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Three Narrations From ‘Iqtidaa Al-Ilm Al-Amal’ By Khateeb Al-Baghdaadi (rahimahullaah) With Brief Commentary By Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq Al-Badr-[Reminder Needed For Those Who Boast, Transgress Through Knowledge And Oppose What They Have Learnt From The Upright Scholars]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

‘’Whoever goes out [to seek] knowledge and [only] desiring knowledge, it will not benefit him; but whoever goes out [to seek] knowledge and desiring to act on knowledge, he will be benefited [even] with little knowledge’’.

Shaikh Abdur-Razzaaq Al-Badr [hafidhahullaah] said, “This is what is incumbent upon a student of knowledge when going out for knowledge and in the gatherings of knowledge. His aim should be that Allaah benefits him through knowledge, for indeed even a little will benefit him. As for acquiring a lot without giving concern to act upon it, this will not benefit the acquirer of such knowledge; rather it will be a proof against him and not for him. [Sharh Iqtidaa Al-Ilm Al-A’mal. Lesson 1]

Maalik Ibn Deenaar said, ‘’Indeed, when a slave seeks knowledge to act upon it, his knowledge will restrain him [from what is blameworthy], but if he seeks it for other than that, it will increase him in sinful behaviour and boastfulness’’.

Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq Al-Badr [hafidhahullaah] said, ‘’It will prevent him from self-importance and self-amazement; but if he seeks knowledge for other than acting upon it, he will increase in sinful behaviour and boastfulness. [Sharh Iqtidaa Al-Ilm Al-Amal. Lesson 1]

‘’There are two acts of transgression in the Dunyaa – transgression through knowledge and transgression through wealth. And that which will save one from transgression through knowledge is [to know] that [acquiring] knowledge is worship and that which will save one from transgression through wealth is Zuhd.

Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq Al-Badr [hafidhahullaah] said: Transgression through wealth is well known, just as Allaah said:

كَلَّآ إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ لَيَطۡغَىٰٓ

أَن رَّءَاهُ ٱسۡتَغۡنَىٰٓ

Nay! Verily, man does transgress all bounds (in disbelief and evil deed, etc.). Because he considers himself self-sufficient.

Transgression through wealth [includes] extravagance, arrogance, self-amazement, self-deception etc. The other type of transgression is through knowledge, such as boasting, showing off, desiring to be mentioned, self-amazement, self-deception etc. So, just as there are people who are afflicted with transgression through wealth, likewise there are those afflicted with transgression through knowledge. If a scholar or student is afflicted with self-amazement, self-deception and boasting, then this is all tantamount to transgression through knowledge. [Sharh Iqtidaa Al-Ilm Al-Amal. Lesson 1]


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Received Numerous Admonitions Prior to Their Wretched End, But Their Hardened Hearts Prevented Them From Realising Their Evil State of Affairs: [Lessons to Learn From The Behaviour of Ancient Criminals]  

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Allaah [The Most High] says that Fir’awn, his chiefs and blind followers said:

[ مَهۡمَا تَأۡتِنَا بِهِۦ مِنۡ ءَايَةٍ۬ لِّتَسۡحَرَنَا بِہَا فَمَا نَحۡنُ لَكَ بِمُؤۡمِنِينَ- Whatever Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) you may bring to us, to work therewith your sorcery on us, we shall never believe in you]; meaning: They made it clear to Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] that they will not cease to be upon their false path. That is because- as they claimed-Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] is a magician, so regardless what he showed them, they will consider it to be magic. Indeed, this is a state of extreme obstinacy- when disbelievers reach that state of disbelief in which they care less whether clear signs have been shown to them or not!

Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [فَأَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلطُّوفَانَ  – So We sent on them: the flood]; meaning: Abundant water that destroyed their trees and vegetation, and brought about extreme hardship; [وَٱلۡجَرَادَ – the locusts] that ate their crops; [وَٱلۡقُمَّلَ   – the lice]; [وَٱلضَّفَادِعَ  – the frogs] that entered into their springs in great numbers and caused them extreme anxiety; [وَٱلدَّمَ  – and the blood]; meaning: their drinking water was turned into blood.  [ءَايَـٰتٍ۬ مُّفَصَّلَـٰتٍ۬ – (as a succession of) manifest signs]; meaning: These were clear signs that made it clear to them that they have rejected the truth and are transgressors.  [فَٱسۡتَڪۡبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ قَوۡمً۬ا مُّجۡرِمِينَ – yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners, etc.)]; meaning: After they saw all these signs, they were still haughty, so Allaah left them upon their deviation and misguidance.


[An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer kalaam Al-Mannaan’ of Imaam As-Sadi (rahimahullaah)]

 

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Mighty Threats, Delusions and Foolish Claims: [Lessons to Learn From The Behaviour of Ancient Criminals Prior to Their Wretched End]

In the name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy

Allaah  (The Most High) said: [وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ – Fir’aun (Pharaoh) said] with haughtiness and tyranny, whilst deluding his foolish people; [ذَرُونِي أَقْتُلْ مُوسَىٰ وَلْيَدْعُ رَبَّهُ  – Leave me to kill Musa (Moses), and let him call his Lord (to stop me from killing him)!] [Soorah Ghafir: Ayah 26]

This was his (false) claim that had it not been for his consideration of the wishes of his people, he would have killed Musa and that (Musa’s) supplication to his Lord would not have prevented him from that.

Fir’awn then mentioned what made him want to kill Musa and that he is a sincere adviser to his people, and that he wished to remove mischief from the land. Allaah (The Most High) stated that Fir’awn said: [إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يُبَدِّلَ دِينَكُمْ أَوْ أَنْ يُظْهِرَ فِي الْأَرْضِ الْفَسَادَ – I fear that he (Musa) may change your religion, or that he may cause mischief to appear in the land!” [Soorah Ghaafir: Ayah 26]

This is the most amazing the affair can be! The most evil one among the creation gives advice to the people against the best among the creation. This is (nothing but) disguised falsehood and propaganda, which cannot seize except the intellects of those (people) about whom Allaah stated: [فَاسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُ فَأَطَاعُوهُ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ – Thus he Fir’aun (Pharaoh)] befooled and misled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah).] [Soorah Az-Zukhruf: Ayah 54]


[Source: An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan of Imaam as-Saa’di (rahimahullaah)]

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Opponents Had Nothing to Offer Besides Spreading Doubt in Public But Their Evil Plots Backfired: [Lessons to Learn From The Behaviour of Ancient Criminals Before Their Wretched End]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

[وَقَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنُ ٱئۡتُونِى بِكُلِّ سَـٰحِرٍ عَلِيمٍ۬ -And Fir’aun (Pharaoh) said: “Bring to me every well-versed sorcerer]; meaning: ”Everyone who is proficient in magic; magicians who can perform different types of magic and are at different levels of proficiency in their field”.  So when the magicians arrived to defeat Moosaa and Haaroon, Allaah says that Moosaa said to them: [أَلۡقُواْ مَآ أَنتُم مُّلۡقُونَ-Cast down what you want to cast!]; Moosaa said this to them because he did not care about what they were going to do first, for he was certain that he will defeat them and nullify their falsehood (by the aid of Allaah).  So after they threw their ropes, which appeared as serpents in the eyes of the people, Allaah says that Moosaa said to them:

مَا جِئۡتُم بِهِ ٱلسِّحۡرُ‌ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَيُبۡطِلُهُ ۥۤ‌ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُصۡلِحُ عَمَلَ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ

“What you have brought is sorcery, Allah will surely make it of no effect. Verily, Allah does not set right the work of Al-Mufsidun (the evil-doers, corrupts, etc.); meaning: Indeed, you want to aid falsehood against truth and Allaah will nullify your actions.

This will also be the case with every corrupter- the one who uses tricks, devices plots and evil plans- for indeed his deeds will be of no effect. And even if he has weapons to aid him pursue his goal at a particular time period, however the end result will be nothing for him and Allaah will make the truth apparent. As for those who do righteous deeds for the sake of Allaah -deeds that are based on the beneficial ways and are based on what Allaah has commanded- then indeed Allaah will bless their deeds, make them bear righteous end results and make them remain  (as a source of good for themselves & an example for others to follow).

So when Moosaa threw his staff, it became a real serpent and swallowed all the ropes that were thrown by the magicians and made to look like serpents in the eyes of the people, and thus their magic was nullified and their falsehood obliterated.

Allaah [The Most High] says: [وَيُحِقُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡحَقَّ بِكَلِمَـٰتِهِۦ وَلَوۡ ڪَرِهَ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ – And Allah will establish and make apparent the truth by His Words, however much the Mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) may hate it].

After the magicians witnessed the truth, they prostrated (in repentance to Allaah); so Fir’awn threatened them – that he will crucify them, and cut their hands and legs, but they gave no concern to Fir’awn’s threats; rather they remained steadfast upon their Eemaan. As for Fir’awn and his chiefs, then not a single one of them believed, rather they persisted upon transgression, and this is why Allaah [The Most High] says:

فَمَآ ءَامَنَ لِمُوسَىٰٓ إِلَّا ذُرِّيَّةٌ۬ مِّن قَوۡمِهِۦ عَلَىٰ خَوۡفٍ۬ مِّن فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَمَلَإِيْهِمۡ أَن يَفۡتِنَهُمۡ‌ۚ وَإِنَّ فِرۡعَوۡنَ لَعَالٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَمِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ

But none believed in Musa (Moses) except the offspring of his people, because of the fear of Fir’aun (Pharaoh) and his chiefs, lest they should persecute them; and verily, Fir’aun (Pharaoh) was arrogant tyrant on the earth, he was indeed one of the Musrifun (polytheists, sinners and transgressors, those who give up the truth and follow the evil, and commit all kinds of great sins).

[فَمَآ ءَامَنَ لِمُوسَىٰٓ إِلَّا ذُرِّيَّةٌ۬ – But none believed in Musa (Moses) except the offspring of his people]; Meaning: The youth amongst Bani Israa’eel, who exercised patience due to the Eemaan that was firmly established in their hearts, whilst being in a state of fear because Fir’awn had complete authority and power in the land, so it is expected that he will seek to punish them, for he was an extreme transgressor.

And the wisdom -and Allaah knows best- behind the fact that only the offspring of Moosaa’s people believed in Moosaa, is because the offspring- the youth- are more likely to accept the truth and quicker to submit to it, as opposed to the old people and those similar to them – those who were brought up in a religion of disbelief, for indeed due to the corrupt creed that is established in their hearts, they are the ones most likely not to accept the truth.


[Source: An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan’ by Imaam As-Sadi (rahimahullaah)]

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Treacherous, Scornful and Boastful Prior to Their Wretched End: [Lessons to Learn From The Behaviour of Ancient Criminals]

In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Allaah [The Most High] says: [وَلَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مُوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ  – And indeed We did send Musa (Moses) with Our Ayat (i.e. proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations)]; Aayaat which clearly showed that what Moosaa (alayhis-salaam) brought was truth- those Aayaat which Allaah [The Most High] showed Fir’awn, his chiefs and his people, such as the miracles Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] was allowed to perform with his stick- which turned into a serpent-; and the locusts and lice which Allaah [The Most High] sent as a punishment to Fir’awn and his people etc

[وَلَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مُوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ إِلَىٰ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَمَلَإِيْهِۦ فَقَالَ إِنِّى رَسُولُ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ  – And indeed We did send Musa (Moses) with Our Ayat (i.e. proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations), to Fir’aun (Pharaoh) and his chiefs (inviting them to Allah’s Religion of Islam) He said: “Verily, I am a Messenger of the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)]; Meaning: Moosaa [Alayhis-Salaam] called them to single out Allaah [The Most high] in worship and forbade them from worshipping others besides Allaah.

Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ إِذَا هُم مِّنۡہَا يَضۡحَكُونَ  –  But when he (Moosaa) came to them with Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) behold! They laughed at them]; Meaning: They rejected those signs and mocked at them due to transgression and arrogance, and not because those signs were insignificant and unclear. And this is why Allaah [The Most High] says: [وَمَا نُرِيهِم مِّنۡ ءَايَةٍ إِلَّا هِىَ أَڪۡبَرُ مِنۡ أُخۡتِهَا‌ۖ  – And not an Ayah (sign, etc.) We showed them but it was greater than its fellow]; Meaning: The signs that came last were greater than the previous ones. [وَأَخَذۡنَـٰهُم بِٱلۡعَذَابِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَرۡجِعُونَ – and We seized them with torment, in order that they might turn [from their polytheism to Allah’s Religion (Islamic Monotheism)].

However, whenever punishment came to them, Allaah [The Most High] says that they said: [يَـٰٓأَيُّهَ ٱلسَّاحِرُ  -O you sorcerer!]; Meaning: O Moosaa! The sorcerer. They addressed him in such a manner either to falsely accuse him; or it might have been a praise – the manner in which they addressed those whom they considered to be from their scholars, their magicians. [ٱدۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَ إِنَّنَا لَمُهۡتَدُونَ -Invoke your Lord for us according to what He has covenanted with you. Verily, We shall guide ourselves (aright)]; Meaning: Invoke your Lord on our behalf because your Lord has given you a high status and other special favours, so that this hardship is removed from us and we shall become rightly guided thereafter.

Then Allaah [The Most High] said: [فَلَمَّا كَشَفۡنَا عَنۡہُمُ ٱلۡعَذَابَ إِذَا هُمۡ يَنكُثُونَ -But when We removed the torment from them, behold! They broke their covenant]; Meaning: They did not fulfil their promise; rather they were treacherous and persisted upon disbelief.  This behaviour of theirs is similar to what Allaah [The Most High] says about them in Surah Al-Araaf:

فَأَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلطُّوفَانَ وَٱلۡجَرَادَ وَٱلۡقُمَّلَ وَٱلضَّفَادِعَ وَٱلدَّمَ ءَايَـٰتٍ۬ مُّفَصَّلَـٰتٍ۬ فَٱسۡتَڪۡبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ قَوۡمً۬ا مُّجۡرِمِينَ (١٣٣) وَلَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلرِّجۡزُ قَالُواْ يَـٰمُوسَى ٱدۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَ‌ۖ لَٮِٕن كَشَفۡتَ عَنَّا ٱلرِّجۡزَ لَنُؤۡمِنَنَّ لَكَ وَلَنُرۡسِلَنَّ مَعَكَ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ (١٣٤) فَلَمَّا ڪَشَفۡنَا عَنۡہُمُ ٱلرِّجۡزَ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍ هُم بَـٰلِغُوهُ إِذَا هُمۡ يَنكُثُونَ

So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs, and the blood: (as a succession of) manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners, etc.). And when the punishment fell on them they said: “O Musa (Moses)! Invoke your Lord for us because of His Promise to you. If you will remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! They broke their word!

Then Allaah says [The Most High] says:

وَنَادَىٰ فِرۡعَوۡنُ فِى قَوۡمِهِۦ قَالَ يَـٰقَوۡمِ أَلَيۡسَ لِى مُلۡكُ مِصۡرَ وَهَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِىٓ‌ۖ أَفَلَا تُبۡصِرُونَ

[And Fir’aun (Pharaoh) proclaimed among his people, saying: “O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then?]; Meaning: Fir’awn proclaimed – whilst exalting his falsehood, deceived by his Kingdom, transgressing all bounds due to his wealth and armies- that he is the king of Egypt; the judge in all the affairs in Egypt and the one whose castle is surrounded by rivers and springs, which everyone can see.

Then Allaah [The Most High] says that Firawn said: [أَمۡ أَنَا۟ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّنۡ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى هُوَ مَهِينٌ۬ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ – Am I not better than this one [Musa (Moses)], who is Mahin [has no honour nor any respect, and is weak and despicable] and can scarcely express himself clearly?]

May Allaah [The Most High] disfigure Fir’awn, for indeed he intended Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] by this description, even though Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] is one whom Allaah [The Most High] spoke to directly and one given high status by Allaah [The Most High]; however Fir’awn thought that he is honoured and Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] is dishonoured and disgraced. He also proclaimed that in addition to this, Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] cannot even speak clearly because he is not eloquent! However, Firawn’s insult against Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] -that Moosaa cannot even  express himself- is not something blameworthy at all. That is because Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] was able to convey the message, even though he used encounter some difficulty when speaking.

Then Allaah [The Most High] says that Firawn said: [فَلَوۡلَآ أُلۡقِىَ عَلَيۡهِ أَسۡوِرَةٌ۬ مِّن ذَهَبٍ أَوۡ جَآءَ مَعَهُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةُ مُقۡتَرِنِينَ – Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him?]

Then Allaah [The Most High] says: [فَٱسۡتَخَفَّ قَوۡمَهُ ۥ فَأَطَاعُوهُ‌ۚ إِنَّهُمۡ كَانُواْ قَوۡمً۬ا فَـٰسِقِينَ – Thus he [Fir’aun (Pharaoh)] befooled and misled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were Fasiqun(rebellious, disobedient to Allah)]; Meaning: Fir’awn deceived them through those doubts, which were portrayed as something true. He deceived his people and his chiefs through words that neither carry any reality nor were such words a means by way of which truth could be distinguished from falsehood. And those words cannot deceive, except the possessors of feeble intellects. Fir’awn did not possess any proofs, rather he only stated that he was the king of Egypt  (at the time) and that the rivers flow beneath him? He did  not produce any proof to nullify the message brought by Moosaa [alayhis-salaam], even though Moosaa [alayhis-salaam] had few followers; found it hard to express himself clearly and did not possess the riches that Firawn possessed. However, the fact of the matter is that Fir’awn’s chiefs had no common sense, so they followed whatever he said -whether truth or falsehood. And because they were rebellious sinners, Fir’awn beautified shirk and evil for them.


[An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer Al-kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan’ by Imaam As-Sadi (rahimahullaah)]

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Absurd Claims, Sinful Boldness and Vanity Prior to Their Wretched End: [Lessons to Learn From The Behaviour of Ancient Criminals]

 In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Allaah [The Most High] says in Surah Al-Qasas Ayah 38 that Fir’awn said:

[يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلۡمَلَأُ مَا عَلِمۡتُ لَڪُم مِّنۡ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيۡرِى  – O chiefs! I know not that you have an ilah (a god) other than me].

Just look at what Fir’awn said! He did not say: “You do not have a god besides me”, rather he said: “I know not that you have a god other than me’’. This is because they considered him to be a virtuous scholar and that whatever he said has to be the truth, and whatever he commands has to be followed. And after he made this statement, he then tried to prove that what he has stated is true. Allaah [The Most High] said that Fir’awn said to Haamaan:

[فَأَوۡقِدۡ لِى يَـٰهَـٰمَـٰنُ عَلَى ٱلطِّينِ فَٱجۡعَل لِّى صَرۡحً۬ا لَّعَلِّىٓ أَطَّلِعُ إِلَىٰٓ إِلَـٰهِ مُوسَىٰ وَإِنِّى لَأَظُنُّهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱلۡكَـٰذِبِينَ – so kindle for me (a fire), O Haman, to bake (bricks out of) clay, and set up for me a Sarhan (a lofty tower, or palace, etc.) in order that I may look at (or look for) the Ilah (God) of Musa (Moses); and verily, I think that he [Musa (Moses)] is one of the liars]; Meaning: We think that Moosaa is lying, but we are going to ascertain the affair and prove that he is a liar.

Look at Fir’awn’s extreme sinful boldness! He belied Moosaa [alayhis-salaam], claimed that he was a God, claimed that he is not aware of a true object of worship and asked Haamaan to build him a tower in order that he can see the god of Moosaa! These claims were nothing else but propaganda; however what is really amazing is the affair of those chiefs who considered themselves as the elders of the Kingdom, for how did they allow Fir’awn to play about with their intellects and deceive them? Indeed, that was due to their extremely sinful behaviour, which corrupted their religion and then their intellects. We ask Allaah to keep us firm upon Eemaan and that our hearts do not become deviated after we have been guided.


[An Excerpt from ‘Tayseer Al-kareem Ar-Rahmaan Fee Tafseer Kalaam Al-Mannaan’ by Imaam As-Sadi (rahimahullaah)]

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The Quran and Sunnah Upon The Understanding of The Salaf

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