًّا
أَن دَعَوۡاْ لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ وَلَدً۬ا
وَمَا يَنۢبَغِى لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا
إِن ڪُلُّ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّآ ءَاتِى ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ عَبۡدً۬ا
لَّقَدۡ أَحۡصَٮٰهُمۡ وَعَدَّهُمۡ عَدًّ۬ا
وَكُلُّهُمۡ ءَاتِيهِ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ فَرۡدًا
And they say: “The Most Beneficent (Allah) has begotten a son (or offspring or children) [as the Jews say: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah, and the Christians say that He has begotten a son [‘Iesa (Christ)], and the pagan Arabs say that He has begotten daughters (angels, etc.)].” You have done an atrocious thing, whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins, that they ascribe a son (or offspring or children) to the Most Beneficent (Allah). But it is not suitable for (the Majesty of) the Most Beneficent (Allah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Beneficent (Allah) as a slave. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender). [Surah Maryam. Aayaat 88-95]
The Danger of Congratulating The Participants In Un-Islamic Festivals: Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated, “The scholars warn against congratulations that might indicate that one is pleased with the religion of the unbelievers, such as the statement uttered by the ignorant people, “May Allaah protect or grant you wellbeing by way of your religion” and what is similar to this statement. As for the congratulation that is tantamount to uttering a specific statement of disbelief, this is unlawful based on the consensus of the scholars, such as congratulating them during their festivals, saying, “May this be a blessed holiday (or festival) for you” or “Congratulations on this holiday (i.e. related to religious practice, ritual, belief)”, because even if the one who utters this statement is safe from disbelief, it is one of the Muharramaat (unlawful deeds), and it is tantamount to congratulating him (i.e. a Christian) for prostrating to the Cross; rather this (congratulation) is a greater sin and more hateful – in the Sight of Allaah- than congratulating a person for drinking alcohol, committing murder, illegal sexual intercourse and what is similar”. (9)
Be warned against the callers to falsehood, as Al-Allaamah Saalih Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] stated, “(They) do not say to the people, ‘’Come to the fire!!’’ They say, ‘’Come to Paradise, these are the actions of the people of Paradise, this is good, this is development, this is rectification, this is and this is….’’ and they beautify that for the people. Therefore, the Muslims must be cautious of these people. Indeed, they have become numerous in this era, and Allaah knows best whether they will increase in the future. They may be facilitated with tools [of misguidance] which were not possessed by the previous callers to misguidance and are given firm support through such (tools), and this misguidance will rapidly reach the people. The suggestion of the seducer and the falsifier will be adorned and made to appear as something good to the people in any place, whilst it is something evil. This is the height of fitnah. ‘’Whosoever responds to their call will be thrown into the fire. ‘’WHOEVER RESPONDS TO THEM’’: by complying, believing and assisting them, will be thrown into the fire. As for those who does not comply with them, opposes and openly rejects what they are upon, then indeed they will not harm him. Allaah said in the Qur’aan:
[وَأَنَّ هَٰذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ – ‘’And verily this is My Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path. This He has ordained for you that you may become Muttaqoon (pious)]. [6:153]
The Prophet whilst explaining this ayah drew a straight line and said, ‘’this is the path of Allaah.” Then he drew lines to the left and right (of this straight line) and said, ‘’ these are the other paths, and on every path is a devil calling the people to it’’ (Ahmad 1/435)
This is a description of the callers to misguidance, their methodologies and objectives. It has been thoroughly illustrated for us that indeed whatever opposes the Straight Path is a path leading to Jahannam, and whoever abandons the Straight Path is heading towards the Jahannam, even if he regards himself civilized, progressive and open minded”. (10)
Therefore, be warned against the traps of shaytaan, because this caller to falsehood first welcomed Valentines Day and now he welcomes Christmas – all in the name of tolerance and moderation. Indeed, affairs of guidance are connected to each other and likewise the affairs of misguidance. https://salaficentre.com/2019/01/31/affairs-of-guidance-that-are-connected-to-each-other-and-affairs-of-misguidance-that-are-connected-to-each-other-an-admonition-by-imaam-ibnul-qayyim-rahimahullaah/
Finally, as for our relationship with non-Muslims, whether in the Muslim or non-Muslim lands, we are commanded to deal with them kindly. Must read following articles:
Living With Non-Muslims In The West:
Treaties With The Non-Muslims: Is it Allegiance?
Alliance with the non-Muslims is of two types – misunderstanding this affair leads people astray
The Prophet of Islam would not kill diplomats, ambassadors, emissaries or foreign delegations even if they were sent by the worst of his enemies
Footnote a: Takfeer is not an affair that is left to the common Muslims, the students of knowledge or the misguided Takfeeris; rather it is the responsibility of the rightly guided scholars of Ahlus Sunnah.
Another Excellent website About Takfeeris [may Allaah reward the students at Salafipublications..Aameen]: http://www.takfiris.com/takfir/index.cfm
We ask Allaah to guide this caller to falsehood or protect us from his evil Aameen.
[Ref 1: An Excerpt from ‘As-Sawaa’iq Al-Mursalah Alal Jahmiyyah Wal Mu’attilah’ – Vol 3. page 927]
[Ref 2: Excerpt from ‘Mu’jam Al-Manaahee Lil Laf’dhiyyah’ page 34]
[Ref 3: Excerpt from Mu’jam Al-Manaahee Lil Lafdhiyyah’ page 10]
[Ref 4: Excerpt from ‘Al-Haqeeqatus Shar’iyyah Fee Tafseeril Qur’aan Al-A’dheem Was-Sunnatin Nabawiyyah’ page 17]
[Ref 5: An Excerpt from Al Haqeeqatus Shar-iyyah Fee Tafseeril Qur’aanil Adheem Was-Sunnatin Nabawiyyati page: 186]
[Ref 6: Tayseer al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam al-Mannaan). Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm pages 268-270]
[Ref 8: Sharh Saheeh Muslim 12/17]
[Ref 9: Ahkaam Ahl Addh-Dhimmah. 1/439-441]