In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Who is a futurist? They say it is “a person who studies the future and makes predictions about it based on current trends; one who studies and predicts the future especially on the basis of current trends; someone who makes predictions about what is going to happen, on the basis of facts about what is happening now; a way of thinking in the arts that started in the early 20th century and tried to express through a range of art forms the characteristics and images of the modern age, such as machines, speed, movement, and power etc”. The definition compels us to enter a general discussion regarding the sound basis of social interaction, mutual dealings, knowledge, science, technology and social change.
The Only Perfect Basis of Social Interaction and Mutual Dealing
Allaah – The All-Wise Creator – commanded humankind to return to the infallible revelation. Allaah [The Exalted] said: [كَانَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬ فَبَعَثَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لِيَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ فِيمَا ٱخۡتَلَفُواْ فِيهِۚ – Mankind were one community (i.e. upon Tawheed and Allaah’s Sharee’ah) and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed]. [Surah Al-Baqarah’ Aayah 213]
Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: “And even though there is something in the paths of analogical reasoning and reflection that will lead to knowledge, however sometimes it cannot give detail explanation in a dispute between the people of the earth due to the minute details and ambiguities [in that dispute], and at other times due to the fact the people differ when prioritizing necessities. Therefore, due to this Allaah [The Most High] commanded us to return to the revelation in times of dispute. Allaah [The Most High] designated the revealed Books [i.e. the Qur’aan being the final of them] as the judge between the people in matters wherein they differ”. (1)
Therefore, the opinions, views and ideas of humankind and Jinn cannot contradict the sound Creed, commands and prohibitions conveyed in the final infallible divine revelation, as this is the main reason behind every evil and calamity. Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated, “It has been stated that the reason behind Iblees being distanced [from the mercy of Allaah] is because of false interpretation, for indeed he made an analogy with the text and gave precedence to the analogy over the text. He made a false interpretation about himself and that [his so called] rational analogy takes precedence over the command to prostrate: “I am better than him (i.e. Aadam)”, and that a virtuous one cannot humble himself to one who has been given virtue over him; therefore he quickly said, ” You created me from fire, and him you created from clay”. So, he thought that this rational analogy that resembles truth- even though it is false – will benefit him in his false interpretation and thus that which happened him happened and he became the leader of everyone- until the day of judgement- who makes a false interpretation of the texts of the revelation. How many a person in this world are followers of this cursed leader! And if you contemplate on the majority of those doubts that are made to resemble the truth by the false interpreters of the texts and seeking to nullify them, you will find that it is similar to the doubts of Iblees which he seeks to portray as truth. So, a person says, “If the intellect and the text oppose each other, then give precedence to the intellect”, this is where this principle is derived from and he [i.e. the proponent of this affair] use it as a fundamental principle through which he rejects those texts of the revelation which he claims are in opposition to the intellect, just as his leader Iblees claimed that a (so called) rational proof opposed the command to make Sujood. This doubt came to him due to pride which prevented him from submitting to the clear texts of the revelation. Likewise, you find every false disputer against the texts of the revelation does so due to pride. Allaah [The Exalted] said:
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُجَـٰدِلُونَ فِىٓ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ سُلۡطَـٰنٍ أَتَٮٰهُمۡۙ إِن فِى صُدُورِهِمۡ إِلَّا ڪِبۡرٌ۬ مَّا هُم بِبَـٰلِغِيهِۚ فَٱسۡتَعِذۡ بِٱللَّهِۖ إِنَّهُ ۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡبَصِيرُ
Verily, those who dispute about the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah, without any authority having come to them, there is nothing else in their breasts except pride [to accept you (Muhammad ) as a Messenger of Allah and to obey you]. They will never have it (i.e. Prophethood which Allah has bestowed upon you). So seek refuge in Allah (O Muhammad from the arrogants). Verily, it is He Who is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. [Surah Ghaafir. Aayah 56] (2)
Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated: “It is obligatory to harbour a good suspicion regarding the texts and an evil suspicion regarding the intellect, and to submit the intellects to the texts. The texts are infallible if their chain of transmission are established to be authentic. As for the intellects, they are fallible. A person susceptible to mistakes, shortcoming and desires. As for the Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him], what he conveyed from Allaah is infallible. And likewise the Qur’aan is infallible- the speech of Allaah. Therefore, it is obligatory that the Qur’aan and Sunnah passes a judgement on your intellect and that you give precedence to the Qur’aan and Sunnah over your intellect- over the intellect of the Shaikh, the Mashaayikh, your forefathers, ancestors and all the people. The texts are given precedence over all the intellects”. (3)
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: And one of the most noble and beneficial sciences is the knowledge regarding the hudood [the appropriate limits], especially the divine limits-the commands and prohibitions [ordained by Allaah (The Most High) and His Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him]. The most knowledgeable people are those who have the most knowledge regarding those divine limits, hence they neither include- within those limits- that which is not from them nor remove that which is included in them. Allaah [The Most High] said: [ٱلۡأَعۡرَابُ أَشَدُّ ڪُفۡرً۬ا وَنِفَاقً۬ا وَأَجۡدَرُ أَلَّا يَعۡلَمُواْ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ – The bedouins are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be in ignorance of the limits (Allah’s Commandments and His Legal Laws, etc.) which Allah has revealed to His Messenger]. [Surah At-Tawbah’ Aayah 97] Therefore, the most just, balanced and upright people are those who stay within the limits of the Akhlaaq, actions and the deeds legislated in the Islamic legislation- in knowledge and practice. (3.1)
Al-Allaamah Abdur Rahmaan Bin Yahyah al-Mu’allimee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: “It is well known that a person is born knowing nothing, but rather he is accompanied with the physical ability to feel pain and the like. I mean – for example – when pinched, he feels the pain due to that. This (feelings) accompanied him since the time the soul was placed in him (see footnote a); but it is not considered to be knowledge. And (alos) with him is an innate disposition by way of which he latches on the mother’s breast and suckles.
Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] said: [وَٱللَّهُ أَخۡرَجَكُم مِّنۢ بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـٰتِكُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا – And Allah has brought you out from the wombs of your mothers while you know nothing]. [Surah An-Nahl. Verse 78]
Then, after birth, he begins to perceive tangible things through his senses and this gradually increases through analogy (or comparing one thing or situation to another). It becomes the norm (or customary) that his mother lifts him from his cradle when she wants to breastfeed him, so when this is repeated, he realises – by way of analogy -that she will breastfeed him if she lifts him from his cradle. You see him cry when he is hungry, silent when you take him from his cradle and returns to crying if a moment passes and you do not breastfeed him. This is how his general knowledge is developed through perceiving tangible things and analogy, and the analogy itself is strengthened through repetition, and this – itself – is Istiqraa [examination, scrutiny and extrapolation].
Then through perceiving tangible things and analogy, the underlying causes become registered in mind and heart, such as the fact that existence and non-existence are not combined together, and that a thing is greater than its part, and that an event must have one to bring it into existence. What is meant (or intended in this discussion) is that he perceives either by his senses or by way of analogy based on what he perceives through his senses. The fact of the matter is that the intellect acts on or (reacts to) the tangible things and analogies, and judges as to whether an affair is definitely correct or preponderant, wrong or possible. This stays with a person for the duration of his life, but the more he grows, learns, reasons and reflects, the more his knowledge is enhanced through the many tangible things that can be perceived through the senses, the greater ability to analogize and the strength of the intellect.
If there is a person with you in the house, you know that he is present either by seeing him or hearing his voice, either through perception or by touching him, or smelling his body odour. And through your previous extrapolation, you realize (or understand) that he is a human being – that such and such shape, or that voice, or the tangible object you’ve had contact with or smell is a human being. And through another extrapolation, you realize that he is such and such person- that the shape, voice, the tangible object you’ve had contact with and the smell are that of such and such specific person.
You may exit your room and leave none in there; then you return shortly and find that an incident has taken place in there; so you know from your previous extrapolation and making a judgement by way of your intellect that something did cause it. If you wanted to know the reason, you investigate by utilizing your previous extrapolation. It maybe that a paper shifted from its position and the cause may be the wind. It may be that there was a book on an unstable place and you’ve seen that it fell; therefore you ponder that its instability for a while was due to its heavy weight and inability to remain stable led it to lean gradually in the direction from which it fell until it completely fell at that time. And if something was attached to a weak string (or cord) and then it snapped, you reflect and notice that due to the heavy weight of the thing that was on the string (or cord), its strength weakened and snapped bit by bit until it snapped (completely). And if a vessel containing food was in a stable place, but then you came and it had fallen, you would think (or suspect) that a mouse, a cat or the like jumped forcefully on it and it fell. If a vessel containing light food was taken from above a table and placed on another table far from it, and there was a monkey in the house or its vicinity that might have entered that room, it is possible to say that the monkey was responsible. And if a heavy box was placed on the ground, but moved from its place to another place, you would hold the view that a person entered and did so, and you’ll also know that the person is alive and has the ability to do such an action. If several things that were in the room were diverted from their places and arranged in a better and more perfect arrangement than before, you would know that such a person is wise to the extent of what was required (of ability) to carry out their arrangement. If the room was sealed from the inside, then you came and stood close to the door, and you know that no human could enter after you; but then you returned and found that the luggage had been diverted from their places and arranged in another arrangement that was more creative and perfect than what it was before; then you would establish one of two possibilities: either he is a person with ability that is beyond what is known to be the norm, so he entered the room from where it was not customary for a person to enter; or he is present, alive, knowledgeable, able and wise beyond that of a human being and other species that you’ve seen before. So with this, you realized his existence by analogy with the existence of tangible things that can be perceived by the senses, and also what you realise (or understand) regarding his attributes (or qualities)”. (4)
Indeed, there is nothing of that which we acquire of knowledge except that its original source, paths and basis is from our benevolent Creator (Allaah) and we cannot do without His Mercy in the twinkling of an eye. Therefore, the blessed are those who know their true reality as human beings and the perfect mercy of their Lord. Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: The Creation [i.e. Humans and Jinns] find themselves within two types of neediness. The first type of neediness is inevitable. It is a type of neediness which every everyone is (attached to) – the righteous and the wicked. It neither necessitates praise nor dispraise, and neither reward nor punishment; rather it is solely due to the fact that the creation are created beings [i.e. absolutely in need and completely dependent on their Creator in every way].
The second type of neediness is one based on choice from which emanates two noble aspects of knowledge. The first one is the servant’s knowledge and awareness of his Lord and the second is knowledge and awareness of oneself in reality. As soon as one acquires these two types of knowledge, it brings about a type of neediness that becomes a person’s distinguished and most precious source of wealth, and the means to success and happiness in (this life and the next). The people’s different stations in this type of neediness depends on their different stations in these two affairs of knowledge.
The one who knows that his Lord (Allaah) is the Self-Sufficient One [absolutely free from all wants and to Whom everyone and everything depends, and none can do without Him in the twinkling of an eye], then he will know that he is completely in need.
The one knows that his Lord (Allaah) is alone the Possessor of Perfect Ability [possessor of All-Encompassing Ability and able to do all things], he will know that he is completely unable [cannot do anything in the twinkling of an eye without the help of] his Lord.
The one who knows that his Lord (Allaah) is The All-Mighty, he will know that he is one completely in a state of [complete poverty, weakness and want unless his Lord provides for him etc]. The one who knows that his Lord (Allaah) is the possessor of All- Encompassing knowledge and Wisdom, he will know that he is ignorant.
Allaah brought the person out of his mother’s womb whilst he knew nothing- not able to do anything and owned nothing; neither able to give nor take, and neither able to harm nor benefit. This state of neediness – until he reached a more perfect state – is something witnessed and tangible for everyone (to see), and it is well known that this is the very essence of the human being and he remains upon that state. He does not move from this state and enters into a state of Lordship – a state in which he becomes absolutely self-sufficient and not need of anyone and anything; rather he does not cease being a slave, a needy one to his Rabb [Allaah the Creator, All-Provider and the Only One Who Controls and Sustains Everything] and His Faatir [Allaah, The Originator and Creator of Everything].
However, after the human being was granted blessings, shown mercy, granted the means to reach a more perfect state, and Allaah -out of His Perfect Kindness and Generosity- granted him apparent blessings [i.e. to recognize the Messengers who were sent with Islamic Monotheism, granted him the lawful pleasures of this world, including health, good looks, etc.] and the hidden blessings [i.e. granted him the innate disposition to recognize his Lord when the Messenger calls him to Eemaan, and granted him knowledge, wisdom, guidance for doing righteous deeds, and also the pleasures and delights of the Hereafter in Paradise, etc.], granted him hearing, sight and a heart, and taught him [i.e. gave him the means to knowledge], granted him ability, subjugated things to him, granted him [the desire and enthusiasm to pursue what is beneficial, and take action], enabled him to receive the service of those of his kind [i.e. gave him authority over other humans], subjugated to him horses and camels, gave him the ability to capture the animals in the sea, drop birds from the sky, subjugate wild animals, dig wells [irrigate water etc], plant trees, dig the earth, learn how to build, acquire the things that are of benefit to him, guard against and protect himself from that which is harmful to him; then the Miskeen [i.e. this absolutely poor, dependent human being] thinks that he has a share of authority and claims – for himself – a kingship [or authority] similar to that of Allaah [Glorified be Allaah and free is Allaah from all imperfections, partners, coequals, similarities etc], and begins to see himself in a manner other than what he was at first, forgets his (prior) state of non-existence, poverty and neediness, until he becomes as if he was not that poor and needy thing. (5)
Science and Technology
There is no doubt that humankind has made amazing progress in the field of science and technology, and this – both at present and in future – will influence the behaviour of humans. However, the only upright way life – in Creed and behaviour – ordained by Allaah will remain regardless how amazing future progress in science and technology maybe and their effects on people’s behaviour.
Firstly, Islam endorses the beneficial contemporary sciences, inventions and professions, as Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated: “The Islamic religion and its disciplines, its activities (functions) and directives gathers all good, compassion, guidance, righteousness and rectification- deals with every situation; and that the sound beneficial contemporary worldly sciences and professions are embodied within the domain of the religion. Neither does its activities (functions) negate the sound beneficial contemporary worldly sciences and professions as the ignorant people and materialists claim, nor as the ignorant (or those who pretend to be ignorant) think that the beneficial contemporary professions have not brought anything new; rather what is beneficial of them for the religion and the worldly affairs, and for groups and individuals, enters into the domain of the religion. The religion has certainly indicated and guided the people to it, and to every useful affair until the Day of Judgement. And a clarification that if the contemporary professions are not pursued based on the goals of the religion and bounded to them, then its harm will be more than its benefit and its evil will be more than its good. However, this principle requires two affairs: The first principle is to know that which the Qur’aan and the Sunnah indicates in general and in detail, and second is to know the affairs that are existent and the sound realities that are known and recognized by fair-minded people. So, when a person is acquainted with these two affairs, then he will know that the Islamic disciplines, its functions and specific subject matters – in origin – do not isolate anything that contain good and righteousness. Therefore, the one who is well-acquainted with this utilizes these two affairs as basis of proof for the other and knows that deficiency occurs as a result of being deprived of both or one of them. When he knows the ‘General Fundamental Principles’ that deal with the Subject Matter, he will refer the ‘Issues that link to the Main Subject Matter’ to those General Fundamental Principles; but if a speaker addresses something on those ‘Issues’ before being acquainted with the General Fundamental Principles, then gross error will occur and thus arises those doubts that are not confusing except to the ignorant ones or the wilful stubborn opponents”.
Signs In The Universe
Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding]. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 190]
Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayat (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding. [Surah Al-Baqarah Verse 164]
There are many verses in which Allāh informs us about the affairs of the universe and that they are signs and proofs that show The Oneness of Allāh, His truthfulness and the truthfulness of His Messengers. Therefore, the One Who brought these mighty creations into existence with these amazing characteristics, established on this amazing system and thoroughly completed creation, with perfection and beauty, is The One singled out in Lordship and the Only Deity worthy of worship – the One with vast, All-Encompassing Mercy and Wisdom, and encompasses all things in His Knowledge. So, The One Whose affair is as such has the right to be worshiped alone without partners, thanked and remembered due to His All-Encompassing Perfect Benevolence and the blessings He has bestowed. The mighty creations found in the universe shows the Perfection of His Ability and The Greatness of His Authority; the amazing and beautiful organisation within it, the creation that is thoroughly completed in all ways shows His unique, All-Encompassing Perfect Wisdom, and that He alone is worthy of all Praise. And that which is found in it of various things of a specific nature shows the enforcement of His All-Encompassing Perfect Will and Intent; and that which is found in it of benefits and welfare for the servants, which can neither be enumerated nor can its varieties be counted let alone its various types as well as those of a distinct characteristic, are all a proof of His vast Mercy, His vast Grace, kindness, Generosity and Benevolence. All of this is proof to show that it is obligatory to worship Him alone and perform deeds sincerely for His Sake, and that He Who brought these mighty creations into existence is able to revive the dead and He is able to do all things…. The Imaam also stated: about the beneficial worldly sciences: Its fruitful outcome is that it is utilized as an aid to worship Allaah, thank Allaah and establish the religion. That is because Allaah [The Exalted] informed us that He has subjugated this universe to us, commanded us to reflect upon it and extract both the religious and worldly benefits from it. And a command regarding an affair is itself a command to fulfil the affair, as well as a command to employ the means without which the command cannot be fulfilled. Therefore, this is an urge to know the worldly sciences by way of which are extracted what Allaah has subjugated to us, because we cannot acquire its benefits spontaneously, rather it has to be through seeking after it, reflection and experience. Allaah [The Exalted] said: [ وأنزلنا الحديد فيه بأس شديد ومنافع للناس – And We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power (in matters of war), as well as many benefits for mankind (Surah Al-Hadeed. Aayah 25)]. These benefits cannot be obtained except through acquaintance with knowledge of the worldly sciences, so that they are produced. More on this link: https://salaficentre.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/Quranic_Proofs_Pdf_final.pdf
Secondly, the upright scholars of Islam – in every era – will clarify what is lawful, unlawful, harmful or beneficial in all affairs, as the Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] stated: Allaah will raise for this Ummah at the end of every hundred years the one who will revive its religion for it. (5.1)
[إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ لِهَذِهِ الأُمَّةِ – Allaah will raise for this Ummah]- meaning the Ummatul Ijaabah [i.e. the Muslims]. [عَلَى رَأْسِ كُلِّ مِائَةِ سَنَةٍ – At the end of every hundred years]- meaning at the end of every hundred years when there is little knowledge of the Islamic legislation and the authentic Prophetic Tradition, whilst ignorance and religious innovation is rife.
[مَنْ يُجَدِّدُ لَهَا دِينَهَا – One who will revive its religion for it]- meaning a scholar who is alive and well known. He will clarify the authentic Prophetic Tradition and distinguish it from the religious innovations. knowledge will be abundant again and its adherents will be aided, and the proponents of religious will be overcome and degraded. This reviver is non else but a scholar who has sound understanding of the religious sciences that deal with acts of worship, the underlying wisdoms of the religion and the texts that deal with beliefs of the heart. (5.2) Likewise, the contemporary worldly inventions in science and technology enter into the subject matter of Al-Masaalih Al-Mursalah, therefore, the scholars will clarify what is permissble or impermissible in this regard. Read on this link by Shaikh Abu Khadeejah [may Allaah preserve him]: https://abukhadeejah.com/issues-which-arise-after-the-time-of-revelation-for-which-there-is-no-specific-text-al-masalih-al-mursalah-and-how-islam-is-applicable-in-every-age/
Social Change, Science and Technology
Al-Allaamah Rabee bin Haadi Al-Mad’khali [may Allaah preserve him] stated: “If medicine, engineering and chemistry are not placed below [and regulated by] the knowledge which the Prophets brought, they become nothing; [rather] they will only increase the people in corruption. The knowledge brought by the Prophets is [a means of] rectification for the people [in their religious and worldly affairs], a guide for them towards the right path and removes them from the darkness they are living in – the darkness of kufr and ignorance. As for the knowledge of the philosophers and the heretics, then what Allaah has stated [i.e. in Surah Ghaafir’ Aayah 83] truly applies to it. [Allaah said]:
[فَلَمَّا جَآءَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَرِحُواْ بِمَا عِندَهُم مِّنَ ٱلۡعِلۡمِ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُواْ بِهِۦ يَسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ -Then when their Messengers came to them with clear proofs, they were glad [and proud] with that which they had of the knowledge [of worldly things]: And that at which they used to mock, surrounded them [i.e. the punishment]. [Surah Ghaafir’ Aayah 83] It is the knowledge which the people boast about nowadays, whether it is medicine, engineering, astronomy, [modern] politics and economics. After the Prophets came to them – to remove them from the darkness of ignorance and enter them into the light of the knowledge [of divine revelation] and Eemaan- they became glad and boastful with the knowledge they possess, [just as Allaah has stated]:
[فَلَمَّا جَآءَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَرِحُواْ بِمَا عِندَهُم مِّنَ ٱلۡعِلۡمِ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُواْ بِهِۦ يَسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ -Then when their Messengers came to them with clear proofs, they were glad [and proud] with that which they had of the knowledge [of worldly things]: And that at which they used to mock, surrounded them [i.e. the punishment]. [Surah Ghaafir’ Aayah 83] (6)
Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: The greatest evils of knowledge and inconsistencies occurs as a result of acquainting oneself with the creation without its Creator, acquaintance with effects without the One who created those effects, acquaintance with causes without the one who created those causes and acquaintance with the paths without its sound goals. The deficiency in this type of acquaintance is numerous and its harm is great, for indeed many of the atheists and those deceived by them are skilled in the natural sciences, but they confine themselves to it and are blind regarding its association with its Creator and Causer. And with regards to that which is placed in these natural sciences of wonders and secrets, they see themselves as those who know the wonders of the natural sciences – which none knows besides them – and the secrets which Allāh has placed in nature, so it gives them higher status over others and thus they become afflicted with vanity and self-deception. They confine themselves to it, consider it as the final outcome, the purpose and the goal, and thus occurs great deviation, deficiency in knowledge and intellect. If they knew and affirmed belief in the true Creator and the One Who Controls all the affairs of the Universe- the One who attached the means and causes to His Qadaa Wal Qadr (see footnote a), know that the means and causes are an abode of His Perfect Wisdom – for indeed Allāh [The Most High] is All-Wise, He placed things in their rightful places, gave the subtle affairs and big affairs an amazing orderly system and a firm association; gave everything that is sought after and the goals a means or cause, and a path that will lead to it, and due to this results and outcomes are based on the strength or weakness of the means or causes, and the strength or weakness of the performer of the deed- and then they bound these means, paths and outcomes to Allāh’s Qadaa Wal Qadr, their knowledge would have been perfected and they would have acquired of certainty that which cannot be acquired by those who have not reached their level; but they are glad (and proud) with that which they know of those paths whose tangible worldly outcomes they know and became haughty by way of them, so the statement of Allāh [The Most High] apply to them: [فلما جاءتهم رسلهم بالبينات فرحوا بما عندهم من العلم وحاق بهم ما كانوا به يستهزئون – Then when their Messengers came to them with clear proofs, they were glad (and proud) with that which they had of the knowledge (of worldly things): And that at which they used to mock, surrounded them (i.e. the punishment)]. [Surah Ghaafir. Aayah 83]
وجعلنا لهم سمعا وأبصارا وأفئدة فما أغنى عنهم سمعهم ولا أبصارهم ولا أفئدتهم من شيء إذ كانوا يجحدون بآيات الله وحاق بهم ما كانوا به يستهزئون
And indeed We had firmly established them with that wherewith We have not established you (O Quraish)! And We had assigned them the (faculties of) hearing (ears), seeing (eyes), and hearts, but their hearing (ears), seeing (eyes), and their hearts availed them nothing since they used to deny the Ayat (Allah’s Prophets and their Prophethood, proofs, evidences, verses, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah, and they were completely encircled by that which they used to mock at! [Surah Al-Ahqaaf. Aayah 26]
This is the greatest evil consequence of self-amazement and arrogance without exception, and the most perilous path through which many people become beguiled and deceived; therefore we ask Allāh to blessed us with sound knowledge that is supported by sound intellect, divine text and sound natural disposition – the beneficial knowledge which the servant knows in all its aspects, and the knowledge which links the subsidiary affairs to its (sound) fundamental principles, and its means, causes, effects and outcomes are ascribed to the One Who originated and created them. It is the knowledge whose possessor does not disassociate the creation from its Creator- neither disassociates its effects from the One Who made them effective, nor disassociates the wisdom, the secrets and the amazing orderly systems in the creation from the One Who Created and Perfected them, organised them in perfect order and brought them into existence prior to their non-existence. This is the knowledge that bears the fruits of certainty and through which tranquility is obtained, and through which happiness and success is attained. It bears the fruits of beautiful manners and righteous deeds, beneficial to the religious and worldly affairs.
As for the sciences of the deviants, as we mentioned, they are mutilated and amputated. The end result of its usefulness is similar to the benefit of the physical industries as it is witnessed and clearly seen. Neither does it bear fruits of Eemaan nor honesty, neither mercy nor beautiful manners; rather its fruits are the opposite. Everyone with a great (sound) mind and (sound) high intelligence becomes extremely sorrowful that these are its goal and fruits, for indeed sound intellect understands things and fully comprehends them in all their aspects, then engages with the beneficial things, makes use of the good things and skills (or talents) which a servant is endowed with; combining between the affairs related to one’s wellbeing in this worldly life and the Hereafter, and that which benefits the body and the souls; sound examination of the principles (or precepts) and final outcomes, and linking matters that are related to each other, because anyone who is not attributed to these characteristics has deficiency in his intelligence accordingly, so how about his religion? (7)
Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] also said: What type of progress is this? A progress whose people became like vicious wild animals and whose abiding practice is oppression, annihilation, colonization of weak nations and depriving them of their rights? (8)
They developed these affairs through a development that is disconnected and severed from submission to Allāh and the religion ordained by Allāh… it has caused harm and led its proponents to savagery and barbarism whose outcomes has been destruction, ruin and evils that has no comparison. (9)
Indeed, it is impossible to rectify the souls and acquire virtue solely through the worldly sciences. Experience and clearly witnessed circumstances are the greatest proofs regarding this affair, because despite its advancement and vastness it has been unable to nurture and rectify the souls. What the Religion of Islaam propagates is that which is entrusted with this rectification – it is what will guide the thoughts towards the truthful and authentic sources of knowledge, and guide the actions of the people towards good and prevent them from evil. Islam is The Rectifier of the Creeds and Manners- the thing that cultivates the thoughts [upon righteousness], urges towards virtuousness and prevents from depravity. The essence of that which the religion calls to regarding belief in the Unseen, which includes belief in Allaah and that which He possesses of Names, Attributes and Actions of perfection; belief in Angels, belief in recompense for one’s good and bad deeds in this life and the next, which cannot be known except through the Messengers, is what acquaints a person with the fact that rectification – in reality – is not possible through other than sound belief and the religion of Islaam. Therefore, even if the worldly sciences rectify [some] affairs based upon that which people know in detail, it will still not be equal [in perfection, excellence etc] to the knowledge of the Messengers [in the least]. It will neither reach that which is reached through the knowledge of the Messengers nor can it influence the souls in the manner in which the knowledge of the Messengers has done; for indeed the souls do not voluntarily submit except through belief in Allaah, belief in His Angels, belief in His Books, belief in His Messengers and belief in the hereafter. And without this, voluntary submission is impossible, as is well known regarding human nature. (10)
Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] also stated, “Industrialization And Modern Inventions: Everyone has participated in it – the righteous, the wicked, the believer and the disbeliever. As for religion and [virtuous] manners, then indeed -in this era-, it has greatly declined. So, when this industrial advancement is devoid of Deen and Eemaan, it became a great harm from two angles: Firstly: It beguiled many people, who – due of their ignorance – think that worldly advancement is proof to show that its people are more worthy of achieving every good than others. They are clearly misguided, for indeed a person might be from the most skillful in affairs related to the material world, whilst he is one of the most ignorant people in affairs related to the religion, virtuous manners and the [other] beneficial affairs in this life and the next. Secondly: When these inventions are devoid of religion, its mercy and wisdom, it becomes a great disaster for humankind due to the wars that resulted from them, killing, destruction and other affairs related to it. Its regulators [or overseers] and scholars are unable to laydown – for humankind -a stable, just and good life, rather they have not ceased moving from one misrable state to another. This is inevitable and the continuous state of affairs shows that [to be the case]. Therefore all good is found in the sound religion and all evil is found in rejecting and wilfully denying [Allaah, His Messengers, His Laws, Guidance, Commands, Prohibitions etc]”. (11)
The Imaam also stated: Many people – based on two extreme views – have mistakenly decided what the sound knowledge that should be sought and pursued is. The first view is more dangerous than the other, and it is the view of those who limit knowledge to some of the sciences of the religion, such as knowledge related to rectification of beliefs, morals and acts of worship; but their understanding is not based on what the Qur’an and Sunnah indicates regarding the fact that knowledge includes both the sciences of Sharee’ah and the worldly sciences. This view (i.e. limiting knowledge to some sciences of the Sharee’ah) is held by a group of people who did not properly understand the Sharee’ah, and now they are starting to disavow this generality of knowledge after witnessing the great benefits in the worldly sciences, and after many of them became aware of the Sharee’ah evidences regarding them.
The second view is that of a people who limit knowledge to the modern worldly sciences. This view stems from their deviation from the religion, its sciences and morals. This is a great mistake as they make the means the goals, denied the correct religious sciences and the useful facts, which modern sciences do not attribute to in any way, and thus they became deceived by the industries and inventions that resulted from these modern worldly sciences. These are the people referred to in Allaah’s statement:
[فلما جاءتهم رسلهم بالبينات فرحوا بما عندهم من العلم وحاق بهم ما كانوا به يستهزئون – Then when their Messengers came to them with clear proofs, they were glad (and proud) with that which they had of the knowledge (of worldly things): And that at which they used to mock, surrounded them (i.e. the punishment)]. [Surah Ghaafir. Aayah 83]
They rejoiced in their worldly knowledge and were arrogant due to it, and they belittled the knowledge of the Messengers until the truth they used to mock at overwhelmed them, and the punishment they were promised came to them because they belied the Messengers. They were punished in this world by way of a seal placed on their hearts, ears, and eyes, and blinded from the truth (i.e. hearts, ears and eyes prevented from the truth); [ولعذاب الآخرة أشد وأبقى – And the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting (Surah Taa Haa. Aayah 127)]; [وما كان لهم من الله من واق – And they had none to protect them from Allah. (Surah Ghaafir. Aayah 21)] (11.1)
Indeed, the people of sound Creed are well acquainted with the benefits and harms when progress in various sciences are not regulated under the final infallible divine revelation, because when a human being abandons the path ordained by the Creator, he or she is left to the traps of the weak soul and shaytaan. Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَمَن يَعۡشُ عَن ذِكۡرِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ نُقَيِّضۡ لَهُ ۥ شَيۡطَـٰنً۬ا فَهُوَ لَهُ ۥ قَرِينٌ۬
وَإِنَّہُمۡ لَيَصُدُّونَہُمۡ عَنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَيَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّہُم مُّهۡتَدُونَ
حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَنَا قَالَ يَـٰلَيۡتَ بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَكَ بُعۡدَ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقَيۡنِ فَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡقَرِينُ
وَلَن يَنفَعَڪُمُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ إِذ ظَّلَمۡتُمۡ أَنَّكُمۡ فِى ٱلۡعَذَابِ مُشۡتَرِكُونَ
And whosoever turns away (blinds himself) from the remembrance of the Most Beneficent (Allah) (i.e. this Quran and worship of Allah), We appoint for him Shaitan (Satan devil) to be a Qarin (an intimate companion) to him. And verily, they (Satans / devils) hinder them from the Path (of Allah), but they think that they are guided aright! Till, when (such a one) comes to Us, he says [to his Qarin (Satan / devil companion)] “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts (or the east and west)” a worst (type of) companion (indeed)! It will profit you not this Day (O you who turn away from Allah’s remembrance and His worship, etc.) as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers (you and your Qarin) in the punishment. [Surah Az-Zukhruf. Aayaat 36-39]
Allaah [The Exalted] informed us in Surah An-Nisaa Ayah 119 that shaytaan said: [وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ- Verily, I will mislead them]- Meaning, from the truth. [وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُم – And surely, I will arouse in them false desires]. Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with and his father) said: He (shaytaan) desires to hinder (them) from repentance and to delay it. (12
[وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ – I will order them to slit the ears of cattle]- Meaning, to cut off the ears of the cattle]. [وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ – And indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah]. Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him and his father) said: He (iblees) intends by this the religion of Allaah. And the meaning of this is that Allaah created His slaves upon an upright fitrah (i.e. an upright natural disposition that will enable them to recognize Allaah, accept the call of the messengers when it reaches them and worship Allaah alone), as He (the most high) said:
فَأَقِمۡ وَجۡهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفً۬اۚ فِطۡرَتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى فَطَرَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَيۡہَاۚ لَا تَبۡدِيلَ لِخَلۡقِ ٱللَّهِۚ ذَٲلِكَ ٱلدِّينُ ٱلۡقَيِّمُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
So set you (O Muhammad) your face towards the religion of true Monotheism- Hanifa (worship none but Allah Alone) Allah’s Fitrah (i.e. Allah’s Islamic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Khalqillah (i.e. the Religion of Allah Islamic Monotheism), that is the straight religion, but most of men know not. (Always) Turning in repentance to Him (only), and be afraid and dutiful to Him….[Surah Ar-Rum Aayaat 30-31]
And that is why the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Every child is born on a Fitrah [a natural disposition to recognize Allaah, accept the call of the messengers when it reaches them and worship Allaah alone], but his/her parents convert them him/her to Judaism, Christianity or Magianism, as an animal gives birth to a perfect baby animal. Do you find it mutilated?’’ Then after (narrating this hadeeth) Abu Hurairah recited:
[فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا- Allah’s Islamic Monotheism, with which He has created mankind.
Therefore, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) mentioned two affairs: The alteration of the fitrah through Judaism and Christianity and the alteration of the original natural physical appearance of the creation through mutilation. They are two affairs which iblees said that he must change-alteration of the natural disposition (through) incitement towards disbelief and alteration of the original natural physical appearance through mutilation. So he (iblees) changes the fitrah through incitement towards shirk and alteration of the original natural appearance (of the creation) through cutting and mutilation. This one is alteration of the fitrah of the soul and that one the alteration of the original natural appearance of the creation. (13)
And Allaah [The Exalted] stated that shaytaan said:
قَالَ فَبِمَآ أَغۡوَيۡتَنِى لَأَقۡعُدَنَّ لَهُمۡ صِرَٲطَكَ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقِيمَ
ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَنْ شَمَائِلِهِمْ وَلاَ تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ
(Iblis) said: “Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You).[Surah Al-A’raaf. Aayaat 16-17]
[ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ – Then I will come to them from before them and behind them]; Ibn Abbaas said this means, “I [Iblees] will bring doubts to them about the Hereafter”.
[وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ – and behind them]; Ibn Abbaas said that this means, “I [Iblees] will make them covetous for the worldly things”. [وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ – and from their right]; Ibn Abbaas said this means, “I [Iblees] will make their religion obscure [by making them hold onto doubtful matters which they would consider to be the truth]”. [وَعَن شَمَائِلِهِمْ – and from their left]; Al-Hasan [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said this means, “I [Iblees] will command them to commit evil deeds, urge them toward it and beautify it in their eyes [i.e. make it fair seeming to them]”.
It has also been reported from Ibn Abbaas who said that Iblees did not say, “And from above them” because he knows that Allaah is above them. Qataadah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, ‘’O son of Adam! Shaytaan comes to you from every direction but not from above because he is not able to come between you and the Mercy of Allaah. (14)
How to Approach The Contemporary Worldly Sciences
Imaam Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: We do not say, “We do not give consideration to anything stated by the people in the subject matter regarding medicine, astronomy and the celestial bodies”, however, we do not accept everything they say. If what they say opposes the Book and the (authentic) Sunnah, then indeed we do not accept their statements. We take [i.e. believe and affirm without any doubt] that which is conveyed in the Book and the Sunnah], and we say, “An era will come in which the people will bear witness to the falsity of those statements of theirs – at present – that are in opposition to the Book and Sunnah and (bear witness) to the soundness of that which has been conveyed in the Book and the Sunnah. (15)
Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: Indeed, that which is stated by the astronomers about the celestial bodies, their sizes and the distance between them, and that which is said about the earth [i.e. by the geologists etc] is categorized into three affairs: [a] That which is backed by the sound knowledge-based proofs [i.e. the Sharee’ah], therefore it is accepted. [b] That which the knowledge-based proofs [i.e. the sharee’ah] declares to be false, therefore it is rejected. [c] That which there is no proof to either accept or reject it, therefore it is unproven until a person from the people of knowledge [i.e. upright scholars of Ahlus Sunnah] examines it [i.e. examines what it indicates based on the Book and Sunnah] to show whether it should be accepted or rejected. As for accepting it without [sound] investigation and observation, but merely accepting it by blindly following them [i.e. the astronomers, geologists etc], then this is impermissible because of the numerous mistakes that occur as a result of that, and speaking -without knowledge – about Allaah and that which He has created [i.e. the entire universe and all that is within it]. (16)
Therefore, we return to those honest investigators – those students of sound Aqeedah who are well acquainted with both the statements of the upright scholars and the contemporary worldly sciences, such as the likes of Dr. Shaikh Abu Iyaadh Amjad Rafiq [may Allaah preserve him, increase him in beneficial knowledge and righteous deeds. And likewise preserve all the students and Ahlus Sunnah Aameen]. Read: Understanding the Two Definitions of ‘Science’ in Operation – By Shaikh Dr. Abu Iyaadh: http://www.aboutatheism.net/articles/juvtbpd-understanding-the-two-definitions-of-science-and-scientific-enquiry.cfm
Brief Response to The Futurist Who Says That Islam’s Clarification Regarding Future Events Leading to The End of Time Is Primary Based on Hypotheses and Speculations, Speculates About The Destruction of The World and Employs The Methodology of King Louis 9th
Firstly, regarding the one who says that Islam’s clarification of future events is based on hypotheses and speculations, this person has not uttered except that which was uttered by the disbelievers of old. Allaah [The Exalted] said:
وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ۚ وَإِن يَرَوْا كُلَّ آيَةٍ لَّا يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَا ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوكَ يُجَادِلُونَكَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ
And of them there are some who listen to you; but We have set veils on their hearts, so they understand it not, and deafness in their ears; if they see every one of the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) they will not believe therein; to the point that when they come to you to argue with you, the disbelievers say: “These are nothing but tales of the men of old.” [Surah Al-An’aam. Aayah 25]
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
[وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا قَالُوا قَدْ سَمِعْنَا لَوْ نَشَاءُ لَقُلْنَا مِثْلَ هَـٰذَا ۙ إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ – And when Our Verses (of the Qur’an) are recited to them, they say: “We have heard this (the Qur’an); if we wish we can say the like of this. This is nothing but the tales of the ancients.”] [Surah Al-Anfaal. Aayah 31]
Allaah [The Exalted] stated: [وَقَالُوا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ اكْتَتَبَهَا فَهِيَ تُمْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا – And they say: “Tales of the ancients, which he (Muhammad) has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.”] [Surah al-Furqan. Aayah 5]
Allaah [The Exalted] said:
اسْتِكْبَارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَكْرَ السَّيِّئِ ۚ وَلَا يَحِيقُ الْمَكْرُ السَّيِّئُ إِلَّا بِأَهْلِهِ ۚ فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا سُنَّتَ الْأَوَّلِينَ ۚ فَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا ۖ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَحْوِيلًا
(They took to flight because of their) arrogance in the land and their plotting of evil. But the evil plot encompasses only him who makes it. Then, can they expect anything (else), but the Sunnah (way of dealing) of the peoples of old? So no change will you find in Allah’s Sunnah (way of dealing), and no turning off will you find in Allah’s Sunnah (way of dealing). [Surah Al-Faatir. Aayah 43]
The reality and amazing accuracy regarding that which the seal of the Prophets [Muhammad – peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] stated about the future is not denied except by the most obstinate disbeliever, therefore, we’ll suffice with one these narrations mentioned by Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] as follows: “In the Qur’aan and authentic Ahaadeeth there are numerous reports regarding that which will take place in the Dunyah and Aakhirah, and affairs that occurred perfectly after the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] spoke about them many years prior to their occurrence, such as his statement: ‘The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; people with small eyes, red faces, and flat noses. Their faces will look like shields coated with leather. The Hour will not be established till you fight with people whose shoes are made of hair’. [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari. Number 2928] Those amongst the Muslims – who saw and fought those Turks when their king Genghis Khan appeared, his children and grandchildren, such as Hulagu Khan and other than him amongst the disbelieving kings- could not describe them better than how the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] described them [i.e. even though he did not meet them]. He stated this 600 years prior to its occurrence. (17) Read: https://salaficentre.com/2023/01/02/speculating-about-end-of-the-world-or-total-destruction-of-the-human-race-through-nuclear-war/
As for the plotters, then indeed they cannot harm anyone except by the will of Allaah. Read: https://salaficentre.com/2022/12/09/the-unsuccessful-ideological-war-against-islam-prior-and-after-the-reign-of-french-king-louis-ix-the-ninth/
Finally, be warned against the path of those misguided ones who seek tpo speak about future events in the name of religion. Read: https://salaficentre.com/2021/08/31/some-reasons-behind-deviation-from-path-of-the-messiah-and-muhammad-some-early-christians-and-heretics-who-ascribed-to-islaam/
We ask Allaah:
اللَّهُمَّ أَصْلِحْ لِي دِينِي الَّذِي هُوَ عِصْمَةُ أَمْرِي
وَأَصْلِحْ لِي دُنْيَايَ الَّتِي فِيهَا مَعَاشِي
وَأَصْلِحْ لِي آخِرَتِي الَّتِي فِيهَا مَعَادِي
وَاجْعَلِ الْحَيَاةَ زِيَادَةً لِي فِي كُلِّ خَيْرٍ
وَاجْعَلِ الْمَوْتَ رَاحَةً لِي مِنْ كُلِّ شَرٍّ
O Allah! Rectify my religion for me, which is the safeguard of my affairs; rectify my worldly [affairs], wherein is my livelihood; and rectify my Afterlife to which is my return; and make life for me [as a means of] increase in every good and make death for me as a rest from every evil. [Saheeh Muslim Number: 2720]
[Ref 1. An Excerpt from ‘Dar Ta’aarud Al-Aql Wan-Naql. 9/17-18]
[Ref 2: An Excerpt from ‘As-Sawaa’iq Al-Mursalah 1/371-372]
[Ref 3.1: Excerpt from ‘Al-Fawaa’id page 207- 209]
[Ref 4: Aathaar Ash-Shaikh Al-Allaamah Abdur Rahmaan Bin Yahyah Al-Mu’allimee. Vol 5 pages 7-11]
[Ref 5: An Excerpt from Tareequl Hijratayn. pages 9-10. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 5.1: Al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah. Vol 9. Pages 303-309. Publisher: Maktabah Al-Ma’aarif and Daar ibn Hazm. 9th Edition. 1414 AH (1994)]
[Ref 5.2: Sunan Abee Daawud. Hadeeth Number 4291. Declared authentic by Imaam Al-Albaanee [rahimahullaah] in Saheeh Abi Daawud. Publisher, Maktabah Al-Ma’aarif. Awnul Ma’bood Sharh Sunan Abee Daawud. Vol 11. Pages 259-260. Publisher: Daar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah. 1st Edition 1419AH (Year 1998). Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 6: An Excerpt from Marhaban Yaa Taalibal Ilm- pages 99-100]
[Ref 7: An Excerpt from Ad-Dalaa’il Al-Qur’aaniyyah Fee Annal Uloom Wal-A’maal An-Naafi’ah Al-Asriyyah Daakhilatun Fid Deen Al-Islaamiy. pages 37-40]
[Refs 8 and 9: An Excerpt from Ad-Dalaa’il Al-Qur’aaniyyah Fee Annal Uloom Wal-A’maal An-Naafi’ah Al-Asriyyah Daakhilatun Fid Deen Al-Islaamiy. page 33 and page 44]
[Ref 10: Al-Adillatul Qawaati Wal-Baraaheem Fee Ibtaal Usool Al-Mulhideen. Page 48]
[Ref 11: Al-Adilladul Qawaati Wal Baraaheen Fee Ibtaalil Usoolil Mulhideen. 45-46]
[Ref 11.1: Ad-Deenus Saheeh Yahillu Jamee Al-Mashaakil. page 10]
[Ref 12: A’laam Al-Muwaqqi’een 1/67-69]
[Ref 13: Source: Ighaathatul Luhfaan 1/105-107]
[Ref 14: Ighaathatul lahfaan 1/105-107. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 15: An excerpt from the ‘Explanation of Bulooghul Maraam’ Vol 1. page 130. Shared by Ustaadh abu Tasneem (Mushaf Al-Banghaalee- may Allaah preserve him)]
[Ref 16: An Excerpts from ‘Al-Adillah An-Naqliyyah Wal-Hissiyyah Alaa Imkaanis Su’ood Ilal Kawaakib Wa Alaa Jarayaan Ash-Shams Wal-Qamar Wa Sukoon Al-Ard’ page 74. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 17: An Excerpt from Al-Jawaabus Saheeh Liman Baddala Deen Al-Maseeh. 2/65-67. slightly paraphrased]