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Must recall “The Three Main Causes of Corruption” in human societies when speaking about mass shootings

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

The Basis of all corruption – [Shirk, Injustice and Indecency]:

Shirk Occurs Due to The Heart’s Attachment to Other Than Allaah, Injustice Occurs Due to Intense Unrestrained Anger and Indecency Occurs Due to Intense Urge Towards Vain Desires

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: The basis of all sins – major and minor – are three: the heart’s attachment to other than Allaah, going along with the intense strength of one’s anger and the intense urge of one’s desires. These three affairs embody Shirk, injustice and indecency. Shirk and invoking other than Allaah is the ultimate affair related to the heart’s attachment to other than Allaah, murder is the ultimate affair related one’s intense anger and fornication is the ultimate affair related to the intense urge of one’s desires, and because of this, Allaah mentioned the three together in the Aayah:

[وَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَدۡعُونَ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَـٰهًا ءَاخَرَ وَلَا يَقۡتُلُونَ ٱلنَّفۡسَ ٱلَّتِى حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَلَا يَزۡنُونَ – And those who do not invoke any other ilah (god) along with Allah, nor kill such life as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse]. [Surah Al-Furqaan. Aayah 68]

These three affairs invite to one another – Shirk inevitably leads to injustice and indecency, just as Tawheed (pure Islamic Monotheism) and Ikhlaas (sincerity) turns a person away from them. Allaah [The Exalted] stated (about Prophet Yusuf – peace be upon him- when he was seduced by the wife of the king): [ڪَذَٲلِكَ لِنَصۡرِفَ عَنۡهُ ٱلسُّوٓءَ وَٱلۡفَحۡشَآءَ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ مِنۡ عِبَادِنَا ٱلۡمُخۡلَصِينَ – Thus it was, that We might turn away from him evil and indecency. Surely, he was one of Our chosen, guided slaves]- Meaning, turned away from infatuation and illegal sexual intercourse. (1) This shows that sincere devotion to Allaah is a means to repelling evil. And because of this, some of the pious predecessors said, “Infatuation is an agitation in empty hearts”, meaning, hearts emptied of other than what they crave for. (2)

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated: If the heart loves Allaah and devotes all the religion sincerely to Allaah, it will not give a share of this love to anyone else, let alone being afflicted with infatuation, but when afflicted with infatuation, then that is due to its deficient love of Allaah”. (2.1)

He also stated: Those people whose hearts are infatuated with images are to receive the greatest punishment and the smallest reward, because if the heart of the one who is infatuated with images continues to be attached and is enslaved by it, then various types of evils, loss and corruption will be gathered for him, which none can enumerate except Allaah. And even if he is safe from committing a major lewd act, the continuous attachment of the heart to the image without committing a lewd act is a greater than the harm that afflicts a person who commits a sin and then repents, and thus the effect of that sin ceases to exist in his heart. The greatest aspect of this calamity is when the heart turns away from Allaah, because indeed when the heart tastes the worship of Allaah and sincerity to Him, there will never be anything more sweet than it nor more tasty and enjoyable. A person does not abandon something beloved to him except due to another beloved thing which is more beloved to him or due to fearing harm. The heart is turned away from a corrupt love by an upright love or due to fearing harm. [Thus it was, that We might turn away from him (i.e. Prophet Yusuf (peace be upon him) evil and illegal sexual intercourse. Surely, he was one of Our chosen, guided slaves]. [Surah Yusuf. Aayah 24] So, Allaah turned His servant away from that which would plunge one into evil due to inclining towards an image and being attached to it, and turns him away from lewd conduct due to his sincere devotion to Allaah. This is why this can occur before a person tastes the sweetness of servitude to Allaah and sincerity to Him – when one is overcome by his soul through following its (evil) desires, but when one tastes the sweetness of sincerity to Allaah and his heart becomes strong, it subdues its desires without the great remedy (needed for) rectification”.(2.2)

Likewise, injustice inevitably leads to Shirk and indecency, because Shirk is the greatest injustice just as Tawheed is the greatest justice. Justice is a companion of Tawheed and injustice is a companion of Shirk, and this is why Allaah mentioned both together. Allaah stated about Tawheed: [شَهِدَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّهُ ۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ وَأُوْلُواْ ٱلۡعِلۡمِ قَآٮِٕمَۢا بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ – Allah bears witness that Laa ilaaha illaa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness); (He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice]. As for injustice and Shirk, Allaah said: [إِنَّ ٱلشِّرۡكَ لَظُلۡمٌ عَظِيمٌ۬ – Verily, Shirk is great injustice]. Surah Luqmaan. Aayah 13]

Indecency leads to Shirk and Injustice, especially when there is a strong desire that cannot be reached except through some type of injustice, such as seeking help through magic and shaytaan. Allaah mentioned both fornication and Shirk together in the Aayah: [ٱلزَّانِى لَا يَنكِحُ إِلَّا زَانِيَةً أَوۡ مُشۡرِكَةً۬ وَٱلزَّانِيَةُ لَا يَنكِحُهَآ إِلَّا زَانٍ أَوۡ مُشۡرِكٌ۬‌ۚ وَحُرِّمَ ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ – The adulterer marries not but an adulteress; or a female polytheist and the adulteress none marries her except an adulterer or a male polytheist [and that means that the man who agrees to marry (have a sexual relation with) a female polytheist, pagan or idolatress) or a prostitute, then surely he is either an adulterer, or a polytheist)]. And the woman who agrees to marry (have a sexual relation with) a male polytheist or an adulterer, then she is either a prostitute or a female polytheist)]. Such a thing is forbidden to the believers (of Islamic Monotheism)]. [Surah An-Noor. Aayah 3]

These three affairs [i.e. shirk, indecency and injustice] can either be the cause of one another or inevitably lead to one another. This is why whenever Tawheed in the heart is weaker and the Shirk in it is greater, it commits more indecency, becomes stronger in its attachment to images and infatuated with them. Allaah said:

فَمَآ أُوتِيتُم مِّن شَىۡءٍ۬ فَمَتَـٰعُ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۖ وَمَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَبۡقَىٰ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّہِمۡ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ
وَٱلَّذِينَ يَجۡتَنِبُونَ كَبَـٰٓٮِٕرَ ٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡفَوَٲحِشَ وَإِذَا مَا غَضِبُواْ هُمۡ يَغۡفِرُونَ

So whatever you have been given is but a passing enjoyment for this worldly life, but that which is with Allah (Paradise) is better and more lasting for those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism) and put their trust in their Lord (concerning all of their affairs). And those who avoid the greater sins and indecency, and when they are angry, they forgive. [Surah Ash-Shooraa. Aayaat 36-37]

Allaah informed us that what He has with Him (of reward in the Hereafter) is better for the one who believes in Him and relies upon him, and that is Tawheed. Then Allaah said: [وَٱلَّذِينَ يَجۡتَنِبُونَ كَبَـٰٓٮِٕرَ ٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡفَوَٲحِشَ – And those who avoid the greater sins and indecency] – Meaning, avoid the intense urge towards lowly desires. Then Allaah said: [وَإِذَا مَا غَضِبُواْ هُمۡ يَغۡفِرُونَ – And when they are angry, they pardon]. This opposes the intense strength of anger. So, Allaah mentioned Tawheed, pardon and justice together, and they are that which gathers every good. (3)

Guidance of The Infallible Messenger Regarding Weapons

Abdullah [may Alaah be pleased with him] narrated that Allah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Whoever takes up arms against us is not from us”. (4)

Abu Hurairah [may Allaah be pleased with him] narrated that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “None of you should point towards his Muslim brother with a weapon, because he does not know shaytaan may tempt him to hit him and thus he falls into a pit of fire (Hell)”. (5)

Abu Huraira [may Allaah be pleased with him] reported that Allah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “He who points a weapon towards his brother, the angels invoke curse upon him, even if he is his real brother, so long as he does not abandon it (the pointing of weapon towards one’s brother Muslim)”. (6)

Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated: The first and second narrations show the prohibition of engaging in what may lead to evil for your Muslim brother; neither (should this be done) with weapons, sticks, nor anything else. It is obligatory to honour a Muslim and be cautious of bringing evil to him through deed or statement, and that includes pointing at him with an iron (object) or weapon, even jokingly. It is not permissible, because shaytaan may incite and make it fair seeming for one to strike his brother, or seduce him to do something with the weapon in his hand (whilst he is pointing it at his brother) and thus it dislodges without choice and he hits his brother. In the last hadith, “He who pointed a weapon towards his brother is cursed by the angels”. This warrants caution, an obligation to be cautious and that this (pointing a weapon at a person) is one of the major sins. And this is not due to anything other than to preserve the sanctity of his brother. All affairs of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood, wealth and honour. His sanctity is great, therefore, it is neither permissible to oppress him, whether through statement or deed, nor expose him to something that may cause evil for him, such as pointing at him with a weapon, an iron (object) or something heavy, or trying playfully to throw him off a roof, a wall, or the like, or from a palm tree. All of this may cause evil for him, even if one is joking, because great evil might occur through joking. Also in the second hadith, the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] forbade that the sword is unsheathed. If one wants to hand it to his brother, he should put it in its sheath and then give it to him, because he may give it to him and it falls between them- falls from this one or that one, and hits one of them. (7)

Narrated Sufyan: I said to Amr, “O Abu Muhammad! Did you hear Jabir Bin Abdullah saying, “A man carrying arrows passed through the mosque and Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said to him, ‘Hold the arrows by their heads!’ Amr replied, ‘Yes’. (8)

Narrated Jabir: A man passed through the mosque whilst carrying arrows, the heads of which were exposed (protruding). The man was ordered (by the Prophet) to hold the iron heads so that it might not scratch (injure) any Muslim. (9)

Narrated Abu Musa: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “If anyone of you passed through our mosque or through our market while carrying arrows, he should hold the iron heads”, or said, “he should hold (their heads) firmly with his hand lest he should injure one of the Muslims with it”. (10)

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated regarding a deed of some foolish people with cars: “Speeding towards a person who is standing, sitting, or lying down to jest with him; then he turns it around when he gets close to him in order not to run him over. This is also forbidden, just like pointing with an iron (object), because he does not know that perhaps shaytaan seduces him to do something with his hand and he loses control of the car, and thus he falls into a pit of fire (i.e. due to harming another person). And with regards to what (is not permissble) is to set a dog on someone (jokingly whilst the dog is on leash). A person has a dog and another person comes to him as a visitor or so on, so he sets the dog on him (out of jesting whilst the dog is on leash), because the dog may proceed to bite this man or wound him, and he (i.e. the owner) will not be able to stop it after that. Therefore, what is important is that all causes of destruction are prohibited, whether one is serious or joking, as evidenced by the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah. (11)

Murder and Bloodshed

Allaah [The Most High] said:

وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا

And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the Wrath and the Curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayah 93]

Ibn Abbaas [may Allaah be pleased with him and his father] reported that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “The one who was murdered will come with the scalp and head of his killer in his hand on the Day of Resurrection, his jugular vein flowing with blood and saying, ‘O Lord! This one killed me!’ And he will draw near to the Throne.” They (i.e. the people) mentioned repentance to Ibn Abbaas, so he recited the Aayah, [وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ – Whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell]; then he said, “This Aayah has not been abrogated or replaced, so where is his repentance?” [Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmidhee 3029]

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “And that which is established with fact regarding this matter is that murder is attached to (violation) of three rights: the right of Allaah, the right of the victim and the right of the heir. If the murderer voluntarily hands over himself to the heir, shows remorse for what he has done out of fear of Allaah and repents sincerely, then Allaah’s right is waivered through repentance. And heir’s right is that he can seek retaliation (i.e. via the Islamic sharee’ah), reconciliation or he (or she) can pardon. Then what remains is the victim’s right, (which) Allaah will recompense for him on the Day of Judgement from His servant who is a repentant person and a good-doer, and rectify affairs between them, so neither the right of the victim nor the repentance of the murderer is nullified”. (12)

Allaah [The Exalted] said:
مَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا

If anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. [Surah Al-Maa’idah. Aayah 32]

Imaam As-Sadi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: This means that the killer has no justification to kill, and none should kill another person unless he has a justified reason (i.e. based on the law of the land) to do so. If a person is bold enough to kill someone who does not deserve to be killed, then this implies that he does make a distinction between the one He killed and other than him; rather he would commit this act whenever his evil calls him to that. Therefore, his bold attitude that led him to kill is as if he has killed all humankind. On the other hand, if a person saves a life and does not kill – whilst his soul calls him to do so – due to fear of Allaah, then this is as if he has saved the lives of all humankind, because the fear of Allaah he possesses stops him killing one who does not deserve to be killed. (13)

Abdullah Bin Mas’ud [may Allaah be pleased with him] said that Allah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “The first (thing) that will be decided among people on the Day of Judgment will pertain to bloodshed”. (14)

Imaam An-Nawawi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “This hadith shows the severeness of bloodshed and that it will be the first thing that will be judged between people on the Day of Resurrection because of its greatness and extreme danger. This hadith does not contradict the well-known hadith in the Sunan that “The first thing a person will be questioned about is the prayer”, because this hadeeth is about an affair between Allaah and the person, whereas the first hadeeth (i.e. judgement in matters related to bloodshed) is an affair between the people”. (15)

The Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “The termination of the world means less to Allah than the killing of a Muslim“. (16)

Amr Ibn Al-Hamiq [may Allaah be pleased with him] reported that Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Whenever a man promises safety for another man’s life and then kills him, I disavow myself from him even if the victim was a disbeliever (in Islam). (17)

Finally, Abu Bakr [may Allaah be pleased with him] said, “O Allaah’s Messenger! Teach me what to say in morning and afternoon”. He said, “O Abu Bakr! Do say:

اللَّهُمَّ فَاطِرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ رَبَّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَمَلِيكَهُ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ نَفْسِي وَمِنْ شَرِّ الشَّيْطَانِ وَشَرَكِهِ وَأَنْ أَقْتَرِفَ عَلَى نَفْسِي سُوءًا أَوْ أَجُرَّهُ إِلَى مُسْلِمٍ

‘O Allah! Creator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the unseen and the seen, there is none worthy of worship except You, Lord of everything and its Owner, I seek refuge in You from the evil of my soul and from the evil of Shaitan and his Shirk, or that I should do some evil to myself or bring it upon a Muslim'”. (18)

[Ref 1: An Excerpt from Al-Fawaa’id 131-132]

[Ref 2: An excerpt from At-Tibbun Nabawiy. page180. slightly paraphrased]

[Ref 2.1: Majmoo Al-Fataawaa 10/135]

[Ref 2.2: Al-Uboodiyyah 114-115. slightly paraphrased]

[Ref 3: An Excerpt from Al-Fawaa’id 131-132]

[Ref 4: Sahih al-Bukhari 7070]

[Ref 5: Sahih al-Bukhari 7072]

[Ref 6: Sahih Muslim 2616]

[Ref7: Paraphrased excerpt]

[Ref 8: Sahih al-Bukhari 7073]

[Ref 9: Saheeh Al-Bukhaari 7074]

[Ref 10: Saheeh al-Bukhaari 7075]

[Ref 11: paraphrased]

[Ref 12: Jawaab Al-Kaafee. page 102]

[Ref 13: Tafseer as-Sadi]

[Ref 14: Saheeh Muslim. Hadeeth Number 1678. Ref 15: Sharh Saheeh Muslim. Vol 11. page 139]]

[Ref 16: Saheeh Al-Jaami 9208]

[Ref 17: Saheeh Al-Jaami 6103]

[Ref 18: Saheeh Al-Adab Al-Muf’rad 914]

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