In The Name of Allah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadee al-Mad’khali [may Allah preserve him] said: Uthmaan [may Allaah be pleased with him] was one of those who restrained the people from bloodshed the most as well as that of the people who violated his honour. Shaikh Al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “And what is well known through successive numerous narrations is that indeed Uthmaan [may Allah be pleased with him] was one of those who restrained the people from bloodshed the most, exercised patience the most regarding the affair of those who violated his honour and those who made a determined attempt to shed his blood, so they besieged him and endeavoured to kill him, and he knew their desire to kill him. The Muslims came to him from every place to help him and indicated to him to fight the besiegers, but he commanded them to refrain from fighting and commanded those who obeyed him not to fight. He said to his slaves, ‘Whoever restrains his hand is freed’. It was said to him, ‘Will you go to Makkah?’ He said, ‘I will not be amongst those who commit evil in the sacred house’. Then it was said to him, ‘Will you not go to Syria?’ He said, ‘I will not leave my place of Hijrah (i.e. Madeenah)’. Then it was said to him, ‘Fight them’, so he said, ‘I will not be the first in the Ummah of Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] to unleash the sword after the departure of Muhammad’. Uthmaan’s patience until he was murdered is one of his greatest virtues in the sight of Muslims”. [(1)] [End of quote]
Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “When Uthmaan [may Allaah be pleased with him] knew that he would be killed due to what he could see and observe regarding the events and signs, he refrained from fighting and from defending himself lest fighting occurs between the Muslims, so he preferred to be killed instead of (initiating) a fight between the Muslims”. [(2)] [End of quote]
Even though the besiegers were the aggressors and he had the right to repel their aggression, Uthmaan (may Allah be pleased with him) chose not to fight in order to establish a greater good that would lessen evil. Therefore, it would be more anticipated of us when we err and are encouraged not to do something that would compound the error to abstain for the greater good.
[(1)]: An Excerpt from Al-Mukhtaaraat Al-Bahiyyah Min Kutub Shaikhil Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah. Page 296. Slightly paraphrased
[(2)]: الطُّرُقُ الْحُكميَّة- page 30