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Women Playing The Duff During Weddings

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:

Indeed, it known from the religion of Islam by necessity that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] did not legislate for the righteous of his Ummah, the devout worshippers and the Zuhhaad (i.e. those who suffice only with necessities of life) amongst them to gather together to listen to melodic poetic verses whilst clapping, striking with a rod or a Duff. Likewise, he did not make it permissible for anyone to turn away from following him and that which he brought from the Book and wisdom (i.e. the Sunnah)- neither in affairs related to (acts of worship of the heart, creed etc) nor the apparent (acts of worship of the limbs); neither allowed for a common person nor for an elite (to do so); but rather the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] permitted some types of entertainment at weddings and the like, just as he permitted women to beat the duff at weddings and joyous occasions. As for the men during his time, neither any of them used to beat the Duff nor clap with the palm; rather, it has been established in the Saheeh (i.e. Al-Bukhaari and Muslim] that he said: “Clapping is for women and saying Subhaanallaah is for the men”. (see footnote a) He cursed women who imitate men, and men who imitate women. And since singing, playing the duff and clapping are the actions of women, the Salaf called the men who did that effeminate, and they called the singing men effeminate, and this is well known in their speech. (1)

Listen to speech of Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] on these links about women playing the Duff:

And the speech of Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] on the same subject matter as follows:

تقول السائلة في آخر أسئلتها: هل يجوز ضرب الدف قبل يوم الزواج أو بعده؟
علماً بأنني سمعت بأنه لا يضرب إلا في يوم الزفاف فقط
السنة أن يضرب في الزفاف ليلة الزفاف، هذا هو السنة، وهكذا للجواري أيام العيد لا بأس، أما غيره فتركه أحوط، تركه الأحوط للنساء، إنما السنة ضربه بإعلان النكاح ليلة الزفاف، أو كان في يوم العيد، كما فعله بعض الجواري عند النبي ﷺ، وقال لما أنكر عليهن أبو بكر قال: دعهن فإن لكل قوم عيدًا، وهذا عيدنا أهل الإسلام فدل على أنه يسمح للجواري والنساء بضرب الدف يوم العيد، عيد الفطر عيد النحر، وهكذا في الزواج لإعلان النكاح، أما الطبل لا، لا يستمع للطبل، ولكن الدف ذو الوجه الواحد، نعم

السؤال: أحسنتم، أيضاً يقول في سؤاله الثاني: هل يجوز استعمال الدف في الحفلات الدينية أم يعتبر من الآلات الموسيقية

المحرمة، أفيدونا جزاكم الله خيراً؟
الجواب: الدف إنما هو في حق النساء، هذا هو الذي يجوز في حق النساء في الأعراس ونحوها من أمور النساء، وأما الرجال فلا يجوز لهم لا الدف ولا الطبل ولا غير ذلك؛ لأنه من آلات الملاهي، وإنما يجوز اللعب بالحراب.. بالأسلحة.. بالرمي.. بالبنادق؛ لأنه تدرب على شئون الحرب، كما فعل الحبشة بين يدي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بالدرق والحراب في مسجده عليه الصلاة والسلام، هذا لا بأس به، أما اللعب بالدفوف والطبول والأغاني عليه، هذا لا يجوز، والله المستعان. نعم


Footnote a: Abu Hurairah [may Allaah be pleased with him] reported that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Saying Subhaanallaah is for men and clapping is for women.” (i.e. if the Imaam makes a mistake in the prayer) [Saheeh al-Bukhaari 1203]

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: “They (i.e. the pre-Islamic people of ignorance) carried out worship by whistling and clapping their hands”. Al-Allaamah Saalih Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] stated: From the affairs (i.e. practices) of the Pre-Islamic days of Ignorance which Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] opposed was that they carried out worship-seeking closeness to Allaah- through whistling and clapping. Allaah (The Most High) said: [وَمَا كَانَ صَلاَتُهُمْ عِندَ الْبَيْتِ إِلاَّ مُكَاء وَتَصْدِيَةً َ – And their prayer at the House (Ka’bah) was nothing but whistling and clapping of hands]. [Surah Al-Anfaal:35]

That is: The polytheists did not seek closeness to Allaah at the noble kabah, except through whistling and clapping. Al-Mukaa means whistling and Tasdeeyah means clapping with the two hands and palms. They used to do this at the Baytullaah and named it prayer- seeking nearness to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) by way of it. This is from the (affairs which) the shayaateen among mankind and jinn made fair seeming to them. That is because worship cannot be (carried out) except by way of that which Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has legislated; it is Tawqeefiyyah (i.e. established by the texts of the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah). A person should not initiate anything (i.e. acts of worship) or take it from someone else, while it is neither legislated by Allaah to be established as worship to Allaah nor does it have any origin in the Islamic legislation. (see Footnote b) (read here about bidah

And from this, the prohibition of these two traits -whistling and clapping- can be established, even if a person does not intend to perform worship through them, because there is resemblance to the polytheists in that. And (with regards) to clapping, the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] specifically permitted it for the women when there is a need, such as informing the Imaam (i.e. by clapping) if he makes a mistake in the prayer. And that is because of the fitnah -if men are present- that may take place from her voice. It is neither permissible for a man to imitate the Kuffaar nor a women by way of clapping. And when it the case that clapping is not permissible for men out of necessity with regards to informing the Imaam when he makes a mistake in the prayer, rather he informs the Imaam by way of Tasbeeh [i.e. saying سبحان الله], then it not being allowed when there is no necessity is even a stronger reason. And in this there is rebuttal against those men who whistle in the gatherings in resemblance to the unbelievers. [Source: Sharh Masaa’il Al-Jaahiliyyah. Pages 104-105. Slightly paraphrased]

Footnote b: Bida’atul Mukaffirah and Bida’atul Mufassiqah: Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee [may Allaah preserve him] was asked whether there is a difference between Bidah Al-Mukaffirah and Bidah Al-Mufassiqah; so he replied that there is Bidah Mukaffirah, such as rejecting the Ruyah (i.e. denying that the believers will see Allaah in the afterlife); rejecting Allaah’s Uluww [i.e. denying that Allaah is above his creation –Allaah ascended over the Throne in a way that benefits his majesty)]; invoking other than Allaah; offering slaughtered sacrifice (i.e. animals) to other than Allaah etc. These are affairs of Bidah Al-Mukaffirah (the bidah that is tantamount to disbelief); but we do not make Takfeer of the people who commit this type of Bidah until we establish the proofs against them. That is because some of them (i.e. the people who fall into these affairs) carry doubts and are far away from the era of Prophethood and its light (i.e. guidance). So they fall into the likes these innovations. Rejecting the Ruyah is disbelief; rejecting Allaah’s Uluww is disbelief; the saying that the Qur’aan is created is disbelief-major disbelief; but this person -[who testifies that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allaah, and he prays, observes fasting, wants paradise and believes in that] -received the doubts of the people of falsehood, so he falls into the likes of these affairs (i.e. these innovations that are tantamount to disbelief). So we say to him, “You have fallen into disbelief and the evidence is this and this, and we clarify for him”. So if Allaah grants him Tawfeeq [i.e. blesses him with knowledge and to act] and he returns to the truth, then all praise is due to Allaah; but if not, we declare him a disbeliever after establishing the proofs against him. As for Bidah Al-Mufassiqah it is other than this (i.e. it is not at the level of that which is tantamount to disbelief)…[ .paraphrased] NB: Takfeer: [i.e.expelling a Muslim from the foldnof Islam] is the job of the upright scholars of Islaam. Read here about the Principles of Takfir:

Ref 1: Paraphrased (Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 11/565-566)

قد عرف بالاضطرار من دين الإسلام أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يشرع لصالحي أمَّته وعبَّادهم وزهَّادهم أن يجتمعوا على استماع الأبيات الملحنة مع ضرب بالكف أو ضرب بالقضيب أو الدف ، كما لم يبح لأحدٍ أن يخرج عن متابعته واتِّباع ما جاء به من الكتاب والحكمة ، لا في باطن الأمر ولا في ظاهره ، ولا لعامِّي ولا لخاصِّي ، ولكن رخص النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في أنواعٍ من اللهو في العرس ونحوه ، كما رخَّص للنساء أن يضربن بالدف في الأعراس والأفراح ، وأمَّا الرجال على عهده فلم يكن أحدٌ منهم يضرب بدفٍّ ولا يصفِّق بكفٍّ ، بل قد ثبت عنه في الصحيح أنَّه قال : ” التصفيق للنساء ، والتسبيح للرجال ” و ” لعن المتشبِّهات من النساء بالرجال ، والمتشبهين من الرجال بالنساء ” .
ولما كان الغناء والضرب بالدف والكف مِن عمل النساء كان السلف يسمُّون من يفعل ذلك من الرجال مخنَّثاً ويسمُّون الرجال المغنِّين مخانيثاً ، وهذا مشهورٌ في كلامهم

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