In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.
Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] said:
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمۡتُم بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحۡكُمُواْ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦۤۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرً۬ا
يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡۖ فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً
Verily! Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer. O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayaat 58-59]
The scholars say that the first verse was revealed regarding the rulers – that it is obligated on them to render back the trusts to those whom they are due and that when they judge between the people they do so with justice. And the second verse was revealed regarding those under the ruler’s authority, the armies and other than them- that it is obligated on them to obey the rulers who establish justice in their distributions, rulings, military expeditions and other affairs, except when they command one to commit an act of disobedience to Allaah, because there cannot be obedience to the creation in disobedience to Allaah. And if they differ in any matter, they should return to the book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. If the rulers do not do this, then they are only obeyed in that which is in agreement with obedience to Allaah and His Messenger, their rights are fulfilled just as Allaah and His Messenger commanded and they are aided in righteousness and piety, but not in sin and transgression. [Ref 1]
Indeed, we find some of the demagogues and ideologues using different terms to describe Muslim rulers- descriptions by way of which they seek to cause enmity between Muslim rulers and their subjects, entice ignorant Muslims to deal with the rulers in a manner that is in opposition to the infallible authentic Prophetic tradition and thus trial occurs in the land. So, sometimes you hear them saying that the Muslim rulers are guilty of Chumocracy and at other times Muslim rulers are referred to as autocrats!
What is Chumocracy according to some of these instigators who use this term to openly criticize Muslim rulers? It is ruling elite that is made up of people from the same background who went to the same schools and universities and know each other socially or a government characterized by the appointment to office of friends, or those of similar social background, of those in power”.
And what is an autocrat according to some of these instigators who use this term to openly criticize Muslim rulers? ”It is a ruler with unlimited power, or someone who demands that people completely obey them”.
First, with regards to the term Chumocracy, a Muslim ruler is commanded in the Sharee’aah that he strives to appoint the best people for the job. Imaam Muhammad Bin Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated regarding the ruler and appointing people for jobs: ”It maybe that a person is suitable for this specific job and not suitable for that another job, so it is obligatory to appoint- in every job – the one who is more suitable. Likewise with regards to specific appointments, such as the position of headteacher and other than it, rather we can even say – if we wished – this in relation to a person’s responsibility in looking after the affairs of his family, that if he wants to give responsibility to his young children, then indeed he chooses the one who is more suitable. He does not choose – for example – the older one just because he is older; rather he chooses the one who is more suitable, because it may be that the young one amongst his children is more suitable than those older than him”. [Ref 2]
The Shaikh [may Allaah have mercy upon him] also stated: ”It is obligated on the ruler to appoint both the young and the older – appoint for a job the one who is more suitable and the one who will fulfil the requirements of this job. This necessitates fulfillment of trusts. As for the one who appoints someone who is close to him or his relatives or a noble person due to his nobility or because he has a high qualification, such as a doctorate and what is similar to that, and he is either not trustworthy or not suitable for the job, then this is not permissible”. [Ref 3]
The Shaikh [may Allaah have mercy upon him] also stated: ”If he were to say, ‘I am not able to know them by their characteristics. Are these certificates not closer way of (judging) the competence of a person?’ We say, ‘Yes, but if we found that this man is untrustworthy or not suitable in the job, then it is obligatory to remove him and replace him with someone who is more suitable because this is necessary in the affair rulership, just as Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab and other than him amongst the Khulafaa [may Allaah be pleased with them] removed those who were not suitable. Umar [may Allaah be pleased with him] applied this principle in the khilaafah. He feared dishonor after his death, so he did not appoint a specific person, except that he said, ‘If Abu Ubaydah [may Allaah be pleased with him] was alive, I would have given him the affair, because the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, ‘The trustworthy man of this Muslim nation is Abu Ubaydah [may Allaah be pleased with him]”’. [Ref 4]
Regarding the statement of the Messenger: “The trustworthy man of this Muslim nation”, this is a testimony from the Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him]. [Ref 5]
How Does The Believer Behave When a Ruler Gives Precedence to Others – Whether They Are Worthy of It or Not? Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said: Indeed, you will see Atharatan [i.e. some people will give precedence to themselves] after me and affairs you’ll disapprove; they [i.e. the people] said, ‘What do you command us O Allaah’s Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasaallam]?’ He said, ‘Fulfil their rights [i.e. the rulers] and ask Allaah for your rights’”.
Al-Allaamah Zaid Bin Haadi Al-Madkhali [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said:
This authentic hadeeth is related to the affair of the rulers- during the end of time – when they will give precedence to themselves through enjoyment of the worldly things and those under their authority will face harm, something of oppression and tyranny; so the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] guided and directed the people to fulfil the rights of the rulers; obey and listen to them in that which is good- whether it is during a time in which one is enthusiastic [to listen and obey them in what is good] or feeling laxadaisical- perform Jihaad behind their banner against the enemies of the religion, establish the prayer and behave in a manner obligated by the Islamic legislation. They should not rebel against the ruler just because he is a sinner or an oppressor, nor refrain from giving him the rights obligated on them to give him; rather they should fulfil his rights just as the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] commanded them, saying, “Fulfil their rights”.
Therefore, the ruler has rights that should be fulfilled by his subjects and the subjects also have rights to be fulfilled by the ruler. It is obligated on the ruler to fulfil their rights and it is obligated on them to fulfil his rights. However, if he [i.e. the ruler] falls short in something related to their rights, it is not permissible for them to [deliberately] fall short in fulfilling his rights. And due to the great importance of rulership and the rulers, indeed the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] commanded them to fulfil the obligation of As-sam’i Wat-taa’ah [i.e. to listen and obey the ruler in good], refrain from disobedience[when commanded to do something good], supplicate to Allaah to make their affairs easy and change their state of affairs to that which is good, aid them to fulfil their needs and those affairs they cannot do without.
This hadeeth contains a miracle of the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] and that is the fact that he clearly stated that during the end of time, the rulers will give precedence to themselves with something of wealth and worldly enjoyment, and others will be deprived of it. Also, there will be affairs which the people of sound judgement will reject. [So], when this era comes, it is obligated on them – those under the rulership of a Muslim ruler – to listen and obey in that which is good, fulfil the rights that have been obligated on them to fulfil and seek their rights from Allaah – meaning: they supplicate to Allaah to aid them in fulfilling their needs and facilitate them with ease in their affairs. And Allaah knows best. [Ref 6]
Seeking After Leadership is Not Allowed
Imaam Al-Bukhaari [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, ‘’Chapter: If somebody does not seek authority of ruling, then Allaah will surely help him [if he is given such authority].’’ Narrated Abdur-Rahmaan Bin Samura: The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, ‘’O Abdur-Rahmaan! Do not seek to be a ruler, for if you are given authority on your demand, then you will be held responsible for it, but if you are given it without asking [for it], then you will be helped [by Allaah] in it. If you ever take an oath to do something and later on you find that something else is better, then you should expiate your oath and do what is better.’’ [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari, Number 7146]
Few Reminders From Fat-hul Baari: The one who seeks authority and receives it will not be helped. It is well known that to be in authority is accompanied by difficulties, so the one who does not receive help from Allaah will be trapped within it and thus loses both his Dunyah and Aakhirah. Therefore, the sensible person does not ask for authority, but if he is suitable and it is given to him without him asking for it, then indeed the truthful and trustworthy one [i.e. The Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wsallam)] has promised him that Allaah will help him. [Ref .7]
As for referring to some of the Muslim rulers as autocrats, the demagogues, ideologues and rabble-rousers should know that obedience to the Muslim rulers is what the infallible Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] has commanded and the believer is pleased when the rulers implement the judgement of Allaah in any affair. Yes, indeed the ruler has absolute authority based on that which Allaah has allowed him and he must be obeyed in everything commanded by Allaah and His Messenger. Al-Allaamah Muhammad Amaan Al-Jaamee [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, ”All praise is due to Allaah, our rulers [i.e. Saudi Arabia] handle our affairs based on Siyaasah Shar’iyyah [i.e. the system of Islamic governance founded upon the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah]. It is not strange that some people might laugh at you and say, ‘You [people] live under one permanent rulerhip – ruled by a single person permanently’. And they might even call this a dictatorship! In this country, neither are we living under a rulership based on parliamentary elections through political parties nor are we living under a dictatorship- ruled by the sword. And neither are we ruled by an individual nor a group; therefore what (type of) rulership are we living under? [We are ruled] by Allaah’s Sharee’ah. The rulers of this land are only considered as those who apply Allaah’s Sharee’ah and not the legislators of laws. Neither do we have legislative authority nor it is permissible for that to exist; rather it is not permissible for the Muslims [in their countries] to have legislative authority in order to pass laws besides Allaah’s laws. In this land, we are judged by Allaah’s Sharee’ah and this is something known, even to the market workers. [Ref 8]
NB: Regarding the statement of Al-Allaamah Muhammad Amaan Al-Jaamee, ”In this country, neither are we living under a rulership based on parliamentary elections through political parties nor are we living under a dictatorship- ruled by the sword”, then even if a Muslim ruler ruled by the sword we still obey him in good and keep away from evil, but we do not rebel. See here: https://www.abukhadeejah.com/the-tyranny-of-the-rulers-a-reason-for-rebellion/
As for the statement of Al-Allaamah Muhammad Amaan Al-Jaamee, ”Neither do we have legislative authority nor it is permissible for that to exist; rather it is not permissible for the Muslims [in their countries] to have legislative authority in order to pass laws besides Allaah’s laws”, then indeed even if the Muslim rulers fall short in this affair, one does not follow the path of the Khawaarij (terrorists). See here: http://www.abukhadeejah.com/the-tyranny-of-the-rulers-a-reason-for-rebellion/ See this link regarding the judgement on ruling by other than Allaah’s Sharee’ah http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/sp.cfm?subsecID=MNJ05&articleID=MNJ050003&articlePages=1
The Believer Understands That The Ruler Is Human And Will Fall Short Just As Others Fall Short
Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri [may Allaah be pleased with him] said, “The Prophet [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Allaah never sends a Prophet or gives the Caliphate to a Caliph, except that he (the prophet or the Caliph) has two groups of advisors: A group advising him to do good and exhorts him to do it, and the other group advising him to do evil and exhorts him to do it. But the protected person (against such evil advisors) is the one protected by Allah”. [Ref 9]
Few Reminders From The Above Hadeeth
a: With regards to a prophet, there maybe those who seek to divert him from what is good, but it can never be the case that he will listen to them, because the Prophets are protected by Allaah and at the end of the hadeeth it is stated, “But the protected person (against such evil advisors) is the one protected by Allah”. Therefore, the presence of one who seeks to direct a prophet to evil does not necessitate that the prophet will accept what he says.
It is also said that the intent behind the two advisers (mentioned in this hadeeth with regards to their relationship) to a prophet are the angles and shaytaan, (as the Prophet said in a hadeeth), “There is no one among you but a companion from among the jinn has been assigned to him.” They said, “Even you, O Messenger of Allaah?’ He said, “Even me, but Allaah helped me with him and he became Muslim (or: and I am safe from him), so he only enjoins me to do that which is good.” [Ref 10]
In another narration, it is stated that the person is assigned a companion among the jinn and a companion among the angels. [Ref 11]
b: “But the protected person (against such evil advisors) is the one protected by Allah” – Meaning Allaah is the one who protects whoever He wishes. So, in reality you cannot find anyone who can protect himself except if Allaah protects him.
c: It is incumbent upon a ruler to have a person who unveils to him the circumstances of the people in private, and this person should be trustworthy, reliable, smart and sensible, because calamity befalls a reliable ruler due to accepting speech of one who is not trustworthy.
Also, the one who is given responsible over the affairs of the people may always accept the speech of good advisers and not that of evil advisers. This is what is suitable to attribute to a Prophet and it is established by the word [ عصمة – protection] at the end of the hadeeth.
It may be that a ruler accepts the speech of evil advisers, especially someone who is a disbeliever. So, he may accept the speech of these people at times (evil people) and the speech of those at other times (i.e. good people). [Ref 12]
The Manner In Which The Rulers Are to Be Advised
Iyaadh Ibn Ghanam [may Allaah be pleased with him] said that Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him], said, ”Whoever wants to advise the one in authority, then he should not do so openly; rather he should take him by the hand and advise him in private. If he accepts the advice, then that is good. If he does not accept it, then he has fulfilled his obligation. [Ref 13]
Supplication For The Rulers
Imaam Abdul Azeez Bin Baaz [may Allaah have mercy upon him] was asked about the one who refrains from supplicating for the ruler, so he replied: ”This is from the ignorance and lack of foresight of this person, because indeed supplicating for the ruler is one of the greatest acts of worship and righteous deeds. It is one of the acts of sincerity to the Allaah and sincerely wanting good for Allaah’s servants. When Tufayl Ibn Amr Ad-Dawsi [may Allaah be pleased with him] came to the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allah be upon him] and said to him, ”Daws (a well-known tribe of disbelievers) are doomed, they have disobeyed and been stubborn. Pray to Allah against them”. He said, ”O Allaah! Guide Daws and bring them here”. [Bukhaari and Muslim] So, Allaah guided Daws and they became Muslims. Therefore, a believer supplicates for the people to be blessed with good and the ruler is more entitled to it, because his rectification is a means of rectification for the Muslim nation. Supplicating for him is one of the most important supplications – one of the most important acts of sincerity to Allaah and sincerely wanting good for the Muslims, so one supplicates for him to be guided to the truth and helped upon that path, that Allaah grants him righteous companions, keeps him away from the evils of his soul and the evils of the people he sits with. Therefore, supplicating for him to be guided, blessed with the ability to do good, blessed with a righteous heart, blessed with good deeds and righteous companions, is one of the most important things to ask for and one of the most virtuous acts of worship. It has been reported from Imaam Ahmad [may Allaah have mercy upon him] that he said, ‘If I knew that I have one supplication that would be accepted, I would make it for the ruler’, and he reported this from Al-Fudayl Ibn Iyaadh [may Allaah have mercy upon him]”’. [Ref 14]
Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “If you see something from the ruler that is in opposition to (the Qur’an and Sunnah), then supplicate to Allaah for him because their rectification is a means of rectification for the Muslim nation; but when we say, ‘O Allaah! Rectify the rulers and guide them’, we hear some of the foolish people saying, ‘O Allaah! Do not rectify them’. Glorified be Allaah, The Most Great! If Allaah does not rectify them, then that would be more evil for you, so supplicate for them to be guided and become righteous, and Allaah is able to do everything’”. [Ref 15]
Imaam Al-Bayhaqqi [rahimahullaah] said, “Abu Uthmaan (may Allaah have mercy upon him) said, ‘Advise the ruler and supplicate for him a lot to be upright, guided in speech and action, and in his judgments, because indeed if they are righteous, the people will be righteous due to their righteousness. And beware of supplicating against them to be cursed and they increase in evil, so calamity increases on the Muslims; rather supplicate for them to be granted the ability to repent so that they abandon evil and calamity is removed from the believers’”. [Ref 16]
Imaam Ibn Salaah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The leaders of the Muslims deserve to be advised, aided upon truth and obeyed in that. They should be notified and reminded with gentle and kind speech, avoid rebelling against them and supplicate for them to be blessed with guidance and good deeds. [Ref17]
Imaam An-Nawawi [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The scholars hold a consensus that it is recommended to supplicate for the rulers and leaders of the Muslims during the Jumu’ah khutbah, that Allaah rectifies them, helps them to establish truth and justice, and what is similar to it, as well as supplicate for Muslim armies”. [Ref 18]
Shaikh Abdullaah Abaa Batayn [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The good supplication for the ruler during the khutbah is that one supplicates that Allaah rectifies and guides him, rectifies the affairs through him, aid him against the kuffaar and the corrupt people, as opposed to what is found in some of the khutbahs of praise and lies; rather the ruler is to supplicated for and not praised, especially when praised with something he does not possess”. [Ref 19]
No Rebellion: Awf Bin Maalik [may Allaah be pleased with him] said, ”Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, ‘The best of your rulers are those whom you love and they love you, who supplicate for you and you supplicate for them. The worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and they hate you, whom you curse and they curse you’. It was said, ‘Shall we confront them with swords?’ He said, ‘No, as long as they establish prayer among you. If you find something hateful from them, you should hate their actions but not withold your hand from obedience”’. [Ref 20]
Umm Salamah [may Allaah be pleased with her] said that Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, ”There will be rulers from whom you will see both goodness and corruption. One who recognizes their evil and hates it will maintain his innocence, but one who is pleased with it and follows them will be sinful. It was said, ‘Shall we not fight them?’ He said, ”No, as long as they pray”’. [Ref21]
Beware of The Double Standards of The Social Media Networks
Some social media give access to those who seek destabilise Muslim countries, national sovereignty and the law of the land in the name of promoting so-called free speech and liberty, which prepares the basis for “digital mob rule” and chaos, then unrest and blockshed. This is exactly what happened during the so-called Arab spring. Hate speech only becomes hate speech in when it undrrminds peace and security in thier countries, but becomes freedom of expression and liberty when it harms and destabilises other countries and their institutions. Blatant double standards!
Indeed, there are demagogues and ideologues of some nations who encourage the so-called freedom lovers of other nations to rebel against their rulers and claim that they have a right to so-called peaceful protest, however when these demagogues and ideologues are rebelled against by a group amongst their people, they call them terrorists and do not accept the claim of anyone who calls them freedom lovers! These demagogues, ideologues and many journalists in their nations arouse the criminals and the rabble in other nations and aid them verbally to cause corruption in the land, and if anyone amongst the authorities of those countries seeks to stop them, he is labelled a freedom hater and an oppressor. However, when the rabble and rabble-rousers of their countries are guilty of the same crime, they do not expect anyone else to describe them with a description other than criminals. When property in other countries is destroyed and lives endangered in the name of so-called peaceful protest, they openly aid the perpetrators, but they never accept the same behaviour from the rabble and criminals of their nations. They would give shelter to some of those people who cause havoc in their native countries- claiming that they are defending an individual’s right to so-called peaceful protest and refuse to hand them over to face justice unless if doing so is in their interest, but they do not accept the same stance of some other nations when they refuse to hand over those who have harmed them. Alongside this blatant hypocrisy and double standards, these demagogues, ideologues and many amongst their journalists have continued to make every effort to brainwash millions of people in the world that they are the flag bearers of decency, freedom and progress, and the upholders of the rule of law, even though they have one rule for themselves and another for others. Indeed, so-called peaceful protest – whether in the west or east – is a means to corruption, chaos and insecurity.
The Evil of Protests
Question to Al-Allaamah Rabee Bin Haadi [may Allaah preserve him]: Going out to demonstrations, [initiating] revolutions and nurturing the youth upon it; is this from the methodology of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’ah or not, whether [carried] out within or outside the Muslim countries? Answer: This is the methodology of Marx (i.e. Carl Marx), Lenin (i.e. Vladimir Lenin) and those similar to them. It is not from the Islamic methodology. Revolutions, bloodshed, trials and troubles are Marx’s and Lenin’s school of thought. [Ref 22]
Al-Allaamah Zayd Bin Haadi Al-Madkhali [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: Protests [or demonstrations] are newly invented matters in the religion. Every newly invented matter in the religion is a bidah; every bidah is misguidance and every misguidance is in the hell fire [i.e. is a path leading to the hell fire]. Allaah’s legislation is perfect and complete-based on The Book and The Sunnah-and we do not know of anything by way of the evidences in the Book and the Sunnah that makes it permissible for a handful of people to gather for demonstrations, which causes disturbance for the people and time wasting. And greater than this [disturbance and time wasting] is abandonment of the prayers [during protests] and the loss of life [i.e. murder]. If one was to kill a Muslim in a single protest, the one [or those] who called to such protests will carry his sins-be it an individual, a group or those who participate. It has been reported in an authentic hadeeth: The termination of the world means less to Allah than the killing of a Muslim [i.e. without right].[a] These protests are nothing but bidah and acts of misguidance advocated by shaytaan; [enticed] by the urge of the evil soul and desires. And these enemies [i.e. shaytaan, the urge of the evil soul and desires] do not come together in any affair except that the religion and worldly affairs are destroyed, just as it is the case in these demonstrations [or protests].
The end result of protests [or demonstrations]: Carnage, destruction, wastage of wealth and time and terrorizing those living in peace. And how many disadvantages are there in [that]! It is enough to be considered something sinister due to the fact that the Noble Messengers and the Great Prophets who were put to trial and harmed by their people did not hold protests [or demonstrations]. Neither did they engage in plotting to cause explosions nor committing suicide; rather Islaam has forbidden all of that.
Those who call to protests [or demonstrations] and hold that there is success in it, they are mistaken and they have missed the correct path. Rectification of the affairs can only be by way of the Book and The Sunnah in accordance with the understanding of those scholars who are firmly grounded in knowledge. So whoever calls the people to this chaos, then indeed he has brought about a means to corrupting the land and the slaves, and what has occurred – in the past and at present- is a witness to that.
Therefore, we warn the students of knowledge that they are not persuaded by the speech of those who allow protests [or demonstrations]. They say that peaceful demonstrations are permissible-as they categorize it into this categorization- without proofs and concrete evidence from the Book and the Sunnah- neither from the actions of the Messenger and the Noble Sahaabah nor from the Notable Imaams; rather the verdict on protests [or demonstrations] is only what has been stated earlier and as well as what has been written by other than myself [i.e. protests (or demonstrations) are not permissible] [Ref 23]
The Importance of Safety And Security In a Country: Security is a great blessing without which a person is not able to live a productive, fruitful and happy life. And due to this, Allaah bestowed [His Blessings] upon Makkah by making it and the Masjid Al-Haraam a safe and sacred place. Allaah [The Most High] said:
وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى ۖ وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
And [remember] when We made the House (the Ka’bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) [or the stone on which Ibrahim (Abraham) stood while he was building the Ka’bah] as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak’at after the Tawaf of the Ka’bah at Makkah), and We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma’il (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka’bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I’tikaf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer). [2:125]
Allaah [The Most High] said:
فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ
In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham); whosoever enters it, he attains security. And Hajj(pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka’bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the expenses (for one’s conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves [i.e. denies Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), then he is a disbeliever of Allah], then Allah stands not in need of any of the ‘Alamin (mankind and jinns)]. [3:97]
Allaah [The Most High] said:
وَقَالُوا إِن نَّتَّبِعِ الْهُدَىٰ مَعَكَ نُتَخَطَّفْ مِنْ أَرْضِنَا ۚ أَوَلَمْ نُمَكِّن لَّهُمْ حَرَمًا آمِنًا يُجْبَىٰ إِلَيْهِ ثَمَرَاتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ رِّزْقًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
And they say: “If we follow the guidance with you, we would be snatched away from our land.” Have We not established for them a secure sanctuary (Makkah), to which are brought fruits of all kinds, a provision from Ourselves, but most of them know not. [28:57]
Allaah [The Most High] said:
أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا جَعَلْنَا حَرَمًا آمِنًا وَيُتَخَطَّفُ النَّاسُ مِنْ حَوْلِهِمْ ۚ أَفَبِالْبَاطِلِ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَبِنِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ يَكْفُرُونَ
Have they not seen that We have made (Makkah) a sanctuary secure, and that men are being snatched away from all around them? Then do they believe in Batil (falsehood – polytheism, idols and all deities other than Allah), and deny (become ingrate for) the Graces of Allah?] [29:67]
Allaah [ The Most High] said:
إِيلَافِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَاءِ وَالصَّيْفِ
فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَٰذَا الْبَيْتِ
الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْفٍ
(It is a great Grace and Protection from Allah), for the taming of the Quraish; (And with all those Allah’s Grace and Protections for their taming, We cause) the (Quraish) caravans to set forth safe in winter (to the south), and in summer (to the north without any fear). So let them worship (Allah) the Lord of this House (the Ka’bah in Makkah). (He) Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear. [106:1-4]
Whoever has physical well-being and security in the lands, then [indeed] he has obtained all the [beneficial] worldly endowments. Salamah Bin Ubaidullaah Ibn Mihsan Al-Khatmiy narrated from his father that the Messenger [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam] said: “Whoever among you wakes up [in the morning] safe in his property, healthy in his body and has his daily nourishment, it is as if he has been granted the entire world”. [Reported by Tirmidhee in Kitaab Az-Zuhud; Chapter: At-Tawakkul Alal-laah, Hadeeth Number 3346 and declared Hasan by Imaam Albaani in As-Saheehah, number 2318]
When our upright leader Ibraaheem [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] settled some of his offspring at this valley [i.e. Makkah], the first of his supplications was that which Allaah stated:
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَٰذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلًا ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ النَّارِ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said, “My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.” He (Allah) answered: “As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!].[2:126]
Prophet Ibraaheem [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] supplicated to his Lord that this valley [i.e. Makkah] should be a land of safety. Then after this valley became a land that yields – and he had [already] asked Allaah to make it safe- [Allaah said that Ibraaheem] said:
[وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَٰذَا الْبَلَدَ آمِنًا وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَن نَّعْبُدَ الْأَصْنَامَ – And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said: “O my Lord! Make this city (Makkah) one of peace and security, and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols]. [14:35]
This emphasizes [the fact] that safety is an important affair needed by a person, otherwise Prophet Ibraaheem [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] would not have been eager to repeat his request to Allaah to make it a reality in this land. Look at the lands where a system that [guarantees] safety has been lost; you will find that the people are unable to pursue [affairs] of their daily lives- their schools and markets are shut and everyone stays in the houses. Those among them who have the ability would hasten to leave this land to go somewhere else; and if you ask one of them, you will find him saying that he is unable to live with his people and family in that place in which safety has been lost.
Security cannot be [established] properly except by way of two affairs: Implementation of Allaah’s Laws and obedience to the rulers. Indeed, the Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] clarified this (affair) which is needed by a Muslim in his life. Irbaad Saariyah [may Allaah be pleased with him] said, “Allaah’s Messenger [peace abd blessings of Allaah be upon him] gave us an admonition after the morning prayer –an admonition that made our hearts fearful and our eyes tearful. So, a man said, ‘Indeed, is this a farewell sermon, so what do you advise us?’ He said, ‘I enjoin you to fear Allah and that you listen and obey, even if an Abyssinian slave [is made a ruler over you]; for indeed he among you who lives long enough will see many differences. So, beware of newly invented matters [in the religion] because indeed it is misguidance. And whoever among you witnesses that, then it is obligated on him to adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Caliphs [i.e. AbuBakr, Umar, Uthmaan and Ali], adhere to it with your molar teeth’”. [Reported by Ahmad 3/126]
Indeed, this hadeeth establishes the foundations of security in Islaam and they are: Firstly: Taqwallaah [Fear of Allaah (The Most High)] based on its complete and comprehensive meaning. Secondly: Obedience to the rulers [in what is good]. Fear of Allaah rectifies a Muslim’s relationship with Allaah, his neighbors and everything around him; and in the absence of Allaah’s Sharee’ah, destruction and depravity will occur. Indeed, Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] warned the one who abandons His Sharee’ah and is disobedient to His Messenger. [Allaah said]:
وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا قَرْيَةً كَانَتْ آمِنَةً مُّطْمَئِنَّةً يَأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًا مِّن كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَتْ بِأَنْعُمِ اللَّهِ فَأَذَاقَهَا اللَّهُ لِبَاسَ الْجُوعِ وَالْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ
And Allah puts forward the example of a township (Makkah), that dwelt secure and well content; its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its people) denied the Favours of Allah (with ungratefulness). So Allah made it taste the extreme of hunger (famine) and fear, because of that (evil, i.e. denying Prophet Muhammad) which they (its people) used to do. [16:112]
By listening to the rulers and obeying them [in good], all the affairs of the person’s life in his society will be a state of normality. Listening to the rulers and obeying them [in good] is included in the subject matter of Taqwa [fear of Allaah]. Al-Hasan Al-Basri [rahimahullaah] used to say, “Indeed, Al-Hajjaaj is the punishment of Allaah; so do not repel the punishment of Allaah with your own hands. Rather you must submit and show humility because Allaah] The Most High] said:
[وَلَقَدْ أَخَذْنَاهُم بِالْعَذَابِ فَمَا اسْتَكَانُوا لِرَبِّهِمْ وَمَا يَتَضَرَّعُونَ – And Indeed We seized them with punishment, but they humbled not themselves to their Lord, nor did they invoke (Allaah) with submission to Him]”. [23:76]
Talq Bin Habeeb (rahimahullaah) used to say: Guard against fitna through Taqwa; so, it was said to him, “Summarize (the meaning) of Taqwa for us.’’ He said, ‘’It is act in obedience to Allah, with a light from Allah (i.e. Eemaan) and hoping for Allaah’s Mercy. And that you abandon disobedience to Allah with a light from Allah and fearing the punishment of Allah. [Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah 11/33 and Ibnul Mubaarak in Az-Zuhd 473]
So, you find a person who knows what security is and his understanding regarding it increases due to fear of Allaah, and he is eager to obey the rulers [in good]; but when he falls short [in Taqwa], his perception of security becomes deficient. When Taqwa is actualised, he will receive the promise Allaah has mentioned [in Surah An-Noor]. Allaah said:
وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ
Allah has promised those among you who believe, and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the earth, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practice their religion, that which He has chosen for them (i.e. Islam). And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah). [24:55]
Indeed, it is known that the religion cannot [be established] without a main body of Muslims and there cannot be a main body of Muslims without a leader, and there cannot be a leader except through listening to him and obeying [him in what is good]. An absence of obedience to the ruler and putting oneself before him is one of the greatest causes of corrupting the land and the people, and turning away from the path of guidance and uprightness. Al Hasan Al Basri [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said: By Allaah! The religion cannot be established except by way of rulers even if they commit tyranny and oppression- due to the many affairs that Allaah rectifies through them more than what they corrupt.’’ http://www.abukhadeejah.com/the-tyranny-of-the-rulers-a-reason-for-rebellion/
Ibn Rajab [rahimahullaah] said: ‘’There is [good and great advantage] in the worldly life when rulers are obeyed. And by way of it [i.e. obedience to the rulers], the beneficial affairs related to the livelihood of the people are established and they utilise them as an aid through which they manifest their religion and obey their Lord.’’ http://www.abukhadeejah.com/the-tyranny-of-the-rulers-a-reason-for-rebellion/
Disobedience to the rulers and putting oneself before them through fighting or other than that [is tantamount] to disobeying Allaah and His Messenger, and an opposition to that which Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’ah were upon – the pious predecessors. Preservation of security [in the land] leads to brotherhood and mutual alliance between the Muslims. Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] said: [إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ – The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So, make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy]. [49:10]
Allaah [The Most High] said:
وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
The believers, men and women, are Auliya’ (helpers, supporters, friends, protectors) of one another, they enjoin (on the people) Al-Ma’ruf, and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar; they perform As-Salat and give the Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah will have His Mercy on them. Surely Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. [9:71]
Eemaan is neither wishful thinking nor mere claims, rather it is what settles in the heart and actions testify to it. A person cannot be a true believer until he loves for his Muslim brother what he loves for himself and until he deals with the people in a manner he loves to be dealt with! It is well known that security is something sought after by everyone; therefore it is the responsibility of a Muslim that he is eager for the security of others in order that he can receive security and safety for himself.
[Also, preserving security in the land] necessitates the fulfilment of trusts, whereas bringing about a state of insecurity is tantamount to treachery. Allaah [The Most High] said:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَخُونُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُوا أَمَانَاتِكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن تَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّكُمْ فُرْقَانًا وَيُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ
O you who believe! Betray not Allah and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your Amaanaat (things entrusted to you, and all the duties which Allah has ordained for you). And know that your possessions and your children are but a trial and that surely with Allah is a mighty reward. O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allah, He will grant you Furqan a criterion [(to judge between right and wrong), or (Makhraj, i.e. making a way for you to get out from every difficulty)], and will expiate for you your sins, and forgive you, and Allah is the Owner of the Great Bounty. [8: 27-29] [Ref 24]
[Ref 1: An Excerpt from ‘As-Siyaasah Ash-Shar’iyyah 16-18. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 2: At-Taleeq Alaa As-Siyaasah Ash-Shar’iyyah. Page 24-25. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 3: At-Taleeq Alaa As-Siyaasah Ash-Shar’iyyah. Page 24-25. slightly paraphrased25-26. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 4: Al-Bukhaari 3744]
[Ref 5: At-Taleeq Alaa As-Siyaasah Ash-Shar’iyyah. Page 24-25. slightly paraphrased25-26. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 6: At-taleeqaatul Maleehah Alaa Silsilah Al-Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah. Vol 1. Page 142. slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 7: An Excerpt: Chapter: (باب من لم يسأل الإمارة أعانه الله عليها )in ‘kitaab al Ahkaam’ Saheeh Al-Bukhaari with Fat-hul Baari]
[Ref 8: Qurratu Uyoonis Salafiyyah Bil-Ajwibah Al-Jaamiyah’ pages 389-390. Slightly paraphrased]
[Ref 9: Saheeh al-Bukhaari 7198]
[Ref 10: Fat’hul Baaree 14/234-236. Publisher: Daarus Salaam. 1st edition 1421AH (2000)]
[Ref 11: Saheeh Muslim 2814]
[Ref 12: Fat’hul Baaree 14/234-236. Publisher: Daarus Salaam. 1st edition 1421AH (2000)]
[Ref 13 Musnad Aḥmad 14909]
[Ref 14: Majmoo Fataawaa 8/209]
[Ref 15: At-Ta’leeq Alaa As-Siyaasah Ash-Shar’iyyah page 452]
[Ref 16: Shu’ab Al-Eemaan 6/26]
[Ref 17: Siyaanatu Saheeh Muslim 244]
[Ref 18: Al-Majmoo 4/391]
[Ref 19: Durar As-Saniyyah 5/41]
[Ref 20: Muslim 1855]
[Ref 21: Muslim 1854]
[Ref 22: An excerpt from كشف الستار Page: 18]
[Ref 23: الأفنان وتوحيد ابن خزيمة وحديث عن المظاهرات4-4-1432هـ.]
[Ref 24: An Excerpt from ‘Silsilah Ar-Rasaa’il Al-Manhajiyyah Fin-Nus’hi Wal-Irshaad Wat-Taw’iyah’. Pages 7 – 27. slightly paraphrased]