[11.1] Abu Makkah’s Companion Opens a Can of Worms
In The Name of Allah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Muhammad Abdur-Razzaaq stated:
First, if what is intended in Muhammad’s statement is someone who has bidah, but he deserves an excuse based on what the upright people of knowledge – those who are well-acquainted with his affair – know about him in detail, as well as the fact that the clear proofs have not been established against him, then indeed, here is what is said about such a person: “Someone who was from Ahlus-Sunnah, well known for seeking the truth but he fell into a subtle bid‘ah. So if this person dies, then it is not permitted to make tabdī’ of him, rather he is mentioned with good. And if he is alive, he is advised and the truth is made clear to him, and one does not hasten to make tabdī’ of him, but if he persists [upon innovation], then he is declared an innovator. Shaikhul-Islām Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah, died 728H) stated: “There are many from the Mujtahidīn (Scholars) of the Salaf and of later times who spoke with and acted upon innovation whilst not knowing it to be an innovation. This was either due to weak ahadīth that they thought were authentic, or Quranic Verses they understood in an incorrect manner, or due to an opinion one would hold in an issue because the texts had not reached him. So if a man fears his Lord to the best of his ability, he enters into the saying of Allāh: “Our Lord, do not take us to account if we are forgetful or mistaken.” And there occurs in a hadīth that Allāh stated [in response]: “I have done so.” And this matter has been explained in another place”. 
Second, if what is intended in Muhammad’s statement is one who is not known to be from Ahlus Sunnah as well as the fact that he is a caller to Bidah and he has no excuse, then indeed, the affair is even more serious.
Third, if what is intended is an ignorant person, then indeed, everyone knows that such a one should be reminded that some of the Scholars stated “Silence beautifies the Scholar and conceals the ignorance of the ignoramus”.
However, regardless of who this person may be, the first, the second, or the third, it is not allowed to mention the people of Bidah with praise. Al-Allaamah Saalih Al-Fawzaan [may Allaah preserve him] said: “It is not permissible to exalt and praise the proponents of Bidah even if they have some truth with them. That is because raising and praising them will spread their bidah and place them amongst the sincere ones who are taken as examples amongst distinguished men of this Ummah. The proponents of Bidah must be warned against and shunned even if they have some truth with them. Indeed, the most astray are not devoid of some truth, but as long as they have Bidah with them and sinful views, it is not permissible to praise and exalt them. It is impermissible not to have an objection against their Bidah because this spreads bidah, belittles the Sunnah and by way of this, the Mubtadi will emerge and become a guide for the Ummah. As for the consideration that the Mubtadi has some truth, this does not justify praising him. This -to a far greater extent- is against what is of overriding benefit, and it is known based on a principle in the religion that preventing harm takes precedence over seeking that which is of benefit. With regard to having hatred for the Mubtadi, the harm that is repelled from the Ummah is weightier than the benefit possessed by the Mubtadi. And had we adhered to this [praising an innovator because he has some truth with him], then no one would have been judged to be misguided and declared a Mubtadi because there is not a Mubtadi except that he has some truth and adherence to the Sunnah. The Mubtadi may neither be a disbeliever nor in opposition to all the Islamic legislation; rather he is either a Mubtadi in some or most of the affairs. (Footnote a) However, if the Bidah is particularly related to affairs of Creed and Methodology, then it is dangerous indeed because it will become an example (to be followed), Bidah will spread and the Mubtadi’ah will become active in spreading their Bidah. Therefore, this person who praises Mubtadi’ah and makes their affair obscure to the people -due to some truth they have – is one of two: either one ignorant of the methodology of the pious predecessors and their stance against the Mubtadi’ah, and it is neither permissible for this ignorant one to speak nor is it permissible for the Muslims to listen to him; or he is one who has an objection to the truth because he knows the danger of Bidah and the Mubtadi’ah, but he wishes to spread Bidah. Nevertheless, this is a dangerous affair and it is not permissible to be lackadaisical with regard to Bidah and its adherents whatever that may be. 
Finally, Muhammad has not made it known the specific individual intended in his statement so that the affair of such one is scrutinised based on what the upright Scholars or elder students of knowledge know about him in detail.
Abu Qilaabah said, “May Allaah fight the poet [an expression of amazement in Arabic] who said: Do not ask about a man, but ask about his companion. For every person guides himself by his companion. This poetry is by Adee bin Zaid, and al-Asma’ee said about it, “I have never seen a line of poetry which resembles the Sunnah more than this saying of Adee bin Zaid.” Al-Ibaanah (2/439)
Abu Hurairah – radiallaahu anhu – said, the Messenger of Allaah said, “A person is upon the deen of his friend, so let each one of you look at whom he befriends.” Saheeh. Refer to Silsilah as-Saheehah of al-Albaani (no.927)
Ibn Mas’ood – radiallaahu anhu – said, “Indeed a person walks alongside and accompanies the one whom he loves and who is like him.” Al-Ibaanah (2/476)
Abu ad-Dardaa – radiallaahu anhu – said, “It is from the fiqh (understanding of a person) that he [chooses] those whom he walks with, whom he enters upon (visits) and whom he sits with.” Al-Ibaanah (2/477)
Imaam Al-Awzaa’ee said, “Whoever hides his innovation from us will not be able to hide his companionship from us.” Al-Ibaanah (2/476)
Al-A’mash said, “They (the Salaf) did not used to ask anything more about a person after having asked about three affairs: Who he walks with, who he enters upon (i.e. visits) and who he associates with amongst the people.” Al-Ibaanah (2/478)
Abdullaah bin Mas’ood -radiallaahu anhu – said, “Make consideration of the (regions of the) Earth by the names given to them and make consideration of a person by his companion.” Al-Ibaanah (2/479)
Muhammad bin Ubaid al-Ghulaabee said, “The Ahl ul-Ahwaa (People of Desires) hide everything except their intimate friendship and companionship.” Al-Ibaanah (2/482)
Mu’aadh bin Mu’aadh said to Yahyaa bin Sa’eed, “O Abu Sa’eed! A person may hide his viewpoint from us, but he will not be able to hide that in his son, or his friend or in the one whom he sits with.” Al-Ibaanah (2/437)
Ibn Awn said, “Those who sit with the People of Innovation are more severe upon us than the People of Innovation themselves.” Al-Ibaanah (2/273). 
Al-Allaamah Ubaid Bin Abdillah Al-Jaabiri [may Allah have mercy upon him] said, “If a person’s affair is hidden from you, the one whose books and cassettes are well-known and whose popularity is widespread, then ask those who are well acquainted with him and his situation. Neither the Sunnah nor its adherents are hidden, and a man’s Tazkiyah is his own deeds – his Tazkiyah is his own deeds that he is an adherent to the Sunnah. It is the witness, and people refer to him with it both during his life and after his death”. 
Footnote a: Bidah Al-Mukaffirah and Bidah Al-Mufassiqah:
Bidah Al-Mukaffirah: It is the Bidah that is tantamount to disbelief. Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadi Al-Madkhali (may Allaah preserve him) was asked whether there is a difference between Bidah Al-Mukaffirah and Bidah Al-Mufassiqah; so Shaikh said that there is Bidah Mukaffirah, such as rejecting the Ruyah (i.e. denying that the believers will see Allaah in the afterlife); rejecting Allaah’s Uluww [i.e. denying that Allaah is above his creation –Allaah ascended over the Throne in a way that benefits his majesty)]; invoking other than Allaah; offering slaughtered sacrifice (i.e. animals) to other than Allaah etc. These are affairs of Bidah Al-Mukaffirah (the bidah that is tantamount to disbelief).
But we do not make Takfeer of the people who commit this type of Bidah until we establish the proof against them. That is because some of them (i.e. the people who fall into these affairs) carry doubts and are far away from the era of Prophethood and its light (i.e. guidance). So they fall into the likes of these innovations.
Rejecting the Ruyah is disbelief; rejecting Allaah’s Uluww is disbelief; the saying that the Qur’an is created is disbelief-major disbelief. But this person, -[who testifies that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allaah, and he prays, observes fasting, wants paradise and believes in that] -received the doubts of the people of falsehood, so he falls into the likes of these affairs (i.e. these innovations that are tantamount to disbelief). So we say to him: You have fallen into disbelief and the evidence is this and this, and we clarify for him. So if Allaah grants him Tawfeeq and he returns to the truth, then all praise is due to Allaah. But if not, we declare him a disbeliever after establishing the proofs against him.
As for Bidah Al-Mufassiqah it is other than this (i.e. it is not at the level of that which is tantamount to disbelief)…. http://www.rabee.net/ar/questions.php?cat=26&id=484 ]
To be continued…InShaaAllah
 At-Tabdee Wat-Tafseeq Wat Takfeer. Page: 72-74]
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